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10 Other Ways To Say “In Conclusion”
The phrase “in conclusion” is often overused. We’ll go over synonyms for “in conclusion” (five formal and five casual) and provide examples showing how to use them.
What’s Another Way To Say “In Conclusion”?
There are many other phrases that can be used in place of in conclusion when writing an essay, report, or any other type of text.
A formal synonym you can use instead is in summary .
- In summary , the results of the experiment supported our hypothesis.
A casual way of saying in conclusion is to wrap things up .
- To wrap things up , that’s everything we had to deal with today.
Need Another Way of Saying “In Conclusion”?
The mighty conclusion : along with the introduction, it’s the most vital piece of your writing. It’s what readers will remember the most, what will be branded into their brains. Do you really want to start this vital paragraph with a lackluster phrase like in conclusion?
Some writers may see no problem with using this phrase, as it might be the one that fits their writing best. But if you’re looking for synonyms for in conclusion, you’ve come to the right place.
Synonyms for “In Conclusion”: Formal Phrases
Below, you’ll find five synonyms for in conclusion that are best suited for formal settings, such as professional and academic writing.
1) In summary
Like in conclusion , the phrase in summary serves as a transition phrase that signals you are starting the last paragraph of your writing. When using in summary , you should briefly review the main points of your text.
In summary , the destruction of natural habitats will soon become a problem not just for the animals but for humans, too.
Ultimately is an effective transition word you can use in place of in conclusion. It indicates that you’ve clearly expressed the central idea of your writing, but it’s particularly useful for declaring the importance of a specific call to action.
Ultimately , the decision is up to humans on whether saving the ecosystem is on our list of priorities.
3) As has been demonstrated
As has been demonstrated is a great transition expression that shows that as a writer, you are confident that you’ve thoroughly presented enough evidence or reasoning to prove your point.
As has been demonstrated in this paper, if corporations aren’t held accountable for their role in plastic pollution, millions of different species of fish, dolphins, corals, and more will become endangered.
4) In closing
In closing is another effective transition expression to let your readers know you are at the end of your writing. After using this synonym for in conclusion , you can either summarize the central principle of your text or write a call to action.
In closing , everyone can benefit from transitioning from single-use plastics to eco-friendly alternatives, like stainless steel.
This synonym for in conclusion is especially useful in argumentative or informative essays when you are about to make the last point. It is commonly found in the first or last sentence of the conclusion.
Lastly , you should remember that no change is insignificant. Small changes make a big difference.
Synonyms for “In Conclusion”: Casual Phrases
Sometimes in conclusion is too lofty for the topic you’re writing about. Here are five casual synonyms you could use instead :
6) In a nutshell
This phrase is a friendly and informal equivalent of to summarize . After this transition expression, you’d review the prominent points of your text.
In a nutshell , the beach clean-up was a fun yet important activity for the kids.
7) Long story short
This synonym for in conclusion is best reserved for writing that carries a conversational tone. It also signals that you will briefly state the essence of what you’ve written.
Long story short , the field trip to the beach was a success, and I’d highly recommend other teachers try it.
8) To sum up
This transition phrase is another informal synonym of to summarize. Again, this phrase is best used for casual writing and signals you’ve reached the end of your text.
To sum up , all the activities showed the kids that living an eco-friendly life is both easy and important.
9) At the end of the day
This is the informal way of saying ultimately . Similarly, it’s helpful in pointing out a call to action.
At the end of the day , it’s up to the adults to teach the children how to live a sustainable life.
10) To wrap things up
Another informal synonym of in conclusion is to wrap things up. These linking words illustrate that you’ve reached the end of your writing and will briefly summarize the main idea.
To wrap things up , a beach clean-up was an effective way of letting the students have fun while learning about the importance of taking care of nature.
Commas are necessary in almost every synonym to in conclusion ; where they are placed depends on the wording.
All In All, Conclusions Are Important
Regardless of how you decide to conclude your writing, the most significant aspect of the conclusion is proper spelling and grammar. A simple typo or incorrect placement of a comma can make readers forget about everything you’ve written.
LanguageTool helps you avoid this by checking for spelling and grammar errors as you type. This intelligent, multilingual text editor will also enhance your writing by providing synonyms and suggesting stylistic improvements. Ultimately, it’s up to you to decide whether you want flawless writing or not.
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57 Synonyms for "In Conclusion" To Use in Your Writing
Sometimes "in conclusion" is too on the nose
- DESCRIPTION In conclusion hero image
- SOURCE Created by YourDictionary via Getty Images via Getty Images
- PERMISSION Owned by YourDictionary, copyright YourDictionary
After writing an incredible introduction and incisive body paragraphs, you might have trouble knowing how to properly close your essay or research paper. While there’s nothing wrong with in conclusion as an old standby, it doesn’t hurt to spread your wings and find some better synonyms for in conclusion .
Common Alternatives for “In Conclusion”
You don’t want to sound repetitive in your writing, so here are some common words and phrases you can use instead of in conclusion if needed.
- all things considered
- by and large
- most importantly
- taking all of this into account
- to conclude
Formal and Professional “In Conclusion” Synonyms
If you’re working on an essay , research paper , or other more formal, professional pieces of writing , you might want to sound more professional in your concluding paragraphs too.
Trying using one of these alternatives for in conclusion to state your closing points confidently.
- as a result
- as indicated
- in summation
- to summarize
- in the final analysis
- upon consideration
- upon further analysis
- upon further review
- upon investigation
- upon reflection
- upon review
Informal or Casual Synonyms for “In Conclusion”
For truly lax writing or intensely friendly conversations that require a proper conclusion, you have plenty of informal in conclusion synonyms at your disposal.
- after all is said and done
- as you can see
- at the end of the day
- for the most part
- in a nutshell
- in the main
- last but not least
- now that we've reached the end
- to bring things to a close
- to bring things together
- to sum things up
- to wrap things up
- to wind things up
- what really matters is
- without further ado
Printable List of Alternatives for 'In Conclusion'
For a shorter visual list of other ways to say "in conclusion," print or save the list below. You'll have quick access to alternatives any time you need them.
- DESCRIPTION In conclusion printable
- SOURCE Created by YourDictionary
- PERMISSION Attribution-Non Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0)
Is It Better To Not Use “In Conclusion” At All?
