The five Chicago style citation with meaning?
- In notes and bibliography style (mostly used in the humanities), you use footnotes or endnotes to cite sources.
- In author-date style (mostly used in the sciences), you use brief parenthetical references to cite sources in the text.
- In both styles, full source citations are listed in an alphabetized bibliography or reference list.
The Chicago Manual of Style is regularly updated. Our examples are all based on the 17th edition, which is the most recent (published in 2017).
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How to Format a Citation
Examples of apa, mla, and chicago manual of style, citation styles: american psychological association (apa), citation styles: chicago, citation styles: modern language association (mla), example: direct quote cited in a book, example: reference within a journal article.
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There are two basic approaches to citation:
- In-text citations + a list of references at the end of the paper
- Endnotes or footnotes +/- a bibliography at the end of the paper
Scholars writing in the sciences and social sciences typically use in-text citations, while humanities scholars utilize endnotes/footnotes.
While the two basic approaches to citations are simple, there are many different citation styles.
What is a citation style?
The way that citations appear (format) depends on the citation style, which is a set of established rules and conventions for documenting sources.
Citation styles can be defined by an association, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA), publisher, such as the University of Chicago Press, or journal, such as The New England Journal of Medicine .
What citation style should I use?
The citation style that you use depends on the discipline in which you are writing, and where, or by whom, your work will be published or read.
When in doubt, ask your professor if there is a particular style that he/she would like you to use.
Where can I find more information on how to cite a specific type of source in a particular style?
The library has style manuals in print and online for several commonly used styles such as American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA) and Chicago. In addition, there are several excellent citation style guides on the web. (See below)
For examples of APA and MLA and Chicago Manual of Style, visit Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) site.
Frank, H. (2011). Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance. Behavior Genetics , 41 (6), 830-839.
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Print manual for the APA style, available in the Sciences and Rockefeller libraries.
- Purdue University Online Writing Lab Well-organized, easy-to-follow guide, with numerous examples.
- APA Style American Psychological Association website for the APA Style. Provides tutorials, answers to frequently asked questions, and more.
Frank, H. 2011. "Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance." Behavior Genetics 41 (6):830-839.
- The Chicago Manual of Style Older (15th edition) print manual, available at the Sciences, Rockefeller and Orwig libraries.
- The Chicago Manual of Style Online Current (16th) edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, and answers to frequently asked questions. Off-campus use requires Brown username and password.
Frank, H. "Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance." Behavior Genetics 41.6 (2011): 830-39. Print.
- MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing Print manual for the MLA style. Available in the Rockefeller Library.
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Print handbook for the MLA. Available in the Rockefeller Library.
Source: Gabriel, R. A. (2001). Gods of Our Fathers: The Memory of Egypt in Judaism & Christianity . Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press.
Source: Bradt, J., Potvin, N., Kesslick, A., Shim, M., Radl, D., Schriver, E., … Komarnicky-Kocher, L. T. (2015). The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study. Supportive Care in Cancer : Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer , 23 (5), 1261–71.
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Difference Between MLA and APA Citation Pages
You’ve been looking over the different writing styles and noticed that MLA and APA format are similar. Staring at the citation page, you really can’t see a difference between the two. While MLA 8 and APA 7 do have a lot of similarities in the citation pages, there are a few distinct differences that you’ll notice if you really look at them.
MLA vs. APA
If you are comparing MLA and APA citation styles, it’ll come to your attention that they are formatted a little differently. The differences aren’t going to jump out at you and say, “Hey look at me.” While they are subtle, the differences between them come down to what they were created for.
MLA (Modern Language Association) is for arts and humanities. It helps you to break down citing paintings, books, and other literature. APA (American Psychological Association) is designed for technical works found in social sciences. This format makes citing journals and technical reports a breeze.
While you can write a paper in either format, using the right style can make your life a whole lot easier. Therefore, it is important to break down the differences of each.
What’s in a Title?
The most obvious difference that you’ll see in an MLA paper and an APA paper is the title of the citation page. Papers written in MLA format will have a Works Cited page . The APA citation page , on the other hand, will be labeled References. Both titles will be centered at the top of the page and the list of references will be double spaced. The title is an easy way to know which one you are looking at.
It’s All About the Author
Each different style formats how they attribute the author a little differently, as well. And, if you get into multiple authors, this is unique too. Check out each in turn to examine the difference in making a citation .
Author’s name in MLA will take the format: Last Name, First Name
The formatting of the author will vary based on how many there are. Two authors will be written out with an “and” separating them. With three or more authors, you’ll include the first author and then et al., which is Latin for “and others.”
Gillespie, Paula and Neal Lerner
Three or More Authors:
Gillespie, Paula, et al.
In APA format , you only write out the last name followed by the first and middle initial.
When it comes to multiple authors in APA , you have three different categories. With two authors, you’ll list both with an ampersand (&) separating them. When there are less than twenty authors, you’ll list all the names with commas separating them and an ampersand before the last one. If the source has more than twenty authors, you’ll list the first nineteen authors, separated by commas, then include an ellipsis (. . .) followed by the last author. Look at a few examples to really understand.
Gillespie, P. H., & Lerner, N.
Twenty or Fewer Authors:
Gillespie, P. H., Corn, D. P., Son, C. R., Barry, A. B., Harlow, T., & Beck, J.
More Than Twenty Authors:
Gillespie, P. H., Corn, D. P., Son, C. R., Barry, A. B., Harlow, T., Beck, J., Jones, A., Robins, C., Jackson, S., Smith, J. P., Johnson, T., Turney, W., White, K. L., Hunter, B. A., Lewis, H., Beck, J., Winters, N. I., Young, L., Crow, J., . . . Ruben, H.
Title capitalization is important to style. MLA goes for header capitalization where every major word in the title is capitalized. Also called title case, this looks like:
Gleason, Jeff. Chaos: A Look at the Stars . RedRiver, 2010.
APA takes its own road. In APA, book titles and such will only capitalize the first word. This is sometimes called sentence case:
Gleason, J. (2010). Chaos: a look at the stars. RedRiver.
Look at That Period
The final difference that you’ll notice in the basic format for each style is the period. MLA puts a period at the end of all works cited entries. In APA style, a period is not added if the entry ends in a URL or DOI .
Other Subtle Differences
You might notice other little differences between these two styles on the citation page, but these will vary based on what is being cited. For example, MLA typically includes the publication date, at or near the end of the citation. In APA, however, you’ll see the publication date after the author’s name.
Knowing Your Citations
MLA and APA are very similar, but they have their own unique styles. They both use a reference page at the end of the work, align entries to the left and have the title centered. But, how they format their entries is distinctly their own. Follow your teacher’s instructions on which style to use when writing your school paper.
Preparing to Write MLA College Papers
Creating a School Project in APA Style
FAQ Difference Between MLA and APA Citation Pages
What is the difference between mla and apa citation.
The difference between MLA and APA citation is how they are formatting. MLA citations include the last name and first name and title in title case. APA citations on the other hand, include the author's last name and first initial, title in sentence case, and no period after a URL.
Do colleges prefer MLA or APA?
Colleges use both MLA and APA styles. MLA is used for humanities and literature papers. APA is used for science and technical papers. However, both are used through college courses.
What are the main differences between MLA Format, APA Format, and Chicago format?
The main differences between MLA, APA, and Chicago format are the way the title page, in-text citations, and reference lists are created. MLA uses the author-page number style for in-text citations, while APA uses the author-date citation style. Chicago offers two citation styles: notes-bibliography and author-date. These two styles vary drastically in the composition of the in-text citations and reference lists.
What are the 4 common citation styles?
The four common citation styles are MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard. MLA and APA use a reference list at the end of the work that cites only the sources used in the body of the paper. Chicago and Harvard can use a bibliography at the end of the paper, which highlights all the sources consulted in the creation of the paper.
