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Journalism - Doctoral Research : Home

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Associated Library:  Journalism Library

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Journalism Quick Links

Missouri School of Journalism at MU

120 Neff Hall

Columbia, MO 65211

Phone: 573-882-1908

Email: [email protected]

Johnathan B. Murray Center for Documentary Journalism

243 Walter Williams Hall

Phone: 573-882-0698 Email:  [email protected]

Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute (RJI)

401 S 9th St, Columbia, MO 65201

Phone: 573-884-9121

Email:  [email protected]

Where do I start?

The guide  Resources for Journalism Graduate Students  is comprehensive and covers how the journalism library works, the research process, and MU-specific information.

The following guides will help you get started on your research: 

Choosing a Research Topic

Five Steps to Better Library Research

Database Search Tips

Navigating the Information-Scape: Evaluating Scholarly Journals, Trade Publications, and General Interest Magazines

Constructing a Search Statement

Research Strategy

Ask Us : Get research assistance from the MU Libraries' staff via email, phone, or in person at the library. There's also a searchable list of frequently asked questions.  You can chat with a librarian 24 hours a day (M-F) and Saturday and Sundays starting at 10 a.m. You can contact your subject librarian  to ask questions or to set up an appointment to meet one-on-one. 

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Library: 573-882-7502

Vera Elwood Head, Journalism Library 103A Reynolds Journalism Institute Phone: 573-882-6591 Email:  [email protected]

Sandy Schiefer Journalism Librarian 103B Reynolds Journalism Institute Phone: 573-882-0660 email:  [email protected]

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Conducting a Literature Review

Welcome to the library guide Conducting a Literature Review .  In this guide we will be reviewing pertinent library resources and services you should know about that will be useful to you when putting together a research plan and doing library research.

This guide will help you::                                   

Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

dissertation annotated bibliography

Annotated Bibliography Samples

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This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.

Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life . Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 9th Edition (2021) Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample APA Annotation

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America . Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.

For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation

Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess . London: Routledge, 1998.

Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.

This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.

For information on formatting Chicago Style citations, see our Chicago Manual of Style resources.


Annotated Bibliography Examples & Step-by-Step Writing Guide

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An annotated bibliography is a unique form of bibliography providing a short summary or analysis of sources. While creating an annotated bibliography shouldn’t be stressful, many students might find the process hard. Keep it simple by using this step-by-step annotated bibliography guide for perfect annotations in any style.

Table of Contents

Annotated Bibliography Examples

What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

So, the big question in everyone’s minds is, what is an annotated bibliography? An annotated bibliography is a list of citations followed by a brief summary or analysis of your sources, aka annotations. The annotation gives information about the relevance and quality of the sources you cited through a 150-250 word description or interpretation of the source.

Why Write Annotations?

One of the main questions students have is what the purpose of an annotation is. Surprise, it’s not just for your teacher. Annotations help you, too. Many times, you create your reference list as you begin researching your topic. Since you summarize the source in an annotated bibliography, you start to delve into the topic more critically to collect the information for your annotations. This helps you better understand the subject and sources to help you create your thesis .

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography Step-by-Step

The creation of an annotated bibliography is a three-step process. It starts with evaluating sources to find the ones that will genuinely make your paper shine. You’ll then begin writing your annotation for each different source. The final step is to choose your citation style. Now that you know the three-step process, let’s check out each step in turn.

Step 1: Analysis of Sources

When it comes to an annotated bibliography, you have to critically look at your topic’s sources and research. Therefore, you need to look at the author’s qualifications and credentials, along with the date of the study itself. Since new thoughts and literary movements are happening all the time, you want to make sure the analysis and opinions you use are relevant to your topic and current times.

In addition to the author, make sure the publisher or journal where you found the research is distinguished and reviewed by professionals in the field. Research by an unknown or unreputable journal will not make a good source for your arguments or analysis. Other areas you’ll want to be aware of include:

Critically analyzing all these different areas helps you evaluate if a source is credible , helpful to your project or research, and works to answer your thesis.

reliable sources for research CRAAP

Step 2: Create Your Annotations

Now that you’ve used your critical academic eye to dive deep into your sources, it’s time to create annotations for them. Annotations aren’t one size fits all. Therefore, there are different ways you can create them, depending on your intent. You might choose to use descriptive, summary, or evaluation in your annotations or a combination of all three. Just remember to always include what your instructor asks for.

Indicative/Descriptive Annotations

Descriptive or indicative annotations do just what they say. They describe the source. Indicative annotations give you a quick summary of the source and argument and describe the main points and even chapters within the source. See how this indicative annotation example in MLA works.