For some, in conclusion can seem redundant or otherwise unnecessary. A reader can likely figure out they’re at the conclusion of an essay.
However, in conclusion can act as a mental signal for you in your writing, allowing you to craft the perfect conclusion paragraph . So if you’re not sure about using in conclusion or incorporating any of its synonyms, try getting rid of it to see if your writing feels more natural.
50 Other Ways to Say “In Conclusion” in Writing | In Conclusion Synonym
List of other ways to say in conclusion in English with ESL picture. Learn these synonyms for “in conclusion” to improve your vocabulary and fluency in English.
Desserts are delicious, they are the perfect way to end a great meal. After reading a long piece of writing, so is a good conclusion. Don’t believe me? You’ve probably read a piece of writing at some point and found yourself a little confused or left with some questions, only to find the ending paragraph/s most likely starting with ‘in conclusion’ to clear it all up for you. This is especially important in professional and academic writing .
So, if you’re interested in taking your writing to the next step, then keep on reading!
Table of Contents
What is ‘in conclusion’.
As you may already know, a conclusion is located at the end of a piece of writing. Its purpose is to evaluate everything that has been included in the writing before it, leaving the readers clear on what they just read, answering any questions that they may have developed while reading your writing.
If you’ve read a conclusion, then it may have started with ‘in conclusion’. This is just a way the writer can transition from the writing to the conclusion, while letting the readers know. However, there are many other ways to transition to your conclusion.
When to Use ‘In Conclusion’?
Although ‘in conclusion’ is a great way to begin your conclusion, it all depends on how you want to approach your conclusion.
For example, if your goal is to clearly indicate to the audience that you’re about to transition to your last words, then ‘in conclusion’ is perfect. However, several writers claim that ‘in conclusion’ is best used when you are presenting a piece of writing in an oral presentation, as in writing it can be seen as an unnecessary term.
If you’re writing for a professional or academic purpose, then you may want to find a better way to start your conclusion. However, if your piece of writing isn’t meant to come across as formal, then ‘in conclusion’ is perfectly fine.
How to use ‘in conclusion’?
‘In conclusion’ is best used when you are starting your very last words in your piece of writing, as well as, concluding what you have said throughout. Here is an example of how you can use the concluding term ‘in conclusion’:
In conclusion, including a conclusion in your writing proves to state your ideas to your reader in a much better way, as you are making sure that your audience is left understanding exactly what they’ve read, as well as, possibly reminding them of anything they may have missed while reading your piece of writing.
In Conclusion Synonym
Other ways to say in conclusion.
List of 50 synonyms for in conclusion in English. They also are known as conclusion transition words and phrases which are used to sum up what has bee n previously stated in writing.
- In summary,…
- After all is said and done,..
- All in all,…
- All things considered,…
- As a result,…
- As a final observation,…
- At the end of the day…
- Briefly to conclude…
- Bringing up rear,…
- By and large,…
- Considering all of these,…
- Everything considered,…
- Finally, it may be concluded…
- Finally/ Lastly,…
- In a nutshell…
- In closing,…
- In concluding,…
- In consolidation,…
- In ending this,…
- In essence,…
- In review,…
- In the end,…
- In the final analysis…
- It is concluded that…
- It’s apparent that through…
- Last but not least…
- On a final note…
- On the whole,…
- Overall, it may be said…
- Summing up,…
- Taking everything into account,…
- Taking this into account,…
- The research papers in the main…
- To briefly paraphrase…
- To come to the point…
- To conclude,…
- To end things off…
- To make the long story short…
- To put it all together…
- To put it bluntly…
- To sum up,…
- To summarise the above…
- To summarise,…
- To wrap it all up,…
Learn more with a useful list of transition words in English.
Here are the 15 best alternatives ‘in conclusion’ to begin/transition to your conclusion:
- In summary…
- To sum up…
- On the whole…
- Overall, it may be said…
- To conclude…
- All things considered…
- Taking everything into account…
- To put it all together…
- To briefly paraphrase…
- Everything considered…
- In closing…
- Last but not least…
- It is concluded that…
In Conclusion Synonyms with Examples
Learn many other ways to say in conclusion with example sentences.
- In summary , it is difficult for this writer to recommend this book.
- All in all , it has been a great success.
- All things considered , your article is of great value.
- As a result , services have been drastically reduced.
- At the end of the day , he’ll still have to make his own decision.
- By and large , the new arrangements have worked well.
- Lastly , the course trains students to think logically.
- In a nutshell , the owners thought they knew best.
- In brief , the meeting was a disaster.
- In concluding , he promised to go to prison rather than pay his fine.
- In essence , formal systems and procedures depend on local knowledge.
- In short , we must be prepared.
- In sum , we need to cut costs.
- In the end , a draw was a fair result.
- In the final analysis , the project was a failure.
- Last but not least , it will definitely benefit the citizens.
- On the whole , I’m in favour of the proposal.
- To conclude , I’d like to express my thanks to my family.
- To sum up , there are two main ways of tackling the problem.
- To summarise , this is a clever approach to a common problem.
- Ultimately , you’ll have to make the decision yourself.
Other Ways to Say IN CONCLUSION | Image
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Academic Phrases for Writing Conclusion Section of a Research Paper
Overview | Abstract | Introduction | Literature Review | Materials & Methods | Results & Discussion | Conclusion & Future Work | Acknowledgements & Appendix
A research paper should end with a well-constructed conclusion. The conclusion is somewhat similar to the introduction. You restate your aims and objectives and summarize your main findings and evidence for the reader. You can usually do this in one paragraph with three main key points, and one strong take-home message. You should not present any new arguments in your conclusion. You can raise some open questions and set the scene for the next study. This is a good place to register your thoughts about possible future work. Try to explain to your readers what more could be done? What do you think are the next steps to take? What other questions warrant further investigation? Remember, the conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will see, so spend some time writing the conclusion so that you can end on a high note.
