Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips
What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips
Published on August 25, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on January 30, 2023.
Your research methodology discusses and explains the data collection and analysis methods you used in your research. A key part of your thesis, dissertation , or research paper , the methodology chapter explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of your research and your dissertation topic .
It should include:
- The type of research you conducted
- How you collected and analyzed your data
- Any tools or materials you used in the research
- How you mitigated or avoided research biases
- Why you chose these methods
- Your methodology section should generally be written in the past tense .
- Academic style guides in your field may provide detailed guidelines on what to include for different types of studies.
- Your citation style might provide guidelines for your methodology section (e.g., an APA Style methods section ).
Table of contents
How to write a research methodology, why is a methods section important, step 1: explain your methodological approach, step 2: describe your data collection methods, step 3: describe your analysis method, step 4: evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made, tips for writing a strong methodology chapter, frequently asked questions about methodology.
Your methods section is your opportunity to share how you conducted your research and why you chose the methods you chose. It’s also the place to show that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated .
It gives your research legitimacy and situates it within your field, and also gives your readers a place to refer to if they have any questions or critiques in other sections.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
You can start by introducing your overall approach to your research. You have two options here.
Option 1: Start with your “what”
What research problem or question did you investigate?
- Aim to describe the characteristics of something?
- Explore an under-researched topic?
- Establish a causal relationship?
And what type of data did you need to achieve this aim?
- Quantitative data , qualitative data , or a mix of both?
- Primary data collected yourself, or secondary data collected by someone else?
- Experimental data gathered by controlling and manipulating variables, or descriptive data gathered via observations?
Option 2: Start with your “why”
Depending on your discipline, you can also start with a discussion of the rationale and assumptions underpinning your methodology. In other words, why did you choose these methods for your study?
- Why is this the best way to answer your research question?
- Is this a standard methodology in your field, or does it require justification?
- Were there any ethical considerations involved in your choices?
- What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research ? How did you prevent bias from affecting your data?
Once you have introduced your reader to your methodological approach, you should share full details about your data collection methods .
In order to be considered generalizable, you should describe quantitative research methods in enough detail for another researcher to replicate your study.
Here, explain how you operationalized your concepts and measured your variables. Discuss your sampling method or inclusion and exclusion criteria , as well as any tools, procedures, and materials you used to gather your data.
Surveys Describe where, when, and how the survey was conducted.
- How did you design the questionnaire?
- What form did your questions take (e.g., multiple choice, Likert scale )?
- Were your surveys conducted in-person or virtually?
- What sampling method did you use to select participants?
- What was your sample size and response rate?
Experiments Share full details of the tools, techniques, and procedures you used to conduct your experiment.
- How did you design the experiment ?
- How did you recruit participants?
- How did you manipulate and measure the variables ?
- What tools did you use?
Existing data Explain how you gathered and selected the material (such as datasets or archival data) that you used in your analysis.
- Where did you source the material?
- How was the data originally produced?
- What criteria did you use to select material (e.g., date range)?
The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions measured on a 7-point Likert scale.
The goal was to collect survey responses from 350 customers visiting the fitness apparel company’s brick-and-mortar location in Boston on July 4–8, 2022, between 11:00 and 15:00.
Here, a customer was defined as a person who had purchased a product from the company on the day they took the survey. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously. In total, 408 customers responded, but not all surveys were fully completed. Due to this, 371 survey results were included in the analysis.
- Information bias
- Omitted variable bias
- Regression to the mean
- Survivorship bias
- Undercoverage bias
- Sampling bias
In qualitative research , methods are often more flexible and subjective. For this reason, it’s crucial to robustly explain the methodology choices you made.
Be sure to discuss the criteria you used to select your data, the context in which your research was conducted, and the role you played in collecting your data (e.g., were you an active participant, or a passive observer?)
Interviews or focus groups Describe where, when, and how the interviews were conducted.
- How did you find and select participants?
- How many participants took part?
- What form did the interviews take ( structured , semi-structured , or unstructured )?
- How long were the interviews?
- How were they recorded?
Participant observation Describe where, when, and how you conducted the observation or ethnography .
- What group or community did you observe? How long did you spend there?
- How did you gain access to this group? What role did you play in the community?
- How long did you spend conducting the research? Where was it located?
- How did you record your data (e.g., audiovisual recordings, note-taking)?
Existing data Explain how you selected case study materials for your analysis.
- What type of materials did you analyze?
- How did you select them?
In order to gain better insight into possibilities for future improvement of the fitness store’s product range, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 returning customers.
Here, a returning customer was defined as someone who usually bought products at least twice a week from the store.
Surveys were used to select participants. Interviews were conducted in a small office next to the cash register and lasted approximately 20 minutes each. Answers were recorded by note-taking, and seven interviews were also filmed with consent. One interviewee preferred not to be filmed.
- The Hawthorne effect
- Observer bias
- The placebo effect
- Response bias and Nonresponse bias
- The Pygmalion effect
- Recall bias
- Social desirability bias
- Self-selection bias
Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. If a standalone quantitative or qualitative study is insufficient to answer your research question, mixed methods may be a good fit for you.
Mixed methods are less common than standalone analyses, largely because they require a great deal of effort to pull off successfully. If you choose to pursue mixed methods, it’s especially important to robustly justify your methods.
Next, you should indicate how you processed and analyzed your data. Avoid going into too much detail: you should not start introducing or discussing any of your results at this stage.