Zachs, Mitch. The Little Book of Stock Market Profits . John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

This book covers a wide variety of strategies used in the stock market throughout the years to improve performance. Insightful chapters within the text include “Understanding the Markets,” “Using Profits to Achieve Your Elusive Goals,” and “The Challenge of Investing.”

Informative/Summary Annotations

Summary annotations simply provide a summary of your different sources. Within them, you describe the main arguments or points along with the various topics covered. This is where you show why this source was essential and made it to your list. See an example of informative annotations at play.

Doerr, John. Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World With OKRs . Penguin. 2018.

This book is written by Doerr, who is the chair of a venture capitalist group. The book describes how a business organization can use OKRs to drive a company’s focus through agility, which leads to explosive growth. These are first-person, behind-the-scenes case studies narrated by leaders like Bill Gates. This book helps guide understanding of the business management strategies that drive the success of large companies.

Evaluation Annotations

Your annotations might stop at summarizing, or you could take it a step further by evaluating the source. To do this, you want to compare and contrast it. Why did this one make the cut? Explain the overarching goal of the source and why it fits into your paper so well. Additionally, you want to look at the reliability of the information and any bias it might have. Dig deep into your source like in this example.

Wilson, John Philip. When the Texans Come: Missing Records from the Civil War in the Southwest. UNM Press, 2001.

Through primary resources like original letters, song lyrics, and casualty lists, the author, a historian-archeologist, provides a fresh narrative of the Civil War. The author dissects primary sources like witness testimony and original newspaper accounts to clearly understand the battles fought within the Civil War. It not only takes you through the major battles but the minor ones happening in the west to provide you a clear picture of the war. While it’s interesting to see the war through fresh eyes, it lacks in some areas due to its overarching look at the entirety of the war.

Combination Annotations

Annotations don’t have to just follow one specific format. You can combine all three types of annotations into your annotated bibliography. For example, you might spend a few lines describing and summarizing the work and end with an evaluation.

annotated bibliography in MLA

Writing Style for Annotations

Just like there are different types of annotations you can create, you can also use different writing styles. Annotations typically follow three specific formats depending on how long they are.

Step 3: Annotated Bibliography Format

All annotated bibliographies have a title, annotation, and citation. While the annotation is the same for all, the way you create your title and citation varies based on your style. The three main bibliography styles used include MLA, APA, and Chicago.

Get examples of an annotated bibliography in each different style. Find a quick overview of when to use APA, MLA, and Chicago styles.

APA Example

An APA annotated bibliography is used for science and technical papers. It includes an APA citation and APA formatting for headers and title.

example annotated bibliography APA

MLA Example

An MLA annotated bibliography is the go-to style of high school and college students for language arts and humanities papers. This style uses MLA style citations and formatting like the surname and page number header.

example annotated bibliography MLA

Chicago Example

Chicago style annotated bibliographies are a catch-all type of style with author-date and notes-bibliography citations. The citation used in Chicago style can vary by style, but the annotation remains the same.

example annotated bibliography chicago format

How to Use an Annotated Bibliography Generator

When it comes to creating your annotated bibliography, you can use the annotated bibliography generator at Bibliography.com to make things easier. Get a step-by-step overview on how to create an annotated bibliography using Bibliography.com.

annotated bibliography bibliography.com

Creating your annotated bibliography through Bibliography.com’s annotation generator is as simple as that.

Difference Between Abstract, Annotation, and Literature Review

The difference between an abstract, literature review, and annotated bibliography can get a bit fuzzy, especially if you are new to the academic writing game. You know an annotation is a brief synopsis of your source. Explore how that differs from an abstract and a literature review.

What Is a Literature Review?

Like an annotated bibliography, literature reviews can be full papers, in their own right, or they can be incorporated into a school paper. Their purpose is to review and tie together previously published research to bolster a writer’s own thesis. The literature review also suggests ways to move the research forward or identifies gaps in the existing literature. Preparing a literature review helps students learn how to find and critically evaluate sources.

Purpose of an Abstract

The difference between an abstract and an annotated bibliography is abstracts are included as part of research papers. Their purpose is to inform an interested researcher about the topic, problem, methodology, findings, and conclusion of the research. This abstract helps students understand whether this source is a good one for their own school paper.

An abstract is written as a summary rather than to serve an evaluative purpose. No added material, such as explanations or further reading, are included in abstracts—usually, an abstract runs between 150 to 250 words. If you’re using APA style to format your research paper, you may need to include an abstract on the page following the title page.