Is APA or MLA more common?
MLA is more commonly used than APA at the high school level. However, both APA and MLA are used at the college level. MLA (Modern Language Association) format is used for humanities and literature works. APA (American Psychological Association) is used for technical and scientific works. Each writing style is formatted to make citations for that specific field easier.
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How to Properly Punctuate a MLA Works Cited Page
Using note cards for mla research papers, mla heading and header formats (with examples), writing an apa style paper for a school project.
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Chicago Style Citation Guide | Templates & Citation Examples
Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes , with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.
Author-date style is mainly used in the sciences. It uses parenthetical in-text citations , always accompanied by a reference list at the end.
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Table of contents, citing sources with notes, chicago note citation examples, creating a chicago style bibliography, chicago author-date style, frequently asked questions about chicago style citation.
To cite sources in Chicago notes and bibliography style, place a superscript number at the end of a sentence or clause, after the punctuation mark, corresponding to a numbered footnote or endnote .
Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, while endnotes appear at the end of the text. Choose one or the other and use it consistently.
Most word-processing programs can automatically link your superscript numbers and notes.
Full notes vs. short notes
Citations can take the form of full notes or short notes. Full notes provide complete source information, while short notes include only the author’s last name, the source title, and the page number(s) of the cited passage. The usual rule is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and a short note for subsequent citations of the same source.
Guidelines can vary across fields, though; sometimes you might be required to use full notes every time, or conversely to use short notes every time, as long as all your sources are listed in the bibliography. It’s best to check with your instructor if you’re unsure which rule to follow.
Multiple authors in Chicago notes
When a source has multiple authors, list up to three in your note citations. When there are four or more, use “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”).
A Chicago footnote or endnote citation always contains the author’s name and the title of the source. The other elements vary by the type of source you’re citing.
Page number(s) should be included if you are referring to a specific part of the text. The elements of the citation are separated by commas , and the note always ends with a period. The page range is separated by an en dash .
Navigate through the Chicago citation examples using the tabs below.
- Book chapter
- Journal article
When citing a book , if an edition is specified, include it in abbreviated form (e.g., 2nd ed.). If the book was accessed online, add a URL.
When citing a chapter from a multi-authored book, start with details of the chapter, followed by details of the book.
To cite a journal article , you need to specify the volume and issue as well as the date. It’s best to use a DOI instead of a URL.
Web pages often have no author or date specified. If the author is unknown, start with the title in a full note, and use the website name as author in a short note. If the publication date is unknown, include the date you accessed the information (e.g., accessed on March 12, 2022).
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
The bibliography lists full references for all your sources. It appears at the end of your paper (before any appendices ).
Author names are inverted in the bibliography, and sources are alphabetized by author last name. Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied to sources that run over onto multiple lines.
If a source has multiple authors, list up to 10 in the bibliography. If there are 11 or more, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
When to include a bibliography
It is not mandatory to include a bibliography if you have cited your sources with full notes. However, it is recommended to include one in most cases, with the exception of very short texts with few sources.
Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether to include one.
Chicago style bibliography examples
Bibliography entries vary in format according to source type. Formats and examples for some common source types are shown below.
In the (social) sciences, you may be told to use author-date style instead. In this style, citations appear in parentheses in the text.
Unlike note citations, author-date citations look the same for all source types .
Author-date citations are always accompanied by a reference list. The reference list is similar to a bibliography: It appears at the end of your text and lists all your sources in full.
The only difference is that the publication year comes straight after the author name, to match with the in-text citations. For example, the book reference from above looks like this in author-date style.
Chicago Author-Date Quick Guide
In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “
In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.
In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :
If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”
Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:
- You’re quoting from the text.
- You’re paraphrasing a particular passage.
- You’re referring to information from a specific section.
When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source.
However, your institution’s guidelines may differ from the standard rule. In some fields, you’re required to use a full note every time, whereas in some other fields you can use short notes every time, as long as all sources are listed in your bibliography . If you’re not sure, check with your instructor.
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
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APA 7 Citation and University Writing
Ggu university writing.
- Getting Started with APA
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- GGU University Writing Please review the attached document to learn about expectations, guidelines, & resources.
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- Last Updated: Feb 23, 2023 11:06 AM
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- USC Libraries
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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
- 11. Citing Sources
- Purpose of Guide
- Design Flaws to Avoid
- Independent and Dependent Variables
- Glossary of Research Terms
- Reading Research Effectively
- Narrowing a Topic Idea
- Broadening a Topic Idea
- Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
- Academic Writing Style
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- Evaluating Sources
- Primary Sources
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- Tiertiary Sources
- Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
- Qualitative Methods
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- Footnotes or Endnotes?
- Further Readings
A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. The way in which you document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.]. Note that some disciplines have their own citation method [e.g., law].
Importance of a Citing your Sources
Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, provide a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and create an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation. The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism.
Citing the works of others is important because:
- Proper citation allows readers to locate the materials you used . Citations to sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. One of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to review footnotes or references from known sources ["citation tracking"].
- Citing other people's words and ideas demonstrates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are reporting your research from an informed and critically engaged perspective. The list of sources used increases your credibility as the author of the work.
- Other researcher's ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments . In many cases, another researcher's arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize the significance of your study and to provide supporting evidence about how you addressed the "So What?" question.
- The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches . If you disagree with a researcher's ideas or you believe there is a gap in understanding the research problem, your citations can serve as sources from which to argue an alternative viewpoint or the need to pursue a different course of action.
- Just as the ideas of other researchers can bolster your arguments, they can also detract from your credibility if their research is challenged . Properly citing sources prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of those cited are proven to be inaccurate or off-base. It prevents readers from concluding that you ignored or dismissed the findings of others, even if they are disputed.
- Ideas are considered intellectual property and there can be serious repercussions if you fail to cite where you got an idea from . In academe, failure to cite other people's intellectual property could lead to receiving a failing grade for the assignment or the course. In the professional world, failure to cite other people's intellectual property ruins careers and reputations and can result in legal action. Citing sources as a student in college will help you get in the habit of acknowledging and properly citing the work of others.
NOTE: In any academic writing, you are required to identify which ideas, facts, thoughts, and concepts are yours and which are derived from the research and work of others. Whether you summarize, paraphrase, or use direct quotes, if it's not your original idea, the source must be acknowledged. The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e.g., George Washington was the first president of the United States]. Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases . If you are in doubt about whether or not a fact is common knowledge, protect yourself from an allegation of plagiarism and provide a supporting citation, or, ask your professor for clarification about how a factual statement should be cited.
Ballenger, Bruce P. The Curious Researcher: A Guide to Writing Research Papers . 7th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2012; Citing Information. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Harvard Guide to Using Sources. Harvard College Writing Program. Harvard University; Newton, Philip. "Academic Integrity: A Quantitative Study of Confidence and Understanding in Students at the Start of Their Higher Education." Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 41 (2016): 482-497; Referencing More Effectively. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Using Sources. Yale College Writing Center. Yale University.
Structure and Writing Style
Referencing your sources means systematically showing what information or ideas you are quoting or paraphrasing from another author’s work, and identifying where that information come from . You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others. Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently. If your professor defers and tells you to "choose whatever you want, just be consistent," then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e.g., use Chicago style if its a history class; use APA if its an education course; use MLA if it is literature or a general writing course].
1. Should I avoid referencing other people's work? No! If placed in the proper context, r eferencing other people's research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality. In fact, the opposite is true. If you write your paper without adequate references to previous studies, you are signaling to the reader that you are not familiar with the literature about the topic, thereby, undermining the validity of your study and your credibility as a researcher. Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem. It is the intellectual packaging around which you present your study to the reader.