The conclusion section of your research paper should include the following:
- Overall summary
- Further research
1. Overall summary
The paper concludes by arguing __ On this basis, we conclude that __ The authors concluded that __ is not confined to __ This allows the conclusion that __ The findings of this study can be understood as __ This may be considered a promising aspect of __ This may be considered a further validation of __ Remaining issues are subject of __ In summary, this paper argued that __ This aspect of the research suggested that __ In conclusion, __ seems to improve __ In summary, this paper argued that __ In conclusion, it would appear that __ The analysis leads to the following conclusions: __ It is difficult to arrive at any conclusions with regard to __ The main conclusion that can be drawn is that __ The present findings confirm __ As we have argued elsewhere __ may be considered a promising aspect of __ Ideally, these findings should be replicated in a study where __ By using __ we tested the hypothesis that __ In conclusion, __ seems to improve __ Broadly translated our findings indicate that __ This is an important finding in the understanding of the __ More generally, these basic findings are consistent with research showing that __ In addition, these findings provide additional information about __ Despite the limitations these are valuable in light of __ Overall, our results demonstrate a strong effect of __ Nevertheless, we found __ To our knowledge, this is the first report of __ Our results on __ are broadly consistent with __ The broad implication of the present research is that __ This conclusion follows from the fact that __ Collectively, our results appear consistent with __ Importantly, our results provide evidence for __ Results provide a basis for __ This experiment adds to a growing corpus of research showing __ Our data indicate that __; a result that casts a new light on __ These findings provide a potential mechanism for __ We have shown that __ Our data suggest that we still have a long way to go to __
2. Future work
Future research should consider the potential effects of __ more carefully, for example __ This assumption might be addressed in future studies. Future research on __ might extend the explanations of __ This is very much the key component in future attempts to overcome __ In future work, investigating __ might prove important. This is desirable for future work. Future investigations are necessary to validate the kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from this study. Future studies could fruitfully explore this issue further by __ Future research is needed to delimitate __ It will be important that future research investigate __ It is a question of future research to investigate __ We believe that apart from looking for __, future research should look for __ Regardless, future research could continue to explore __ This is an issue for future research to explore. Future studies could investigate the association between __ Future studies should aim to replicate results in a larger __ Future research should be devoted to the development of __ This may constitute the object of future studies. Future research could examine __ Interesting research questions for future research that can be derived from __ In future research, more research is needed to apply and test __ This is an interesting topic for future work. Future research should further develop and confirm these initial findings by __ Future research should certainly further test whether __ As also recommended above, future research should __ Future research should examine strategically __ Future research might apply __ In addition, __ might prove an important area for future research. A number of recommendations for future research are given. Therefore, future research should be conducted in more realistic settings to __ Further research on __ issue is warranted. Further work is certainly required to disentangle these complexities in __ Looking forward, further attempts could prove quite beneficial to the literature. Further research is needed to confirm this novel finding. These result warrant further investigation via __ This provides a good starting point for discussion and further research. Further studies should investigate __ The possibility of __ warrants further investigation.
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Academic Phrases for Writing Acknowledgements & Appendix Sections of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to thanking colleagues, acknowledging funders and writing the appendix section.
Academic Phrases for Writing Abstract Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to the abstract section. An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work.
Academic Phrases for Writing Introduction Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to introduction section such as opening statement, problem definition and research aims.
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Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing
In this blog, we explain various sections of a research paper and give you an overview of what these sections should contain.
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39 Different Ways to Say ‘In Conclusion’ in an Essay (Rated)
The phrase “In conclusion …” sounds reductive, simple and … well, just basic.
You can find better words to conclude an essay than that!
So below I’ve outlined a list of different ways to say in conclusion in an essay using a range of analysis verbs . Each one comes with an explanation of the best time to use each phrase and an example you could consider.
Read Also: How to Write a Conclusion using the 5C’s Method
List of Ways to Say ‘In Conclusion’ in an Essay
The following are the best tips I have for to say in conclusion in an essay.
1. The Weight of the Evidence Suggests…
My Rating: 10/10
Overview: This is a good concluding phrase for an evaluative essay where you need to compare two different positions on a topic then conclude by saying which one has more evidence behind it than the other.
You could also use this phrase for argumentative essays where you’ve put forward all the evidence for your particular case.
Example: “The weight of the evidence suggests that climate change is a real phenomenon.”
2. A Thoughtful Analysis would Conclude…
My Rating: 9/10
Overview: I would use this phrase in either an argumentative essay or a comparison essay. As an argument, it highlights that you think your position is the most logical.
In a comparison essay, it shows that you have (or have intended to) thoughtfully explore the issue by looking at both sides.
Example: “A thoughtful analysis would conclude that there is substantial evidence highlighting that climate change is real.”
Related Article: 17+ Great Ideas For An Essay About Yourself
3. A Balanced Assessment of the Above Information…
Overview: This phrase can be used to show that you have made a thoughtful analysis of the information you found when researching the essay. You’re telling your teacher with this phrase that you have looked at all sides of the argument before coming to your conclusion.
Example: “A balanced assessment of the above information would be that climate change exists and will have a strong impact on the world for centuries to come.”
4. Across the Board…
My Rating: 5/10
Overview: I would use this phrase in a less formal context such as in a creative discussion but would leave it out of a formal third-person essay. To me, the phrase comes across as too colloquial.
Example: “Across the board, there are scientists around the world who consistently provide evidence for human-induced climate change.”
My Rating: 7/10
Overview: This phrase can be used at the beginning of any paragraph that states out a series of facts that will be backed by clear step-by-step explanations that the reader should be able to follow to a conclusion.
Example: “Logically, the rise of the automobile would speed up economic expansion in the United States. Automobiles allowed goods to flow faster around the economy.
6. After all is Said and Done…
Overview: This is a colloquial term that is more useful in a speech than written text. If you feel that the phrase ‘In conclusion,’ is too basic, then I’d also avoid this term. However, use in speech is common, so if you’re giving a speech, it may be more acceptable.
Example: “After all is said and done, it’s clear that there is more evidence to suggest that climate change is real than a hoax.”
7. All in All…
Overview: ‘All in all’ is a colloquial term that I would use in speech but not in formal academic writing. Colloquialisms can show that you have poor command of the English language. However, I would consider using this phrase in the conclusion of a debate.
Example: “All in all, our debate team has shown that there is insurmountable evidence that our side of the argument is correct.”