Now that you know the difference between an abstract, annotated bibliography, and literature review, you have all the skills needed to create a perfect annotated bibliography.

Citation generator

Creating an Annotated Bibliography

Creating an annotated bibliography takes more work, but it can make you a better researcher. Just follow the steps for creating annotations and citations per your professor, and you’re ready for that A. Interested in learning more about research papers? Why not check out how to insert citations in Word quickly .

FAQ Annotated Bibliography Writing Guide With Examples

How do you write an annotated bibliography.

To write an annotated bibliography, you need to evaluate your source then write a summary, evaluation, or reflection of the source. Once your annotation is complete, you will create a citation for the source using the rules for APA, MLA, or Chicago style.

What are the 3 parts of an annotated bibliography?

The three different parts of an annotated bibliography include the title, annotation, and citation. The title and citation format will vary based on the style you use. The annotation can include a summary, evaluation, or reflection.

How long is an annotated bibliography?

The length of an annotated bibliography can vary from about 150-250 words. However, some annotations can be shorter for the Chicago style.

What should an annotated bibliography look like?

The look of an annotated bibliography includes a title, citations, and annotation. Each source has a citation and annotation throughout the entire annotated bibliography to provide an overview of the relevance of your sources for your teacher.

What are 3 types of annotations?

The 3 types of annotation include descriptive, summary, and evaluation. You can choose to use one of these or all three in your annotations for your bibliography.

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Bibliography Rules and Guidelines

Bibliography examples for students, how to add or insert citations in word quickly, chicago newspaper citation examples.

Annotated Bibliography

Words of Wisdom

There are books so alive that you're always afraid that while you weren't reading, the book has gone and changed, has shifted like a river; while you went on living, it went on living too, and like a river moved on and moved away.

— Marina Ivanova Tsvetaeva

An annotated bibliography is a list of sources used for a research project, whether it’s a dissertation, academic essay, or speech. Annotated bibliographies serve two primary purposes. First, they help researchers keep track of their sources efficiently, serving as a reminder of what each source covers. Second, they are often published and used by other researchers to provide an overview of the available literature on a topic.

Annotated bibliographies typically include an introduction followed by as many annotations—(that is) notes or comments about a source—as necessary. Individual annotations can range from 150 words to a page in length, depending on the requirements set by an instructor or the needs of the researcher.

Annotated bibliographies should include publishing information (that is, information that helps you go back to the original source) in a consistent style. This handout, for example, uses MLA (Modern Language Association) style. If you are creating a bibliography for a specific purpose, determine the appropriate style. (For example, in the social sciences, you would typically use APA style.) In MLA style, use a hanging indentation format for each citation, and begin each full-sentence annotation on a new line beneath the citation (shown below). If anyone will read the annotated bibliography besides you, write in complete sentences and use academic style. If you will be the sole reader, you can write less formally, but complete sentences are advisable so that you will be able to decipher your own notes.


Annotated bibliographies can fulfill three main purposes. Sometimes all of the following considerations will be necessary for each source, sometimes only one. If you are completing an assignment for a class, make sure you meet your instructor’s requirements.

First, summarize the source, including the source’s thesis, key points, and the most significant detail or evidence supporting those points. If someone asked what this article/book was about, what would you say? What is the purpose of the book or article? What topics are covered? What are the main arguments?

Second, evaluate the source. Does it make a strong argument? Is it logical? Does the author jump to conclusions? Is the data sufficient? Should a wider range of subjects have been tested? Is it biased? Is it useful compared to other sources?

Third, relate the article to your research/thesis. Does it contradict you? Is it easily refutable and is it, therefore, helpful or harmful to your essay? Can you use it in your essay and how? Does it offer statistics valuable to your research? Has it changed how you think about your topic?

Do not merely copy the author’s words—that’s plagiarism and it defeats the entire point of an annotated bibliography. Rewrite each source’s information entirely in your own words so that you will remember it and so that others can know if it is a source they should consult.

The first step to a successful annotated bibliography is to know your own argument—or at least to have a general sense of the direction of your paper.

As you locate and read texts to include in the bibliography, take notes to help you remember pertinent information in your annotation. Keep your audience in mind when writing and consider what information will be useful to them. Keep track of both the author’s points and of your reaction to them. Was something particularly memorable? Did something strike you as ridiculous or as a mistaken argument?