2. What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher? Do not ignore another author's work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature. You can acknowledge the other research by writing in the text of your paper something like this: [see also Smith, 2002], then citing the complete source in your list of references. Use the discovery of prior research as an opportunity to demonstrate the significance of the problem being investigated and, if applicable, as a means of delineating your analysis from those of others [e.g., the prior study is ten years old and doesn't take into account new variables]. Reacting to prior research can include: stating how your study updates previous studies on the topic, offering a new or different perspective, using a different method of data gathering, and/or describing a new set of guidelines, recommendations, best practices, or working solutions.
3. What should I do if I want to use an adapted version of someone else's work? You still must cite the original work. For example, maybe you are using a table of statistics from a journal article published in 1996 by author Smith, but you have altered or added new data to it. Reference the revised chart, such as, [adapted from Smith, 1996], then cite the complete source in your list of references. You can also use other terms in order to specify the exact relationship between the original source and the version you have presented, such as, "based on Smith ...," or "summarized from Smith ...." Citing the original source helps the reader locate where the information was first presented and under what context it was used as well as to evaluate how effectively you applied it to your own research.
4. What should I do if several authors have published very similar information or ideas? You can indicate that the idea or information can be found in the work of others by stating something similar to the following example: "Though in fact many scholars have applied this theory to understanding economic relations among nations [for example, see Smith, 1989; Jones, 1991; Johnson, 1994; Anderson, 2003], little attention has been given to applying the theory to examining the actions of non-governmental organizations in a globalized economy." If you only reference one author or only the most recent study, then your readers may assume that only one author has published on this topic, or more likely, conclude that you have not conducted a thorough literature review. Referencing all relevant authors of prior studies gives your readers a clear idea of the breadth of analysis you conducted in preparing to study the research problem. If there has been significant number of prior studies on the topic, describe the most comprehensive and recent works because they will presumably discuss and reference the older studies. However, note that there has been significant scholarship devoted to the topic so the reader knows that you are aware of this.
5. What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher? In the social sciences, the rationale in duplicating prior research is generally governed by the passage of time, changing circumstances or conditions, or the introduction of new variables that necessitate a new investigation . If someone else has recently conducted a thorough investigation of precisely the same research problem as you, then you likely will have to revise your topic, or at the very least, review this literature to identify something new to say about the problem. However, if it is someone else's particularly succinct expression, but it fits perfectly with what you are trying to say, then you can quote it directly, referencing the source. Do not see this as a setback or become discouraged if you discover that your brilliant idea or important insight has already been identified by someone else. Identifying an author who has made the same point as you can be an opportunity to add legitimacy to, as well as reinforce the significance of, the research problem you are investigating. The key is to build on that idea in new and innovative ways. If you are not sure how to do this, consult with a librarian!
6. Should I cite a source even if it was published long ago? Any resource used in writing your paper should be cited, regardless of when the study was written. However, in building a case for understanding prior research about your topic, it is generally true that you should focus on citing more recently published studies because they presumably have built upon the research of older publications. This is particularly true of new or revised editions of books, unless an older edition has unique information not carried over into newer editions. When referencing prior studies, use the research problem as your guide when considering what to cite. If a study from forty years ago investigated the same research problem, it probably should be examined and considered in your list of references because the research may have been foundational or groundbreaking even if its findings are no longer relevant to current conditions or reflect current thinking [one way to determine if a study is foundational or groundbreaking is to examine how often it has been cited in recent studies using the "Cited by" feature of Google Scholar ]. However, if an older study only relates to the research problem tangentially or it has not been cited in recent studies, then it may be more appropriate to list it under further readings .
Ballenger, Bruce P. The Curious Researcher: A Guide to Writing Research Papers . 7th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2012; Harvard Guide to Using Sources. Harvard College Writing Program. Harvard University; How to Cite Other Sources in Your Paper. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors; The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace . 3rd edition. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2015; Research and Citation Resources. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University.
Citation Research Guides
The following USC Libraries research guide can help you properly cite sources in your research paper:
- Citation Guide
The following USC Libraries research guide offers basic information on using images and media in research:
Listed below are particularly well-done and comprehensive websites that provide specific examples of how to cite sources under different style guidelines.
- Purdue University Online Writing Lab
- Southern Cross University Harvard Referencing Style
- University of Wisconsin Writing Center
This is a useful guide concerning how to properly cite images in your research paper.
- Colgate Visual Resources Library, Citing Images
This guide provides good information on the act of citation analysis, whereby you count the number of times a published work is cited by other works in order to measure the impact of a publication or author.
Measuring Your Impact: Impact Factor, Citation Analysis, and other Metrics: Citation Analysis [Sandy De Groote, University of Illinois, Chicago]
Automatic Citation Generators
The links below lead to systems where you can type in your information and have a citation compiled for you. Note that these systems are not foolproof so it is important that you verify that the citation is correct and check your spelling, capitalization, etc. However, they can be useful in creating basic types of citations, particularly for online sources.
- BibMe -- APA, MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles
- DocsCite -- for citing government publications in APA or MLA formats
- EasyBib -- APA, MLA, and Chicago styles
- Son of Citation Machine -- APA, MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles
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Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)
The Chicago Manual of Style documentation system is used in both the humanities and the social sciences. A bit more complex than either the MLA or the APA, it offers two approaches for documenting sources: 1) a notes system and, 2) an author/date system similar to the APA. This guide explains the Author/Date system. A separate guide explains the Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System) .
Inserted at the point of reference, an in-text parenthetical citation containing the author's name and the date of publication interacts with the end documentation by pointing to a specific entry on the References List page.
Notes, similar to those used in the CMS Notes System, may be used in the Author/Date system, but only to provide further information about a particular idea. They do not replace entries found in the References List which contains the bibliographic information required to properly cite your sources. Check with your instructor on what is expected when you are asked to use this style.
This guide is largely based on style recommendations from the 14th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style , however, you may also wish to consult the 6th edition of Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations . In it you will find many corresponding or similar documentation patterns.
[Guide Updated Jul 2017]
Citing Sources within Your Document
The CMS Author/Date in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CMS Notes system. Much like the APA, it emphasizes authors and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the natural sciences.
In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.
CMS In-Text Formatting Rules
CMS Author/Date in-text formatting rules are as follows:
- A space, not a comma, should separate the author's name and the year of publication.
- Page numbers are included only when part of a source or a direct quotation is cited. Abbreviations ("p." or "pp.") are not required.
- Footnotes and endnotes are used only when there is a need to provide further information about a particular idea or when specific copyright permission needs to be documented.
Specific rules depend on whether part or all of a source is being cited as well as whether or not the author's name is mentioned in the sentence where the citation occurs.
Examples of In-Text Formatting Rules
Citing an entire source.
When citing an entire work, document the last name of the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.
1. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Not Included in Preceding Sentence
Format: Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). There is a space, not a comma, between the author's name and the date.
In a recent study of sustainable management techniques (Myers 1997)...
2. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence
Format: When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow the author's name. In cases where the source itself is being cited rather than the author, the parentheses around the date may be omitted.
Myers (1997) compared sustainable management techniques...
In Myers 1997, sustainable management techniques are compared to more conventional practices.
Citing Part of a Source
When citing a specific part of a source, document the last name of the author, the year of publication and the page numbers (or chapter, section, line numbers, etc.) where the cited material may be found.
3. Citing Part of a Source
Format: When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). One space separates the author's name from the date, and one comma separates the date from the page number (or chapter, etc.). Page abbreviations like "p." or "pp." are used only when their absence is likely to cause confusion. Abbreviations such as sec. (section), fig. (figure), app. (appendix), etc., should be used, however.
Because of the underdevelopment of the racial theme, Bright Skin was said to have "failed to feed the growing appetite for anti-establishment tracts while at the same time offering no new insights into the nature of Blue Brook Plantation" (Landess 1976, 121).