8. All Things Considered…
My Rating: 6/10
Overview: This term is a good way of saying ‘I have considered everything above and now my conclusion is..’ However, it is another term that’s more commonly used in speech than writing. Use it in a high school debate, but when it comes to a formal essay, I would leave it out.
Example: “All things considered, there’s no doubt in my mind that climate change is man-made.”
9. As a Final Note…
My Rating: 3/10
Overview: This phrase gives me the impression that the student doesn’t understand the point of a conclusion. It’s not to simply make a ‘final note’, but to summarize and reiterate. So, I would personally avoid this one.
Example: “As a final note, I would say that I do think the automobile was one of the greatest inventions of the 20 th Century.”
10. As Already Stated…
My Rating: 2/10
Overview: I don’t like this phrase. It gives teachers the impression that you’re going around in circles and haven’t organized your essay properly. I would particularly avoid it in the body of an essay because I always think: “If you already stated it, why are you stating it again?” Of course, the conclusion does re-state things, but it also adds value because it also summarizes them. So, add value by using a phrase such as ‘summarizing’ or ‘weighing up’ in your conclusion instead.
Example: “As already stated, I’m going to repeat myself and annoy my teacher.”
11. At present, the Best Evidence Suggests…
My Rating: 8/10
Overview: In essays where the evidence may change in the future. Most fields of study do involve some evolution over time, so this phrase acknowledges that “right now” the best evidence is one thing, but it may change in the future. It also shows that you’ve looked at the latest information on the topic.
Example: “At present, the best evidence suggests that carbon dioxide emissions from power plants is the greatest influence on climate change.”
12. At the Core of the Issue…
Overview: I personally find this phrase to be useful for most essays. It highlights that you are able to identify the most important or central point from everything you have examined. It is slightly less formal than some other phrases on this list, but I also wouldn’t consider it too colloquial for an undergraduate essay.
Example: “At the core of the issue in this essay is the fact scientists have been unable to convince the broader public of the importance of action on climate change.”
13. Despite the shortcomings of…
Overview: This phrase can be useful in an argumentative essay. It shows that there are some limitations to your argument, but , on balance you still think your position is the best. This will allow you to show critical insight and knowledge while coming to your conclusion.
Often, my students make the mistake of thinking they can only take one side in an argumentative essay. On the contrary, you should be able to highlight the limitations of your point-of-view while also stating that it’s the best.
Example: “Despite the shortcomings of globalization , this essay has found that on balance it has been good for many areas in both the developed and developing world.”
My Rating: 4/10
Overview: While the phrase ‘Finally,’ does indicate that you’re coming to the end of your discussion, it is usually used at the end of a list of ideas rather than in a conclusion. It also implies that you’re adding a point rather that summing up previous points you have made.
Example: “Finally, this essay has highlighted the importance of communication between policy makers and practitioners in order to ensure good policy is put into effect.”
15. Gathering the above points together…
Overview: While this is not a phrase I personally use very often, I do believe it has the effect of indicating that you are “summing up”, which is what you want out of a conclusion.
Example: “Gathering the above points together, it is clear that the weight of evidence highlights the importance of action on climate change.”
16. Given the above information…
Overview: This phrase shows that you are considering the information in the body of the piece when coming to your conclusion. Therefore, I believe it is appropriate for starting a conclusion.
Example: “Given the above information, it is reasonable to conclude that the World Health Organization is an appropriate vehicle for achieving improved health outcomes in the developing world.”
17. In a nutshell…
Overview: This phrase means to say everything in the fewest possible words. However, it is a colloquial phrase that is best used in speech rather than formal academic writing.
Example: “In a nutshell, there are valid arguments on both sides of the debate about socialism vs capitalism.”
18. In closing…
Overview: This phrase is an appropriate synonym for ‘In conclusion’ and I would be perfectly fine with a student using this phrase in their essay. Make sure you follow-up by explaining your position based upon the weight of evidence presented in the body of your piece
Example: “In closing, there is ample evidence to suggest that liberalism has been the greatest force for progress in the past 100 years.”
19. In essence…
Overview: While the phrase ‘In essence’ does suggest you are about to sum up the core findings of your discussion, it is somewhat colloquial and is best left for speech rather than formal academic writing.
Example: “In essence, this essay has shown that cattle farming is an industry that should be protected as an essential service for our country.”
20. In review…
Overview: We usually review someone else’s work, not our own. For example, you could review a book that you read or a film you watched. So, writing “In review” as a replacement for “In conclusion” comes across a little awkward.
Example: “In review, the above information has made a compelling case for compulsory military service in the United States.”
21. In short…
Overview: Personally, I find that this phrase is used more regularly by undergraduate student. As students get more confident with their writing, they tend to use higher-rated phrases from this list. Nevertheless, I would not take grades away from a student for using this phrase.
Example: “In short, this essay has shown the importance of sustainable agriculture for securing a healthy future for our nation.”
22. In Sum…
Overview: Short for “In summary”, the phrase “In sum” sufficiently shows that you are not coming to the moment where you will sum up the essay. It is an appropriate phrase to use instead of “In conclusion”.
But remember to not just summarize but also discuss the implications of your findings in your conclusion.
Example: “In sum, this essay has shown the importance of managers in ensuring efficient operation of medium-to-large enterprises.”
23. In Summary…
Overview: In summary and in sum are the same terms which can be supplemented for “In conclusion”. You will show that you are about to summarize the points you said in the body of the essay, which is what you want from an essay.
Example: “In summary, reflection is a very important metacognitive skill that all teachers need to master in order to improve their pedagogical skills.”
24. It cannot be conclusively stated that…
Overview: While this phrase is not always be a good fit for your essay, when it is, it does show knowledge and skill in writing. You would use this phrase if you are writing an expository essay where you have decided that there is not enough evidence currently to make a firm conclusion on the issue.
Example: “It cannot be conclusively stated that the Big Bang was when the universe began. However, it is the best theory so far, and none of the other theories explored in this essay have as much evidence behind them.”
25. It is apparent that…
Overview: The term ‘ apparent ’ means that something is ‘clear’ or even ‘obvious’. So, you would use this word in an argumentative essay where you think you have put forward a very compelling argument.
Example: “It is apparent that current migration patterns in the Americas are unsustainable and causing significant harm to the most vulnerable people in our society.”