Some annotated bibliographies include an introduction. Again, find out what your teacher or publisher requires. The introduction typically tells your reader what your topic/argument is so they understand your reasons for using specific resources and for evaluating or applying them as your entries describe. The introduction gives readers the background they need to understand your annotations. It should be less than a page long and give a basic summary of the research you’re conducting, why you’re conducting it, and the general direction you think your argument will take.

Sample Entry

Baston, Jane. “Rehabilitating Moll’s Subversion in  The Roaring Girl .” Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 37 (1997): 317-35.      In her article, Baston examines the underlying achievements of Moll Cutpurse, a character in  The Roaring Girl . Baston claims that the character of Moll challenges male patriarchy both physically and metaphorically. The community of 17 th century England is examined, and Baston suggests that Moll is able to subvert the dominant power mechanisms of the time using her charisma. The author supports her arguments through examining church pamphlets and records of the 17 th century to demonstrate that Moll’s defiance (namely her transgression of cross-dressing) was “contained and eventually incorporated into the prevailing social apparatus” (319). The societal ideal of the female in Jacobean England became obedience, but Middleton and Dekker’s Moll fought this regression of women. Baston’s research provides substantial evidence that seventeenth-century restrictive binaries of gender construction were failing and in turn were reflected in the era’s drama.

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An Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to articles, books, and any other documents where you provide a citation (150 words each) to a descriptive paragraph. The main purpose of annotation is to inform the readers about the quality, relevance, and accuracy of the document. We write annotated bibliography to various articles, books and documents.

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An annotation mainly helps you to replicate the main argument of the source. It should be written and sorted in the alphabetical order.

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In the initial appraisal, the title of the journal, a brief discussion about the author, publisher, and date of publication, edition or revision would be reviewed. In the content appraisal, same will be followed but with more focus on the targeted audience, objective reasoning, methodology evaluation, reality and validity of the findings and conclusion.

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The research report is formatted based on the recommended formatting guidelines. Since, there are many different guidelines available including APA, MLA, Harvard and therefore, we strictly follow the guideline given by the scholars. Based on the referencing style (e.g. APA, Harvard, MLA, Oxford), the report will be formatted. Further, we also format to ensure (1) to avoid plagiarism (2) to assign proper authority to a statement, (3) sentence structuring and finally adding a table of content, and Lists of Tables & Figures. Footnotes or endnotes are also being taken care by our formatting team.

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What’s on Your Bib? Annotated Bibliographies, Changing by Degrees

Series of books all laid out with pages open

The purpose of this article is to present an overview of why annotated bibliographies are needed in higher education, especially in doctoral education programs. The necessity for emerging scholars to build an annotated bibliography is paramount to the development of their research study. However, there are numerous types of annotated bibliographies. This article will discuss the different types of annotations and which format best facilitates the development of a ­­­­dissertation.

An annotated bibliography is a list of references supplemented with an analysis of the content of the source to reflect the utility of that source for a specific purpose (Capella University Writing Center, 2008; Stacks et al., 2018). The analysis can be focused notes, facts, or a critique of the quality or efficacy of the source. The reference information should include enough information that the reader can locate the source.

The purpose of the annotations always remains the same. An annotated bibliography develops, supports, and provides argumentation for developing a thesis. However, the annotated bibliography at the doctoral level is often used to prepare for writing a literature review and developing a research design as part of a dissertation. In this article, we present the need for doctoral annotations to be analytical in design, in order to facilitate dissertation writing.

Annotations in Higher Education

A bachelor’s degree provides foundational knowledge of broad and specific topical areas (U.S. Department of Education, 2008a). A bachelor’s-level annotated bibliography may gather foundational information from reviewed articles, books, and other sources. In some respects, the bachelor’s-level annotated bibliography is like a collection of brief book reports that describe what article, book, or other source contributed to a discussion of the theme. Annotation bibliographies at the undergraduate level should relate to a specific topic. The annotations should explain how the reviewed source relates to the topic. Karakey (2012) noted that, at a minimum, an annotated bibliography should identify the thesis and main claims or arguments of the source along with the relevance of the source to the topic of the annotated bibliography.

A master’s degree provides knowledge of broad and specific topical areas, often for application, and may be classified as professional or research-based degrees (U.S. Department of Education, 2008b). The master’s-level annotated bibliography typically gathers foundational information from reviewed articles, books, and other sources, including or adding relevant nuances for application. They often include foundational theories, models, or concepts and relevant topical background to demonstrate scope of knowledge of the topic (Torpey & Terrell, 2015).