Examples of Variations to In-Text Formatting Rules
1. Citing Sources with No Date
Format: When you cite a source that has no date given, include in parentheses the name of the author and the abbreviation "n.d." ("no date").
This has occurred in previous experiments (Phelps & Gomez, n.d.).
2. Citing Sources with Unnamed, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors
Format: When no author is listed on the tile or copyright page, begin the entry with the title of the work. In the bibliography, alphabetize the entry by the first word other than A, An, or The .
Letting Ana Go (New York: Simon Pulse, 2013), 118-20.
Letting Ana Go . New York: Simon Pulse, 2013.
3. Citing Electronic (Web site or Internet) Sources
Format: An electronic source is cited like any other source when the entire source is cited: Author's Last Name and Date of Publication are mentioned. However, in cases where specific parts of the electronic source are cited, documentation of the particular paragraph number or section heading where the cited material may be found is recommended.
Mendelson, Abby. “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment.” Pittsburg Pirates. MLB.com. May 24, 2013. http://mlb.mlb.com/pit/history/pit_clemente.jsp.
4. Citing Authors with Same Last Name in References List
Format: Include first name initials of all in-text cited authors when other authors in your References List have the same last name.
K.K. Sullivan (1962) and D. Sullivan (1996) came to similar conclusions about the effects of this treatment method.
5. Citing Sources Not Included in the References List
Format: Unpublished manuscripts, letters and newspaper articles, etc. may be cited within the in-text parenthetical citation or in the actual text itself.
Paul Nesbitt (telephone interview, 19 August 2016) expressed his dissatisfaction with the proposed plan.
In a letter dated 12 August 2016, Nesbitt indicated to his daughter that a new plan was being presented to the County Commissioners.
6. Citing Sources with More than One Author
Format, Sources with Two or Three Authors: List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. In a note, list the first name for each author first. In the bibliography, list the first author’s last name first and list the first names for each other author first.
Jerin, Robert A., and Laura J. Moriarty. The Victims of Crime . Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Format, Sources with Four or More Authors: In a note, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). In the bibliography, list all the authors that appear on the title page.
Harry Markopolos et al., No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010). 179.
Markopolos, Harry, Frank Casey, Neil Chelo, Gaytri Kachroo, and Michael Ocrant. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.
Note: An alternative would be to include a shortened title following the "Author et al.", in every instance of the same "Author et al." occurring.
(Nesbitt et al., Neighborhood associations , 2015)
(Nesbitt et al., Zoning laws , 2015)
7. Citing Sources Authored by a Group or Corporation
Format: Use the group or corporation as the author; it may also be the publisher.
Where the References List entry looks like:
Bas Bleu Theatre Company. 2014. 2014 NEA Grant Application for …
The first in-text citation will look like:
The grant proposal (Bas Bleu Theatre Company [BBTC] 2014) was an important effort to support the arts in the community.
And a subsequent in-text citation will look like:
The proposal requested new and increased salaries for theatre staff (BBTC 2014).
8. Citing Two or More Sources in the Same Parenthesis
Format, Two or More Sources by Same Author: When you are citing two or more works by the same author in one parenthetical note, list the name of the author only once, followed by the publication dates of the various works in order of year of publication.
Psychologists have arrived at this conclusion in the past (Tripp, 2004, 2010, 2016).
Format, Two or More Sources Published by Same Author in Same Year: When, in one parenthetical note, you are citing two or more works by the same author published in the same year, be sure to distinguish between the two by assigning them letter suffixes ("a," "b," etc.). These designations will be consistent with those you have given the works in the reference list.
Past research (Johnson 2013a, 2013b) has revealed interesting patterns.
Format, Two or More Sources by Different Authors: When you refer to works by different authors within the same parenthetical note, separate them by using semicolons.
Several studies (Evens 2005; Dorer 2014; Bundy 2014) have contributed to our current understanding of this phenomenon.
Citing Sources at the End of Your Document
The end documentation in the CMS Author/Date system is the References List page. It is located at the end of a document or book and contains all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about cited source material.
This list is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited.
Proper CMS documentation depends on the References List . Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.
CMS Reference List Formatting Rules
CMS References List formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on a new page at the end of your document and be numbered accordingly. If your document is 6½ pages long, the Notes page should begin on page 8.
Note: Unless informed otherwise, you can count on your instructor not counting the References List page in the total page count of an eight page assignment.
The page itself should be formatted in the following way:
- The title-References List-should be centered one inch from the top of the page. This may also be called a Literature Cited or Works Cited page.
- Double space between the title and first entry; all subsequent entries should be single spaced.
- Arrange entries alphabetically, according to author, last names first.
Individual entries should be formatted in the following way:
- The first line of each entry should be flush-left while any subsequent lines are indented five spaces.
- The date of publication follows directly after the author's name. First names are often, though not always, abbreviated.
- Use the "down" or "sentence style" for titles and subtitles, capitalizing only the first letter of the first word, as well as any proper nouns and adjectives that are included.
CMS Directory of Reference List Formatting Rules
Book and book parts.
1. Book with Unknown Author(s)
References List Format : When no author is listed on the title or copyright page, begin the entry with the title of the work. In the bibliography, alphabetize the entry by the first word other than A, An, or The .
Letting Ana Go. New York: Simon Pulse, 2013.
References List Format : Use the corporation or group as the author; it may also be the publisher.
International Monetary fund. Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2010.
References List Format : When citing a book, use the information from the title page and the copyright page (on the reverse side of the title page), not from the book’s cover or a library catalog.
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013.
Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited.
References List Format : List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. In a note, list the first name for each author first. In the bibliography, list the first author’s last name first and list the first names for each other author first.
Jerin, Robert A., and Laura J. Moriarity. The Victims of Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Note: Names must always appear in the same order, separated by commas, as found on the Title page of the work being cited.
References List Format : First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)-First Names or initials first. Year of Publication. Book Title-in italics. Number ed.-when applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. 2003. The Business Writer's Handbook. 7th ed. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited. Use the last name first rule for the first author and the first name first rule for all other authors. Separate names with commas.
References List Format : First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)- Initials or First Names first. Year of Publication. Book Title-in italics . Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Markopolos, Harry, Frank Casey, Neil Chelo, Gaytri Kachroo, and Michael Ocrant. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.
References List Format (Editor) : List the author at the beginning of the citation and add the editor’s name after the title. In notes, use the abbreviation “ed.” before the editor’s name. In the bibliography, include the phrase “Edited by” before the editor’s name.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Edited by Ira Dworkin. New York: Penguin Books, 2014.
References List Format (Translator) : List the author first and the translator after the title. Use the abbreviation “trans.” in a note, but spell out “Translated by” in the bibliography.
Ali, Nujood, and Delphine Minoui. I Am Nujood, Age 10 and Divorced. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2010.
References List Format : To cite an entire anthology or collection of articles, give the editor(s) before the title of the collection, adding a comma and the abbreviation “ed.” or “eds.”
Krausz, Michael, ed. Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
References List Format : Give the author and title (in quotation marks) for the chapter or selection. Then give the title, editor (if any), and publication data for the book or anthology. In the bibliography, give the inclusive page numbers before the publication data.
Dalrymple, William. “ The Monk’s Tale. ” In Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (New York: Knopf, 2010).
10. Chapter in an Unedited Book
References List Format : Author-Last Name first. Year of Publication. Chapter Title-No quotation marks-No italics. Chap. Number-if applicable. In Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Williams, Susan Millar. 1997. Cross Purposes. Chap. 6 in A devil and a good woman, too: The lives of Julia Peterkin . Athens and London: Univ. of Georgia Press,
References List Format : Give edition information after the title.