26. Last but not least…
Overview: The phrase “last but not least” is a colloquial idiom that is best used in speech rather than formal academic writing. Furthermore, when you are saying ‘last’, you mean to say you’re making your last point rather than summing up all your points you already made. So, I’d avoid this one.
Example: “Last but not least, this essay has highlighted the importance of empowering patients to exercise choice over their own medical decisions.”
My Rating: 7.5/10
Overview: This phrase means ‘taking everything into account’, which sounds a lot like what you would want to do in an essay. I don’t consider it to be a top-tier choice (which is why I rated it 7), but in my opinion it is perfectly acceptable to use in an undergraduate essay.
Example: “Overall, religious liberty continues to be threatened across the world, and faces significant threats in the 21 st Century.”
28. The above points illustrate…
Overview: This phrase is a good start to a conclusion paragraph that talks about the implications of the points you made in your essay. Follow it up with a statement that defends your thesis you are putting forward in the essay.
Example: “The above points illustrate that art has had an overwhelmingly positive impact on humanity since the renaissance.”
29. The evidence presented in this essay suggests that…
Overview: I like this phrase because it highlights that you are about to gather together the evidence from the body of the essay to put forward a final thesis statement.
Example: “The evidence presented in this essay suggests that the democratic system of government is the best for securing maximum individual liberty for citizens of a nation.”
30. This essay began by stating…
Overview: This phrase is one that I teach in my YouTube mini-course as an effective one to use in an essay conclusion. If you presented an interesting fact in your introduction , you can return to that point from the beginning of the essay to provide nice symmetry in your writing.
Example: “This essay began by stating that corruption has been growing in the Western world. However, the facts collected in the body of the essay show that institutional checks and balances can sufficiently minimize this corruption in the long-term.”
31. This essay has argued…
Overview: This term can be used effectively in an argumentative essay to provide a summary of your key points. Follow it up with an outline of all your key points, and then a sentence about the implications of the points you made. See the example below.
Example: “This essay has argued that standardized tests are damaging for students’ mental health. Tests like the SATs should therefore be replaced by project-based testing in schools.”
32. To close…
Overview: This is a very literal way of saying “In conclusion”. While it’s suitable and serves its purpose, it does come across as being a sophomoric term. Consider using one of the higher-rated phrases in this list.
Example: “To close, this essay has highlighted both the pros and cons of relational dialectics theory and argued that it is not the best communication theory for the 21 st Century.”
33. To Conclude…
Overview: Like ‘to close’ and ‘in summary’, the phrase ‘to conclude’ is very similar to ‘in conclusion’. It can therefore be used as a sufficient replacement for that term. However, as with the above terms, it’s just okay and you could probably find a better phrase to use.
Example: “To conclude, this essay has highlighted that there are multiple models of communication but there is no one perfect theory to explain each situation.”
34. To make a long story short…
My Rating: 1/10
Overview: This is not a good phrase to use in an academic essay. It is a colloquialism. It also implies that you have been rambling in your writing and you could have said everything more efficiently. I would personally not use this phrase.
Example: “To make a long story short, I don’t have very good command of academic language.”
35. To Sum up…
Overview: This phrase is the same as ‘In summary’. It shows that you have made all of your points and now you’re about to bring them all together in a ‘summary’. Just remember in your conclusion that you need to do more than summarize but also talk about the implications of your findings. So you’ll need to go beyond just a summary.
Example: “In summary, there is ample evidence that linear models of communication like Lasswell’s model are not as good at explaining 21 st Century communication as circular models like the Osgood-Schramm model .”
Overview: While this phrase does say that you are coming to a final point – also known as a conclusion – it’s also a very strong statement that might not be best to use in all situations. I usually accept this phrase from my undergraduates, but for my postgraduates I’d probably suggest simply removing it.
Example: “Ultimately, new media has been bad for the world because it has led to the spread of mistruths around the internet.”
Overview: If you are using it in a debate or argumentative essay, it can be helpful. However, in a regular academic essay, I would avoid it. We call this a ‘booster’, which is a term that emphasizes certainty. Unfortunately, certainty is a difficult thing to claim, so you’re better off ‘hedging’ with phrases like ‘It appears’ or ‘The best evidence suggests’.
Example: “Undoubtedly, I know everything about this topic and am one hundred percent certain even though I’m just an undergraduate student.”
38. Weighing up the facts, this essay finds…
Overview: This statement highlights that you are looking at all of the facts both for and against your points of view. It shows you’re not just blindly following one argument but being careful about seeing things from many perspectives.
Example: “Weighing up the facts, this essay finds that reading books is important for developing critical thinking skills in childhood.”
39. With that said…
Overview: This is another phrase that I would avoid. This is a colloquialism that’s best used in speech rather than writing. It is another term that feels sophomoric and is best to avoid. Instead, use a more formal term such as: ‘Weighing up the above points, this essay finds…’
Example: “With that said, this essay disagrees with the statement that you need to go to college to get a good job.”
Do you Need to Say Anything?
Something I often tell my students is: “Can you just remove that phrase?”
Consider this sentence:
- “In conclusion, the majority of scientists concur that climate change exists.”
Would it be possible to simply say:
- “ In conclusion, The majority of scientists concur that climate change exists.”
So, I’d recommend also just considering removing that phrase altogether! Sometimes the best writing is the shortest, simplest writing that gets to the point without any redundant language at all.
How to Write an Effective Conclusion
Before I go, I’d like to bring your attention to my video on ‘how to write an effective conclusion’. I think it would really help you out given that you’re looking for help on how to write a conclusion. It’s under 5 minutes long and has helped literally thousands of students write better conclusions for their essays:
Well, I had to begin this conclusion with ‘In conclusion…’ I liked the irony in it, and I couldn’t pass up that chance.
Overall, don’t forget that concluding an essay is a way to powerfully summarize what you’ve had to say and leave the reader with a strong impression that you’ve become an authority on the topic you’re researching.
So, whether you write it as a conclusion, summary, or any other synonym for conclusion, those other ways to say in conclusion are less important than making sure that the message in your conclusion is incredibly strong.
Chris Drew (PhD)
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education.