A doctoral dissertation adds to the academic body of knowledge, including empirical research and foundational theories, models, or concepts, reflecting broad and specific topical areas (U.S. Department of Education, 2008c).   A doctoral-level annotated bibliography differs from an undergraduate and graduate annotated bibliography in that the annotation at this level includes elements of the research methodology, design, and foundational literature. Typically, a doctoral degree annotation should include sample size and strategy, assumptions and limitations, and opportunities for future research.

Types of Annotation

There are at least two major types of annotated bibliographies: descriptive and analytical (UMUCL, 2019). A descriptive annotation, sometimes referred to as a summative annotation, provides an overview or summary of the source. Descriptive annotations do not analyze the findings of the content. However, they should describe the methodology and design. These types of annotations may be stand-alone entries, or they may be comparative, referencing the other entries to give a total picture of how different articles on the topic are in conversation with each other.

An analytical, also referred to as evaluative, annotation summarizes the content, as well as analyzes the findings of the research. The author should present a narrative that includes the quality of the source and the argumentative position of the researcher. Length of annotations can also vary, from approximately 150-word paragraph to one- or two-page annotations, depending on the purpose. Doctoral level annotations typically are longer entries, given the depth of the annotation and analysis.

Annotation Format

Descriptive annotations often include three paragraphs, one for each summary element; analytical annotations are longer, depending on the purpose of the evaluation. Each annotation is for one source and should interpret the article within the theme or context. In a descriptive annotated bibliography, the annotation for each source should begin with a summary of the context and the key points of that source. The topic, method, design, foundational theory, model, or concept, and the conclusions of the study are included in this section.

Table 2 may be useful as a guide for the types of data a researcher might collect prior to drafting an annotated bibliography or literature review for an article or dissertation.

Table 2: Examples of columns that may be included in a data collection tool for an annotated bibliography

Knowing the purpose of the annotation is essential to compiling data from articles, books, and other sources for use in an annotated bibliography or literature review. If the purpose is to substantiate the need for a proposed empirical study or to craft a literature review for a dissertation, then more detail will be useful.

Dr. Donna Graham is a university professor and dissertation chair.   Dr. Graham holds a B.A. in Psychology and Education from Rosemont College, a M.S. in Counseling from Villanova University, a M.Ed. in Educational Technology from Rosemont College and a Doctorate in Philosophy from Capella University. 

Dr. John Bryan is a university professor, editor, and dissertation chair. Dr. Bryan holds a BA in Chemistry from University of California, San Diego, an MBA in Operations and Marketing from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey,  and a DBA in Leadership from the University of Phoenix.


Capella University. (2008). Annotated Bibliographies . Minneapolis, MN: Self. Retrieved from www.capella.edu/interactivemedia/onlineWritingCenter/downloads/annotatedBibliography.pdf

Kansas University. (2017). Bibliographie s. Retrieved from http://writing.ku.edu/bibliographies

Karakey, G. (2012). Annotated bibliography: Why you should prepare one [weblog]. Retrieved May 20, 2018 from karakey.com/phdadvice/annotated-bibliography-why-you-should-prepare-one/

Stacks, G., Karper, E., Bisignani, D., & Brizee, A. (2018). Annotated bibliographies . Purdue University. Retrieved May 20, 2018 from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/

Torpey, E., & Terrell, D.(2015). Should I get a master’s degree? Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2015/article/should-i-get-a-masters-degree.htm

University of New England. (n.d.). Writing an annotated bibliography . Retrieved from https://aso-resources.une.edu.au/assignment-types/writing-an-annotated-bibliography/

U.S. Department of Education. (2008a). Structure of the U.S. Education System: Bachelor’s Degrees . U.S. Department of Education: self. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about//offices/list/ous/international/usnei/bachelors.doc

U.S. Department of Education. (2008b). Structure of the U.S. Education System: Master’s Degrees . U.S. Department of Education: self. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about//offices/list/ous/international/usnei/master.doc

U.S. Department of Education. (2008c). Structure of the U.S. Education System: Research Doctorate Degrees . U.S. Department of Education: self. Retrieved from www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/doctorate.doc

University of Maryland University College Library (UMUCL). (2019). How to write an annotated bibliography. Largo, MD: Self. Retrieved from https://sites.umuc.edu/library/libhow/bibliography_tutorial.cfm

University Writing Center. (2018). Annotated bibliographies . Texas A&M University: self. Retrieved May 29, 2018 from http://writingcenter.tamu.edu/Students/Writing-Speaking-Guides/Alphabetical-List-of-Guides/Academic-Writing/Annotated-Bibliographies

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