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. 6 th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
References List Format : Place the original publication date before the publication information for the reprint.
James, King of England. The Political Works of James I. Edited by Charles Howard McIlwain. 1918. Reprint, Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2010.
Note: Citations of sacred texts such as the Christian Bible, Islam's Holy Qur'an and the Hebrew Torah generally occur only in the in-text citation and are not included in the References List. Please refer to the CMS Notes Examples of In-Text Formatting Rules for more information.
References List Format : In the notes, give the volume number and page number, separated by a colon, for the specific location of the information referred to in your text. In the bibliography, if you have used all of the volumes, give the total number of volumes after the title, using the abbreviation “vols.” (“2 vols.” or “4 vols.”). If you have used one volume, give the abbreviation “Vol.” and the volume number after the title.
Hanqi, Fang, ed. A History of Journalism in China . Vol 7. Singapore: Silkroad Press, 2013.
References List Format : Give the title of the volume to which you refer, followed by the volume number and the general title for the entire work.
Atkinson, Rick. The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945. Vol 3 of The Liberation Trilogy. New York: Henry Holt, 2013.
References List Format : The series name follows the title and is capitalized as a title but is not italicized. If the series numbers its volumes, include that information as well.
Holt, Michael F. Franklin Pierce. American Presidents Series 14. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt, 2010.
References List Format : Author-Last Name first, Book Title – in italics . N.p., n.d
Biv, Roy G. On learning the color spectrum. N.p., n.d.
References List Format : Give the name of the writer of the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword followed by the appropriate phrase (“introduction to,” “preface to,” and so on) before the title of the book. If the writer of the introduction or other part differs from the writer of the book, after the title insert the word “by” and the author’s name.
Stannard, Martin. Preface to Muriel Spark: The Biography, xv-xxvi. New York: Norton, 2010.
Journals, Magazines and Newspapers
1. Journal Article with Consecutive Pagination
Note: Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with the page number that follows the last page number in the previous issue. In other words, the page numbers run consecutively from issue to issue.
References List Format : Give the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication then the article title. Include the name of the journal (in italics) followed by the v olume number, the issue number (if available) and end with the page number(s).
Brown, Sterling. 1934. Arcadia, South Carolina. Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life 12:59-60.
Note: Non-Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with page 1 and not with the number that follows the last page number in the previous issue, as is the case with consecutive pagination.
References List Format : Begin with the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication, the article title and the name of the journal (in italics). Include the volume number, the issue number and end with the article page number(s).
Clifford, James. 1983. On Ethnographic Authority. Representations 1, no. 2:118-46.
References List Format : Cite like a monthly magazine (see next format), but provide the day of publication.
Makary, Marty. “the cost of Chasing Cancer.” Time , March 10, 2014, 24.
References List Format : Magazines are cited by their dates rather than by volume and issue.
Huber, Peter. “Better Medicine.” Reason , March 2014, 22-30.
Note: When no author by-line exists, begin with the Article Title and proceed as shown above. This case also illustrates a magazine with a volume number but not an issue number.
References List Format : Begin with the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication, the article title, the magazine title (in italics), the volume number and or issue. End with the page number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.
A passing race. 1929. Canadian Magazine , 71:34.
Note: In most cases, newspaper articles are cited in running text and are not included in the References List; however, when you do, follow the example below. When no author by-line exists, begin with the Article Title rather than the author's name.
References List Format : If the name of the newspaper does not include the city, insert the city before the name (and italicize it). If an American city is not well known, name the state as well (in parentheses, abbreviated). Identify newspapers from other countries with the city in parentheses (not italicized) after the name of the newspaper. Page number may be omitted, since separate editions of the same newspaper may place articles differently. If a paper comes out in more than one edition, identify the edition after the date.
Zito, Kelly. “Cities Key Source of Toxins in Bay, Study Finds.” San Francisco Chronicle , October 5, 2010, Bay Area Edition.
Note: When not part of the newspaper title, include name of American city, in italics, along with the rest of the title, as shown here:
Denver Rocky Mountain News
Note: When city name is not well known, or there is more than one city in America with the same name, include the state abbreviation, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:
Ashtabula , (OH) Star-Beacon
Note: Follow the title of foreign newspapers with its hometown name, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:
Sunday Times (London)
References List Format : Give the author of the review title, if any, and then the words “review of” followed by the title and the author of the work reviewed and the author or editor (for books) or director or performer (for movies, plays, and similar productions).
Holden, Stephen. “Students Caught in the School Squeeze.” Review of Waiting for Superman , directed by Davis Guggenheim. New York Times , September 23, 2010.
References List Format : If not author is given, begin the note with the title of the article; begin the bibliography entry with the title of the periodical.
Boston Globe. “NYC May Ban Smoking in Parks, on Beaches.” Boston Globe September 16, 2010.
9. Citing a Letter to the Editor
References List Format : Treat as a newspaper article. If not title is provided, place “Letter to the editor” in the title position.
Levi, Jason. Letter to the editor. Smithsonian , June 2016.
Dissertations and Theses
1. Published Dissertation or Thesis
Note: Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.
References List Format : Give the author and title, the phrase “PhD diss.” or “master’s thesis,” followed by the information about the institution that granted the degree and the year. Include the publication number from ProQuest if appropriate.
Colello, Anthony. Affirmative Action Bans and Minority Employment: Washington State’s Initiative 200 . PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2011, 41-2, ProQuest (AAT 1491319).
References List Format : Give the author and title, in quotation marks. Then include the phrase “PhD diss.” or “master’s thesis,” information about the institution that granted the degree, and the date.
Iddings, Joshua Glenn. “Writing at One Appalachian High School.” PhD diss., Purdue University, 2013.
Note: Format like a Journal Article. Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.
References List Format : Provide information as you would for an article in a journal. Add information about Dissertation Abstracts International.
Mou, Yi. “Social Media and Risk Communication: The Role of Social Networking Sites, in Food-safety Communication.” PhD Diss., University of Connecticut, 2012. Abstract, Dissertation Abstracts International 74 (2013).
Unpublished Manuscripts and Papers
1. Unpublished Document in a Manuscript Collection
References List Format : Include the document author (last name first), the document date (when available) followed by a description of the document including the collection name, the depository name and the depository location.
Peterkin, Julia. 1930. Letter to George Shively dated 18 October. Bobbs-Merrill Papers. Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Note: Papers appearing in the Published Proceedings of Meetings may be formatted in the same manner as a book.
References List Format : List the author (last name first), the year the paper was read, and the paper title. Include the phrase “Paper read” followed by the meeting name, the location, the day and month of the meeting.
Montgomery, M. Lorenzo. 1985. Dow Turner's early work on Gullah. Paper read at 9th Annual Symposium on Language and Culture, Columbia, SC, 27 April.
Interviews, Letters and Personal Communications
1. Published Interviews
Note: Consult The Chicago Manual of Style to format interviews appearing in other print and non-print mediums.
References List Format : Give the location and date in a note.
Rachel Stein, interview by author, Pittsburgh, June 2, 2014.
References List Format : Do not include unpublished interviews in the bibliography.
References List Format : Do not include personal communications such as letters or phone calls in the bibliography. In a note, give the name of the person with whom you communicated, the form of communication, and the date.
Megahn McKennan, conversation with author, March 5, 2014.
Sangita Thakore, letter to author, November 12, 2014
1. Portable Sources (CD-ROM's, Diskettes, Magnetic Tapes, etc.)
Note: Unlike online sources which exist on a computer service or network and are subject to continual revision, portable electronic sources are published and released at fixed points in time. Generally, these types of citations are done in running text within the document; however, they can be included in the References List. The following example is for a non-periodical portable source. The format for a periodical source is slightly different.