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 12 Examples of Socialism in America
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 10 Command Economy Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ 10 Communism Examples
- Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/admin/ Meaningful Learning: Definition, Benefits, Examples
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List of 50 "In Conclusion" Synonyms—Write Better with ProWritingAid
The final paragraphs of any paper can be extremely difficult to get right, and yet they are probably the most important. They offer you a chance to summarize the points you have made into a neat package and leave a good impression on the reader.
Many people choose to start the last paragraph with the phrase in conclusion , but this has its downsides.
Firstly, you should only use it once. Any more than that and your essay will sound horribly repetitive. Secondly, there is the question of whether you should even use the phrase at all?
Why Is It Wrong to Use "In Conclusion" when Writing a Conclusion?
What can i use instead of "in conclusion" for an essay, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in formal writing, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in informal writing, what is another word for "in conclusion", what should a conclusion do in an article or paper.
Though it’s okay to use in conclusion in a speech or presentation, when writing an essay it comes across as stating the obvious. The phrase will come across as a bit unnecessary or "on the nose."
Its use in an essay is clichéd, and there are far cleaner and more elegant ways of indicating that you are going to be concluding the paper. Using in conclusion might even irritate and alienate your audience or readers.
Thankfully, there are hundreds of synonyms available in the English language which do a much better (and much more subtle) job of drawing a piece of writing to a close.
The key is to choose ones which suit the tone of the paper. Here we will look at both formal options for an essay or academic paper, and informal options for light-hearted, low key writing, or speeches.
If you are writing an academic essay, a white paper, a business paper, or any other formal text, you will want to use formal transitional expressions that successfully work as synonyms for in conclusion .
The following are some suggestions you could use:
As has been demonstrated
A simple way of concluding all your points and summarizing everything you have said is to confidently state that those points have convincingly proven your case:
As the research has demonstrated , kids really do love chocolate.
As all the above points have demonstrated , Dan Brown really was the most technically gifted writer of the 20th Century.
As has been demonstrated in this paper , the side-effects of the vaccine are mild in comparison to the consequences of the virus.
As has been shown
This is another way of saying as has been demonstrated , but perhaps less scientific and more literary. As has been shown would work well in literature, history, or philosophy essays.
- As has been shown above , the First World War and industrialization were the drivers for a new way of seeing the world, reflected in Pound’s poetry.
In the final analysis
This is a great expression to use in your conclusion, since it’s almost as blunt as in conclusion , but is a more refined and far less clichéd way of starting the concluding paragraph.
Once you have finished your argument and started drawing things to a close, using in the final analysis allows you to tail nicely into your last summation.
- In the final analysis , there can be little doubt that Transformers: Dark of the Moon represents a low point in the history of cinema.
Along with let’s review , this is short and blunt way of announcing that you intend to recap the points you have made so far, rather than actually drawing a conclusion.
It definitely works best when presenting or reading out a speech, but less well in an essay or paper.
However, it does work effectively in a scientific paper or if you wish to recap a long train of thought, argument, or sequence before getting to the final concluding lines.
- To review , of the two groups of senior citizens, one was given a placebo and the other a large dose of amphetamines.
Another phrase you could consider is in closing . This is probably better when speaking or presenting because of how double-edged it is. It still has an in conclusion element to it, but arguably it could also work well when drawing an academic or scientific paper to a conclusion.
For example, it is particularly useful in scientific or business papers where you want to sum up your points, and then even have a call to action:
- In closing then, it is clear that as a society, we all need to carefully monitor our consumption of gummy bears.
Or in an academic paper, it offers a slightly less blunt way to begin a paragraph:
- In closing , how do we tie all these different elements of Ballard’s writing together?
Perhaps the most similar expression to in conclusion is in summary . In summary offers a clear indication to the reader that you are going to restate the main points of your paper and draw a conclusion from those points:
In summary , Existentialism is the only philosophy that has any real validity in the 21st century.
In summary , we believe that by switching to a subscription model...
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On top of those previously mentioned, here are some other phrases that you can use as an alternative to in conclusion :
- To summarize
- Overall, it may be said
- Taking everything into account
- On the whole
- In general, it can be said that
- With this in mind
- Considering all this
- Everything considered
- As a final observation
- Considering all of the facts
- For the most part
- In light of these facts
When it comes to finishing up a speech, a light-hearted paper, blog post, or magazine article, there are a couple of informal phrases you can use rather than in conclusion :
In a nutshell
The phrase in a nutshell is extremely informal and can be used both in speech and in writing. However, it should never be used in academic or formal writing.
It could probably be used in informal business presentations, to let the audience know that you are summing up in a light-hearted manner:
- In a nutshell , our new formula Pro Jazzinol shampoo does the same as our old shampoo, but we get to charge 20% more for it!
You can also use it if you want to get straight to the point at the end of a speech or article, without any fluff:
- In a nutshell , our new SocialShocka app does what it says on the tin—gives you an electric shock every time you try to access your social media!
At the end of the day
This is a pretty useful expression if you want to informally conclude an argument, having made all your points. It basically means in the final reckoning or the main thing to consider is , but said in a more conversational manner:
At the end of the day , he will never make the national team, but will make a good living as a professional.
At the end of the day , the former President was never destined to unite the country…
Long story short
Another informal option when replacing in conclusion is to opt for to make a long story short —sometimes shortened to long story short .
Again, this is not one you would use when writing an academic or formal paper, as it is much too conversational. It’s a phrase that is far better suited to telling a joke or story to your friends:
- Long story short , Billy has only gone and started his own religion!
Would you ever use it in writing? Probably not, except for at the end of friendly, low-key presentations:
- Long story short , our conclusion is that you are spending far too much money on after work company bowling trips.
And possibly at the end of an offbeat magazine article or blog post:
- Long story short , Henry VIII was a great king—not so great a husband though!
Other "In Conclusion" Synonyms for Informal Writing
You can use any of the synonyms in this article when writing informally, but these are particularly useful when you want your writing to sound conversational:
- By and large
- On a final note
- Last but not least
- For all intents and purposes
- The bottom line is
- To put it bluntly
- To wrap things up
- To come to the point
- To wind things up
Instead of opting for one of the above expressions or idioms, there are several different singular transition words you can use instead. Here are a couple of examples:
The perfect word to tell the reader you are reaching the end of your argument. Lastly is an adverb that means "at the end" or "in summary." It is best used when you are beginning your conclusion:
- Lastly , with all the previous points in mind, there is the question of why Philip K Dick was so fascinated with alternate history?