References List Format : Author or Editor-Last Name first. Year of Publication. Title- in italics if book title . Volume, edition, etc.-if appropriate. [Medium]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Sheehy, Donald, ed. 1997. Robert Frost: Poems, life, legacy . [CD-ROM]. New York: Holt.
References List Format : Program/Software Name: Identifying Version, level or release number and date-if available. Abbreviated Program/Software Name.-if applicable. Organization or Individual holding Property Rights, Location.
Electronic Supplements for Real Writing: 1. Interactive Writing Software Ver. 1. Bedford, Boston.
All digital sources should include either a publication date, a revision or “last modified” date, or an access date. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.
1. Online Computer Services
References List Format : List the author or editor (last name first). List the title (italicize if it is a book title), the print publication information, the online publication information (including the computer service name), and finish with the accession number.
Note: The following source was obtained through the computer service "Dialog."
Wever, Katharine. 1998. In a painting, Gershwin packed the house. New York Times 30 August, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. Dialog, New York Times Fulltext 03819774.
Fields, Gary. “Palestinian Landscape in a ‘Not-too-Distant-Mirror,’” Journal of Historical Sociology 23, no. 2 (June 2010). doi: 10.111/j.1467-6443.2010.01373.x.
Pes, Alessandro. “Becoming Imperialist: Italian Colonies in Fascist Textbooks for Primary Schools.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18, no. 5 (2013): 599-614. Academic Search Premier (92017350), doi: 10.1080/1354571X.2013.839519.
4. Article in an Online Magazine
Seigel, Jacob. “The History and Logic of Military Ultimatums, From Suez to Crimea.” The Daily Beast , March 3, 2014, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/03/03/the-history-and-logic-of-military-ultimatums-from-suez-to-crimea.html.
Ruskin, Gary. Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations. Washington, DC: Essential Information, 2013. http://www.corporatepolicy.org/spookybusiness.pdf.
“Native Americans,” Davis Wiki , accessed March 4, 2014. http://daviswiki.org/Native-Americans.
References List Format : Put the word “blog” in parentheses following the name of the blog, if it is not already part of the name. If the blog is part of a larger publication, include the name of the publication as well.
McNamara, Pat. McNamara’s Blog: Musings of a Catholic Church Historian from Queens, New York. http://patheos.com/blogs/mcnamarasblog/.
9. Citing an Entry or Comment on a Blog
Winchell, Donna Haisty. “In Arizona, Is It Ethics or Economics?” Argument and the Headlines (blog). Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition , March 3, 2014, http://blogs.bedfordstmartins.com/bits/author/donnaonbitsgmail-com/.
10. Citing an E-mail Message
References List Format : Chicago recommends that personal communication, including email, not be included in the bibliography, although it can be cited in your text. Note that the Chicago Manual prefers the hyphenated version of the word “e-mail.”
Brysa, H. Levy, e-mail message to author, January 4, 2014
10. Citing an Online Posting to a Discussion Group
References List Format : Like email, online postings are considered personal communication and are therefore listed in the text only, not in the bibliography. Include a URL for archived postings.
Alessandro, Busà to URBANTH-L discussion group, December 1, 2009, http://lists.cc.ysu.edu/pipermail/urbanth-l/2009-December/002761.html.
Audio and Video Recordings
1. Sound or Musical Recordings
Note: The elements in the following format (particularly composer and director) may be rearranged to suit your particular purposes. See Chicago Manual of Style for more examples.
References List Format : Give the composer and title of the recording, the performers and conductor, the label and identifying number.
Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich. Symphony No. 5, Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Daniele Gatti. Harmonia Mundi, MU907381, compact disc.
References List Format : List the playwright (last name first), the title of the recording (in italics), director’s name, the performers’ or artists’ names, (first names first), the label and identifying number.
Shakespeare, William. Othello . Directed by Howerd Sackler. Performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others. Caedmon CDG 225. Audiotape.
References List Format : List the poet or prose writer (last name first), the recording title (in italics), the name of the reader (first name first) or the phrase “Read by Author”, the label and the recording number.
Eliot, T.S. Poems and Choruses . Read by author. Caedmon TC1045. Record album.
References List Format : List the lecture recorder (last name first), the year, the recording title (in italics), a brief description of the lecture, the phrase “presented by” followed by the name of the lecturer. Include the institution name, the location, the month and year of the lecture and any publication information (if applicable).
Nesbitt, L.M. 1995. Censorship . Audiotape of a lecture presented by Louann Reid at Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, October 1995.
Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.
References List Format : Slide Show Producer-Last Name first. Year. Slide Show Title-in italics . Place of Production: Production Company Name. Slides.
Nesbitt, John. 1991. Europe by train . Knoxville, TN: Fabricated Production Company. Slides.
References List Format : Provide the title first, the name of the director, the company, the year it was filmed, the medium (film, videocassette, DVD).
Michael Jackson’s This Is It. Directed by Kenny Ortega. 2009 (2009; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures, 2010) DVD.
1. State and Federal Court Cases/Decisions
Note: State and federal court cases and decisions are normally cited in the running text of a document as in the example below. The Chicago Manual of Style provides no guidance for a References List entry.
In the 1923 case, Meyer v. State of Nebraska (262 U.S. 390), the Court handed down a decision that...
Note: State and federal constitutions are normally cited in the running text of a document as in the example below
Format : Give the state or country name. the article or amendment number and the subdivision number.
In the Wisconsin Constitution, art. 9, sec. 1...
Publications of Congress
1. Congressional Record/General Citation
References List Format : List the Congressional Record (in italics), the year, the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the volume number (numeral only) and the abbreviated pt. number. Include the page number(s) (if appropriate).
Congressional Record . 1995. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Vol. 141, pt. 26.
References List Format : List the Speaker’s name (last name first), the year, a brief description of the remarks, the resolution number (if appropriate), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the phrase “Cong Rec” (abbreviated and in italics), the day, month, volume number, pt. number and page number(s) (if appropriate).
Kennedy, Edward. 1995. Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts reintroducing the Equal Remedies Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Cong. Rec. , 30 Jan., vol. 141, pt. 10.
References List Format : Congressional Body or Committee Name. Year. Report or Document Title-in italics . Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated,. Document Number. Serial Number-if available.
U.S. Congress. 1982. South Dakota Water Resource Development . 97th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 514. Serial 13452.
References List Format : List the Congressional body name, the name of the journal (in italics), the year, number of Congress (abbreviated), the number of session (abbreviated), the day, month and year. .
U.S. Congress. Senate Journal . 1996. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February.
U.S. Senate Journal. 1996. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February.
References List Format : List the Congressional body name, the year, the Committee name, the title of the Hearing (in italics), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the day and month.
U.S. Senate. 1990. Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 101st Cong., 2d sess. 4-5 December.
References List Format : List the Congressional body name, the year, the Committee name, the title of the report (in italics), the phrase “Report prepared by” followed by the name of the agency or department person(s), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, and the Committee Print number.
U.S. Senate. 1973. Committee on Public Works. Effects and methods of control of thermal discharges. Report prepared by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. 93rd Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 14.
Note: Congressional bills and resolutions are normally cited in the running text of a document, however, when included in the References List, follow the example below.
References List Format : List the Congressional body name, the year, the Bill or Resolution title (in italics), the abbreviated number of Congress, abbreviated number of session, the Bill or Resolution number, the phrase “Congressional Record” (in italics), and record information (if applicable).
U.S. House. 1995. Interstate Child Support Enforcement Act . 104th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 195. Congressional Record , 241, no. 4, daily ed. (9 January): H168.
References List Format : List the name of Law (when available; in italics), the U.S. Public Law numbers, the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the day, month and year.
U.S. Public Law 105-258. 105th Cong., 2d sess., 14 October 1998.