But can also be used at the very end of your conclusion too:
- Lastly then, we are left with Eliot’s own words on his inspiration for "The Waste Land."
Finally does exactly the same job as lastly . It lets the reader know that you are at the final point of your argument or are about to draw your conclusion:
- Finally , we can see from all the previous points that...
Another word that can be used at beginning of the conclusion is the adverb ultimately . Meaning "in the end" or "at the end of the day," it can be used as a conclusion to both informal and formal papers or articles:
- Ultimately , it comes down to whether one takes an Old Testament view of capital punishment or...
It can also be used in more survey, scientific, or charity appeal style articles as a call to action of some sort:
- Ultimately , we will all need to put some thought into our own carbon footprints over the next couple of years.
A good word to conclude a scientific, or survey style paper is overall . It can be used when discussing the points, arguments or results that have been outlined in the paper up until that point.
Thus, you can say:
- Overall , our survey showed that most people believe you should spread the cream before you add the jam, when eating scones.
Other Transition Words to Replace "In Conclusion"
Here are a few transition word alternatives to add to your arsenal:
Pro tip: You should use transition words throughout your essay, paper, or article to guide your reader through your ideas towards your conclusion. ProWritingAid’s Transitions Report tells you how many transition words you’ve used throughout your document so you can make sure you’re supporting your readers’ understanding.
It’ll also tell you what type of transitions you’ve used. If there are no conclusion words in your writing, consider using one of the synonyms from this article.
Sign up for a free ProWritingAid account to try the Transitions Report.
One of the most effective ways of finishing up a piece of writing is to ask a question, or return to the question that was asked at the beginning of the paper using. This can be achieved using how , what , why , or who .
This is sometimes referred to as the "so what?" question. This takes all your points and moves your writing (and your reader) back to the broader context, and gets the reader to ask, why are these points important? Your conclusion should answer the question "so what?" .
To answer that, you circle back to the main concept or driving force of the essay / paper (usually found in the title) and tie it together with the points you have made, in a final, elegant few sentences:
How, then, is Kafka’s writing modernist in outlook?
Why should we consider Dickens’ work from a feminist perspective?
What, then , was Blake referring to, when he spoke of mind forged manacles?
There are plenty of alternatives for drawing an effective and elegant close to your arguments, rather than simply stating in conclusion .
Whether you ask a question or opt for a transition expression or a single transition word, just taking the time to choose the right synonyms will make all the difference to what is, essentially, the most important part of your paper.
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Alex Simmonds is a freelance copywriter based in the UK and has been using words to help people sell things for over 20 years. He has an MA in English Lit and has been struggling to write a novel for most of the last decade. He can be found at alexsimmonds.co.uk.
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How To Write A Conclusion For An Essay
Your conclusion paragraph should begin with a smooth transition from the body of your essay. The first sentence of your paragraph should include clear transition words to signal to your reader that you are beginning to wrap up your essay. Different transition words can have different effects, so be sure to choose a transition word or phrase that clearly communicates that you are closing your essay. Some common examples of conclusion transition words and phrases include:
- In conclusion,
- To conclude,
- As previously stated.
Once you have signalled that you are drawing your essay to a close, you can then restate the primary points of your essay. Depending on the length of your essay, this may be done in a single sentence, or it may require a few sentences. Be concise and clear; you should be able to summarise each main point in a simple phrase that avoids restating each detail and piece of evidence related to the point. Also simply list off the point as a reminder to your audience about what they’ve just read.
Restate your main points
Finally, if you are writing an argumentative essay, you’ll want to clearly restate your main argument in order to leave readers with one final appeal. If you have provided enough evidence along the way, this restatement should make readers feel as if you’ve persuaded them fully.
Call to action
For some expository and argumentative essays, it’s appropriate to end with a call to action as your last sentence. For example, if you’re writing an informative essay about the sea creatures that live in the very deepest parts of the ocean, you may close with a sentence like this: “It’s clear that today’s scientists should continue to observe and document these mysterious creatures, so we may learn more about the life at the bottom of the ocean.” A call to action like this can make your reader feel inspired and informed after reading your essay.
What to avoid
When writing a strong conclusion paragraph, you want to keep it simple. Use a clear transition word or phrase, restate your main points and arguments, and possibly finish with a call to action. Be sure to avoid the following common mistakes:
- New information. Your conclusion is not the place to introduce anything new. Simply restate and summarise the main points clearly.
- Personal opinion. Unless you are writing an opinion piece that includes several “I” statements throughout, avoid ending your essay with a sudden “I think…” or “I feel…” If you haven’t been including your personal opinion throughout the essay, then you shouldn’t insert your opinion into the conclusion.
- Lots of detail. When you restate your main points, don’t worry about restating all the small details that make up your description or evidence. The place for details is in your body paragraphs. The conclusion is simply for summary and a possible call for action or next steps.
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40+ Fresh Ways to Say “In Conclusion”
In you find yourself repetitive and constantly using same words, you might be surprised there are many other ways to say ‘ in conclusion ‘ in the English language. Need a replacement for “in conclusion”? Here you can find plenty of other ways to say this common conclusion transition phrase. You can easily enrich your emails, writing , essay and academic papers.
Other Ways to Say ” In Conclusion”
Check Also: ☛ Other Ways to Say SAID + PDF ✔ ☛ Other Ways To Say Commonly Used English Expressions ☛ Useful Academic Expressions & Phrases For Essay Writing
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To end the story I can tell you…
To sum up everything that has been said,
- GENERAL LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
- Being cautious
- Being critical
- Classifying and listing
- Compare and contrast
- Defining terms
- Describing trends
- Describing quantities
- Explaining causality
- Giving examples
- Signalling transition
- Writing about the past
Conclusions are shorter sections of academic texts which usually serve two functions. The first is to summarise and bring together the main areas covered in the writing, which might be called ‘looking back’; and the second is to give a final comment or judgement on this. The final comment may also include making suggestions for improvement and speculating on future directions.