References List Format : List U.S. Statutes at Large (in italics), the year, the volume number, the page number(s) and the name of the law (when available; in italics).
U.S. Statutes at Large . 1888. Vol. 25, p. 476.
References List Format : List the law, statute, or act title (in italics), U.S. Code (in italics), the volume number and the section number.
Farm Credit Act . 1959. U.S. Code Annotated . Vol. 42, sec. 410.
1. Proclamations and Executive Orders
References List Format : President. Year. Proclamation or Executive Order. Proclamation or Executive Order Title. Federal Register-in italics Number, Issue Number (Day Month):-in parenthesis: Page Number(s). Medium-if applicable.
President. 1954. Proclamation. Display of the flag of the United States of America at half-staff upon the death of certain officials and former officials. Federal Register 19, no. 3 (1 March): 1235. Microfiche.
References List Format : Document Title-in italics . Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated. In Compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents, 1789-1897-in italics . Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication.
References List Format : President-Last Name first. Year. Public papers of the presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.
Carter, Jimmy. 1981. Public papers of the presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1980-81. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO.
Government Documents and Publications
1. Executive Department Publications
References List Format : In general, give the issuing body, then the title and any other information (such as report numbers) that would help your readers locate the source. Follow with the publication data and the page numbers if relevant. You may abbreviate “Government Printing Office” as GPO.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives. 1991. Attorney-client privilege and the right of congressional access to documents for oversight purposes in the case of the suspension of the telephone loan programs by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: GPO.
References List Format : Commission Name. Year. Publication Title-in italics . Washington, D.C.: GPO.
U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1977/78. Annual report of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Washington, D.C.: GPO.
References List Format : Department or Issuing Body. Year of Treaty. Treaty Title. Day Month of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if text instead of microform.
U.S. Department of State. 1989. Tourism. 3 October. TIAS no. 12403. United States treaties and other international agreements.
References List Format : Name of Issuing Body. Year. Report Title-in italics. Place.
Colorado General Assembly, Colorado Commission on Higher Education. 1996. 1996 Legislative report on higher education admission standards. Denver.
Note: State laws or municipal ordinances are normally cited in the running text, although compilations of state laws (codes) or municipal ordinances may be cited in the References List.
References List Format : State or Municipal Name, Year. State Laws or Municipal Compilation Title-in italics. (Editor Name)-in parenthesis.
Colorado. 1974. Revised Statutes, Annotated (Michie Co.).
Examples of How to Arrange Reference List Entries
1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors
Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using "Anonymous". When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.
When the author's name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in [brackets]. When the author's name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the [brackets?].
Parsons, Elsie Clews.  1969. Folk-lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press.
Passing Race, A. 1929. Canadian Magazine .
Peterkin, Julia. 1927. Black April . Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.
[Joe Schmoe?]. Passing Race, A, 1929. Canadian Magazine.
Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.
Shor, Ira. 1986. Culture wars: School and society in the conservative restoration, 1969-1982. Boston: Routledge and K. Paul.
Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. 1987. A pedagogy of liberation: Dialogues on transforming education. New York: Bergin and Garvey.
The three-em dash serves the same purpose as "ditto" marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry.
Each work is then organized in chronological order, by publication date. In the event of two works being published in the same year, add a lowercase letter following the date and alphabetize the entries by title.
Nesbitt, P.B. 1998a. Zoning laws and neighborhood crises. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.
---. 1998b. The role of neighborhood associations in urban development battles. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.
Additional CMS Author/Date Resources
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers . 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers . 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations . 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
The official Chicago Manual of Style website, updated regularly, is the comprehensive guide to all things CMS: the organization, its journals, products and services.
Will Allen, Peter Connor, Heidi Scott, and Laurel Nesbitt. (1994-2023). Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System). The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/repository/resources/writing/guides/.
Copyright © 1994-2023 Colorado State University and/or this site's authors, developers, and contributors . Some material displayed on this site is used with permission.
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New Questions and Answers
Q. Would CMOS lowercase the noun preceding the number in each below? Yes or no?
He was called to aisle 8. The meeting was at building 50. The accident happened on interstate 90. Tom got off at exit 12. Holyfield fell in round 4. The cashier stole cash from register 7. The incident happened at terminal 1.
A. Words like “interstate” and “highway” are generally considered part of the name and capitalized: Interstate 90, Highway 66. But all the other terms in your list—from “aisle 8” to “terminal 1”—would be treated as generic and lowercased.
Q. If a document references only one figure, should it be labeled “Figure 1” or assigned no number?
A. A lone figure, even if it is referred to in the text, can usually remain unnumbered:
All but one of the posters relied on a conventional list; the outlier used an infographic (see figure).
The corresponding figure caption would begin with “Figure” or “Fig.” This approach is recommended by the AMA Manual of Style (11th ed., 18.104.22.168) and Scientific Style and Format ( 8th ed., 30.2.1 )—though the word “figure” would be capitalized in direct references in both of those styles.
But assigning a number to such a figure would be appropriate in at least three scenarios: (1) the figure is the only one in a chapter in a book featuring numbered figures in other chapters; (2) the figure is the only one in an article in a journal whose house style requires assigning numbers for all figures for consistency across articles; and (3) the figure occurs in a context that also includes more than one numbered table (e.g., fig. 1 and tables 1 and 2).
CMOS , which is a general reference, allows for any of those approaches. But note that all figures, whether they will be numbered in the published version or not, should carry a working number in the manuscript (see CMOS 3.13 ).
Q. Working on an architecture book that uses a lot of duplex addresses—i.e., 1522-1524 Main Street. Thought it should be an en, but someone pointed out the numbers are not inclusive, as 1523 Main Street is not part of the address. Is that correct? Should it just be a hyphen? Thanks!
A. Whoever pointed out that the numbers are not inclusive has a very good point. A hyphen is the better choice than an en dash in that context.
Q. I’m doing a research project where I analyze the currency of different countries. If I want to discuss, say, the US one-dollar bill, can I cite it directly as a document produced by the Federal Reserve, or do I need to cite an image of the bill?
A. Even if you include a detailed analysis and history, currency isn’t a document in the usual sense, and it doesn’t need to be cited. But if you include an image, give the source of the image at the end of the caption.
The caption for the above bill might read as follows (see also CMOS 3.30 ):
The obverse of a $1 Federal Reserve note as issued with a new design in 1963. (Watermarked image from “ The Seven Denominations ,” at the US Currency Education Program website.)
For guidance on reproducing images of money, see “ Currency Image Use ” at the website of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (US). For European currency, the European Central Bank offers this guidance .
Q. If someone uses multiple quotes that are not interrupted by a separate source, should the citation be with the first quote or the last?
A. If the quotations occur in the same paragraph, it’s usually best to place the note reference number (or parenthetical author-date citation) after the last one. But if the same source is relied on again in a subsequent paragraph, you’ll need to cite it again even if no other cited source has intervened.
A similar approach can work for a series of quotations from different sources in the same paragraph; see CMOS 14.57 for details and an example.
Q. I’m editing a book that follows Chicago’s general rule for spelling out numbers zero through one hundred. In the construction “on a scale of 1 to 10,” would you spell out the numbers or use numerals? Thanks!
A. According to Google’s Ngram Viewer, numerals have been consistently more common in that expression in published books— but only slightly .
Would “1 to 10” be even more popular if CMOS 9.2 didn’t advise spelling out numbers one through one hundred in most contexts? Maybe.
But you can take this answer as permission to use numerals, which seem to do a better job than spelled-out numbers at suggesting the hypothetical scale in that expression.
Q. My author wants to know whether a comma is called for in constructions like the following, where a conjunction follows the dialogue tag but doesn’t introduce an independent clause: “It’s very clear,” she replied[,] and moved off to a nearby tree. I tend to think it’s needed but can’t articulate why. I also think it needs to be “she replied, and THEN moved off.” Can you help?
A. This is a common question. Normally, a comma wouldn’t be required before the conjunction in a sentence that features a compound predicate (see CMOS 6.23 ):
She replied and moved off to a nearby tree.
But in dialogue, a speaker tag is usually set off from a quotation by a comma; it makes sense that, by a similar logic, the speaker tag would also be set off from any action or other narration that occurs in the same sentence:
“It’s very clear,” she replied, and moved off to a nearby tree.
And that’s what we’d advise—unless your author favors a style that’s notably light on commas and asks that you leave commas like that one out. In either case, you could add then after and , as you suggest.
Or you could switch to the present participle for the action verb, in which case a comma would be required:
“It’s very clear,” she replied, moving off to a nearby tree.
If the sequence of events is important, add a word like before or while :
“It’s very clear,” she replied, before moving off to a nearby tree.
Whatever approach you use, aim for consistency across like contexts.
Q. “Flyer” vs. “flier.” Please take a stand. Thanks!
A. For anyone or anything that flies, use flier . For the advertising circular, which isn’t usually circular (the name is related to circulation ), use flyer .
Q. You wouldn’t write “lineeditor,” so why “copyeditor”? Please help before my head explodes!
A. We know our preference for copyeditor isn’t popular with everyone, but judging from other copy words, it’s not all that weird. In American English, copy tends to form closed compounds, as this snippet from the 2003 first printing of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) shows:*
With the sole exception of copy editor , each of those terms is closed up: copybook ; copyboy ; copycat , copycatted , copycatting ; copydesk ; copyedit ; copyhold ; copyholder ; copyreader , copyread ; copyright , copyrightable ; copywriter . ( Copyist is also one word, but it’s not a compound.)
One of them— copyrightable —even has the same number of syllables as copy editor , stressed in the same pattern.
Merriam-Webster has since added one-word copyeditor as a less common variant for the noun and two-word copy edit as a second-listed equal variant for the verb. Our preference splits the difference, favoring consistency with other copy words over the common usage reflected in the dictionary entry.
As for line editor , those two consecutive e ’s preclude a move toward one word (à la linebacker or lineman ), though we’d hyphenate the - ing and - ed participles as preceding modifiers, as in “line-edited manuscripts.”
We hope our answer has reached you in time.
* Note that those dots in the dictionary entries are called division markers . Not to be confused with actual hyphens, they show where hyphens may be added to words that need to be broken at the end of a line of text.
Q. Would it be correct to use an en dash instead of a hyphen in a compound like “singer-songwriter”? What about a slash?
A. En dashes may be used in compounds referring to two different people:
Epstein–Barr virus (a virus named for two people)
Ali–Frazier fight (a boxing match between two people)
a singer–songwriter duo (referring to two people)
Albers-Schönberg disease (a disease named for one person)
Though Chicago doesn’t require an en dash in those first three examples, some style guides do (notably in the sciences and in British English).
But when a compound refers to only one person or thing, as in the compound nouns singer-songwriter and city-state , most styles (including Chicago) would recommend using a hyphen.
As for a slash, that’s usually reserved for alternatives, where the slash means “or” rather than “and” (as in and/or but not singer/songwriter ).
Q. I recently became aware that many sources insist one absolutely must use a comma after “said” to punctuate sentences like this one: She looked up and said, “Hi.” Is this really a universal rule? The more I look into it, the more I feel I’ve slipped into an alternate universe.
A. According to CMOS 13.40 , common one-word utterances can usually be introduced without the help of a comma—and without quotation marks or an initial capital:
She looked up and said hi.
We told her no.
Don’t ask me why.
But when such words are presented as direct discourse—as in the dialogue of a novel or story—they are usually placed in quotation marks and set off by a comma, like any other quoted words of dialogue:
She looked up and said, “Hi.”
“Hi,” I replied, a little embarrassed by the echo.
This convention suggests that the word or words in quotation marks were literally spoken as written. But it can be awkward to put the speaker ahead of the quotation. To smooth things out, try reversing the order:
“Hi,” she said, looking up.
For some additional considerations, see “ Is a Comma Needed to Introduce Dialogue ” in Fiction+ at CMOS Shop Talk .
Q. Hello, I would like to know how to handle citations to books that list a subsequent printing date. Some books will say, for example, “Copyright 1975” and elsewhere on the copyright page will list the various printing dates, such as “2nd printing 1979, 3rd printing 1985, 4th printing 1992.”
Should my references point to the original copyright date, or the subsequent printing date? I have searched in vain to find a definitive answer to this or any concrete examples. Thank you very much for the help!
A. Use the copyright date as the publication date in your citation. Printings after the first may include minor corrections but are otherwise intended by publishers to be substantially the same as earlier printings.
In the rare case that you are relying on a portion of the text that’s changed from one printing to another—and you happen to notice the discrepancy—mention the situation in your text or in a note. For example, “This citation relies on the fourth printing of Smith’s book; the first three printings refer, incorrectly, to the British Museum rather than the British Library.”
Note that a numbered printing (or impression) isn’t the same as a numbered edition, the latter of which must always be cited (see CMOS 1.26 and 14.113 ).
Q. An index I’m editing has the entry “The Dalles, OR.” Would it be correct to change the entry to “Dalles, The, OR”? Or would it be less awkward to leave that as “The Dalles, OR”?
A. Index “The Dalles” under “Dalles, The, OR,” on the principle that most readers will know not to look for a term under an article, whether definite ( the ) or indefinite ( a , an ).
CMOS users: Don’t forget about search. Even those of you who are using the printed book and don’t have a subscription to CMOS Online can benefit from it. For example, if you enter “The Dalles” or “Dalles” (that’s an es , not an as !) in the search box, you’ll be directed to paragraph 16.91 , which answers the question above.
Q. In “People in chef’s coats were being shepherded from room to room,” should it be written as “chef’s coats,” “chefs coats,” or “chefs’ coats”? I’m guessing that it’s the former, since it is a single, standardized coat that all the chefs are wearing, but I’m not sure.
A. You are correct: the plural of “chef’s coat” is “chef’s coats.” There are a bunch of nouns like that one. For example,
batter’s box ( sing. ), batter’s boxes ( pl. )
buyer’s or seller’s market ( sing. ), buyer’s or seller’s markets ( pl. )
lady’s slipper ( sing. ), lady’s slippers ( pl. )
teacher’s pet ( sing. ), teacher’s pets ( pl. )
So, for example, you might refer to a teacher’s pet in one classroom or to several teacher’s pets in one or more classrooms.
But if, instead of model students, you were referring to two or more teachers and their cats or dogs (or other such animals), you’d write “teachers’ pets” (note the placement of the apostrophe).
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... bibliographic entry using the Chicago Manual Style 17th edition ... referencing their sources through the use of footnotes, endnotes
The Chicago Manual of Style is regularly updated. Our examples are all based on the 17th edition, which is the most recent (published in 2017).
How to Format a Citation · In-text citations + a list of references at the end of the paper · Endnotes or footnotes +/- a bibliography at the end
Papers written in MLA format will have a Works Cited page. The APA citation page, on the other hand, will be labeled References. Both titles will be centered at
On a one whole sheet of paper, create the in-text and bibliographic entry for it using the APA Style, MLA Style and Chicago Manual of Style. 1. Authors: No
Chicago style bibliography examples ; Format, Author last name, first name. Book Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. URL. ; Example
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Capital letter to start subtitle. Title of Magazine/Journal/Newspaper, Volume(Issue ), Page numbers.
The way in which you document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e.g., APA, MLA
Format: Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited.
If I want to discuss, say, the US one-dollar bill, can I cite it directly as ... Note that those dots in the dictionary entries are called division markers.