In dissertations and research papers, conclusions tend to be more complex and will also include sections on the significance of the findings and recommendations for future work. Conclusions may be optional in research articles where consolidation of the study and general implications are covered in the Discussion section. However, they are usually expected in dissertations and essays.
Restating the aims of the study
This study set out to … This paper has argued that … This essay has discussed the reasons for … In this investigation, the aim was to assess … The aim of the present research was to examine … The purpose of the current study was to determine … The main goal of the current study was to determine … This project was undertaken to design … and evaluate … The present study was designed to determine the effect of … The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of …
Summarising main research findings
This study has identified … This study has shown that … The research has also shown that … The second major finding was that … These experiments confirmed that … X made no significant difference to … This study has found that generally … The investigation of X has shown that … The results of this investigation show that … X, Y and Z emerged as reliable predictors of … Multiple regression analysis revealed that the … The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that … The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that …
Suggesting implications for the field of knowledge
In general, therefore, it seems that … The results of this study indicate that … These findings suggest that in general … The findings of this study suggest that … Taken together, these results suggest that … An implication of this is the possibility that … The evidence from this study suggests that … Overall, this study strengthens the idea that … The current data highlight the importance of … The findings of this research provide insights for … The results of this research support the idea that … These data suggest that X can be achieved through … The theoretical implications of these findings are unclear. The principal theoretical implication of this study is that … This study has raised important questions about the nature of … The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study … Taken together, these findings suggest a role for X in promoting Y. The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies. These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how … Although this study focuses on X, the findings may well have a bearing on …
Explaining the significance of the findings or contribution of the study
The findings will be of interest to … This thesis has provided a deeper insight into … The findings reported here shed new light on … The study contributes to our understanding of … These results add to the rapidly expanding field of … The contribution of this study has been to confirm … Before this study, evidence of X was purely anecdotal. This project is the first comprehensive investigation of … The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to … This work contributes to existing knowledge of X by providing … This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of … Prior to this study it was difficult to make predictions about how … The analysis of X undertaken here, has extended our knowledge of … The empirical findings in this study provide a new understanding of … This paper contributes to recent historiographical debates concerning … This approach will prove useful in expanding our understanding of how … This new understanding should help to improve predictions of the impact of … This is the first report on X from a nationally representative cohort of patients. The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world. The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of … This is the first study of substantial duration which examines associations between … The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,… These findings contribute in several ways to our understanding of X and provide a basis for …
Recognising the limitations of the current study
A limitation of this study is that … Being limited to X, this study lacks … The small sample size did not allow … The major limitation of this study is the … This study was limited by the absence of … X makes these findings less generalisable to … Thirdly, the study did not evaluate the use of … It is unfortunate that the study did not include … The scope of this study was limited in terms of … The study is limited by the lack of information on … The most important limitation lies in the fact that … The main weakness of this study was the paucity of … Since the study was limited to X, it was not possible to .. An additional uncontrolled factor is the possibility that … It was not possible to assess X; therefore, it is unknown if … An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether… The generalisability of these results is subject to certain limitations. For instance, … One source of weakness in this study which could have affected the measurements of X was …
Acknowledging limitation(s) whilst stating a finding or contribution
Notwithstanding these limitations, the study suggests that … Whilst this study did not confirm X, it did partially substantiate … Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into … In spite of its limitations, the study certainly adds to our understanding of the … Notwithstanding the relatively limited sample, this work offers valuable insights into … Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, the findings suggest …
Making recommendations for further research work
The question raised by this study is … The study should be repeated using … This would be a fruitful area for further work. Several questions still remain to be answered. A natural progression of this work is to analyse … More research using controlled trials is needed to … More broadly, research is also needed to determine … A further study could assess the long-term effects of … What is now needed is a cross-national study involving … Considerably more work will need to be done to determine … The precise mechanism of X in insects remains to be elucidated. These findings provide the following insights for future research: … Large randomised controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence. This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation. A greater focus on X could produce interesting findings that account more for … The issue of X is an intriguing one which could be usefully explored in further research. If the debate is to be moved forward, a better understanding of X needs to be developed. I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be carried out on … More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter.
Setting out recommendations for practice or policy
Other types of X could include: a), b). … There is, therefore, a definite need for … Greater efforts are needed to ensure … Provision of X will enhance Y and reduce Z. Another important practical implication is that … Moreover, more X should be made available to … The challenge now is to fabricate Xs that contain … Unless governments adopt X, Y will not be attained. These findings suggest several courses of action for … A reasonable approach to tackle this issue could be to … Continued efforts are needed to make X more accessible to … The findings of this study have a number of practical implications. There are a number of important changes which need to be made. Management to enhance bumble-bee populations might involve … This study suggests that X should be avoided by people who are prone to … A key policy priority should therefore be to plan for the long-term care of … This information can be used to develop targetted interventions aimed at … Taken together, these findings do not support strong recommendations to … Ensuring appropriate systems, services and support for X should be a priority for … The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.
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Other phrases for in conclusion include: 1) In summary 2) As has been demonstrated 3) In closing 4) To wrap things up 5) Lastly 6) Ultimately.
Common Alternatives for “In Conclusion” · all in all · all things considered · altogether · as a rule · by and large · finally · in the end · largely
Other Ways to Say In Conclusion · In summary… · To sum up… · On the whole… · Overall, it may be said… · To conclude… · All things considered… · Finally… · Taking
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to conclusion section such as summary of results and future work. A research paper should end with
Example: “Logically, the rise of the automobile would speed up economic expansion in the United States. Automobiles allowed goods to flow faster
Other Transition Words to Replace "In Conclusion" · Briefly · Obviously · Considering · Therefore · Thus · Essentially · Indeed · Principally
The first sentence of your paragraph should include clear transition words to signal to your reader that you are beginning to wrap up your essay. Different
Other Ways to Say ” In Conclusion” ; In the final analysis, It is concluded that, ; It's apparent that through, Last but not least, ; On a final note, On the whole
Conclusions are shorter sections of academic texts which usually serve two functions. The first is to summarise and bring together the main areas covered in
Beginning the conclusion with phrases like "in closing," "in summary" or "in conclusion" is somewhat redundant and unnecessary, so avoid using them.