In quantitative research , your analysis will be based on numbers. In your methods section, you can include:
- How you prepared the data before analyzing it (e.g., checking for missing data , removing outliers , transforming variables)
- Which software you used (e.g., SPSS, Stata or R)
- Which statistical tests you used (e.g., two-tailed t test , simple linear regression )
In qualitative research, your analysis will be based on language, images, and observations (often involving some form of textual analysis ).
Specific methods might include:
- Content analysis : Categorizing and discussing the meaning of words, phrases and sentences
- Thematic analysis : Coding and closely examining the data to identify broad themes and patterns
- Discourse analysis : Studying communication and meaning in relation to their social context
Mixed methods combine the above two research methods, integrating both qualitative and quantitative approaches into one coherent analytical process.
Above all, your methodology section should clearly make the case for why you chose the methods you did. This is especially true if you did not take the most standard approach to your topic. In this case, discuss why other methods were not suitable for your objectives, and show how this approach contributes new knowledge or understanding.
In any case, it should be overwhelmingly clear to your reader that you set yourself up for success in terms of your methodology’s design. Show how your methods should lead to results that are valid and reliable, while leaving the analysis of the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results for your discussion section .
- Quantitative: Lab-based experiments cannot always accurately simulate real-life situations and behaviors, but they are effective for testing causal relationships between variables .
- Qualitative: Unstructured interviews usually produce results that cannot be generalized beyond the sample group , but they provide a more in-depth understanding of participants’ perceptions, motivations, and emotions.
- Mixed methods: Despite issues systematically comparing differing types of data, a solely quantitative study would not sufficiently incorporate the lived experience of each participant, while a solely qualitative study would be insufficiently generalizable.
Remember that your aim is not just to describe your methods, but to show how and why you applied them. Again, it’s critical to demonstrate that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated.
1. Focus on your objectives and research questions
The methodology section should clearly show why your methods suit your objectives and convince the reader that you chose the best possible approach to answering your problem statement and research questions .
2. Cite relevant sources
Your methodology can be strengthened by referencing existing research in your field. This can help you to:
- Show that you followed established practice for your type of research
- Discuss how you decided on your approach by evaluating existing research
- Present a novel methodological approach to address a gap in the literature
3. Write for your audience
Consider how much information you need to give, and avoid getting too lengthy. If you are using methods that are standard for your discipline, you probably don’t need to give a lot of background or justification.
Regardless, your methodology should be a clear, well-structured text that makes an argument for your approach, not just a list of technical details and procedures.
Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.
Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyze data (for example, experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).
In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .
In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.
In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .
Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.
Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.
Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.
Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something:
- Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
- Validity refers to the accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).
If you are doing experimental research, you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment.
A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.
In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. & George, T. (2023, January 30). What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips. Scribbr. Retrieved March 1, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/methodology/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, what is a theoretical framework | guide to organizing, what is a research design | types, guide & examples, qualitative vs. quantitative research | differences, examples & methods, what is your plagiarism score.
- +44 (0) 207 391 9032
- Overcoming Emotional Problems Whilst Studying
- A guide to mature finance, funding and affordability
- 6 things to consider when choosing the right postgraduate course for you
- The Viva Exam: things to consider when preparing for your exam
- Four types of essay explained
- Top tips for meeting urgent essay deadlines
- How to embrace university as a mature student
- Dissertation vs thesis: what’s the difference?
- Everything you need to know about postgraduate study
- Being a university student during COVID-19
- Academic News
- Custom Essays
- Dissertation Writing
- Essay Marking
- Essay Writing
- Essay Writing Companies
- Model Essays
- Model Exam Answers
- Oxbridge Essays Updates
- PhD Writing
- Significant Academics
- Student News
- Study Skills
- University Applications
- University Essays
- University Life
- Writing Tips
Writing your dissertation methodology
(Last updated: 12 May 2021)
Since 2006, Oxbridge Essays has been the UK’s leading paid essay-writing and dissertation service
We have helped 10,000s of undergraduate, Masters and PhD students to maximise their grades in essays, dissertations, model-exam answers, applications and other materials. If you would like a free chat about your project with one of our UK staff, then please just reach out on one of the methods below.
What is a methodology?
Your methodology section appears immediately after the literature review in your dissertation, and should flow organically from it. Up until the point of writing your methodology, you will have defined your research question and conducted a detailed review of what other scholars in the field have to say about your topic. You’ll have also reviewed the ways in which these scholars have arrived at their conclusions – the assumptions on which their work is based, the theoretical frameworks they've used, and the methods they've used to gather, marshal and present their data. You will have used these observations, along with discussions with your supervisor, to plan how you're going to tackle your research question. This could be planning how you'll gather data, or what models you'll use to process it, or what philosophical positions most inform your work. Following this, your dissertation methodology provides a detailed account of both how you'll approach your dissertation and why you've taken the decision to approach it in the way you have.
What should my methodology look like?
Your methodology needs to establish a clear relationship between your research question, the existing scholarship in your field that you have surveyed as part of your literature review, and the means by which you'll come to your conclusions. Therefore, no matter what subject area you're working in, your methodology section will include the following:
Key to justifying your methodology is demonstrating that it is fit for the purpose of answering the research problem or questions you posed at the start. You should recap the key questions you want to answer when introducing your methodology, but this doesn't have to be a word-for-word restatement; you might want to reword the problem in a way that bridges your literature review and methodology.
This is the heart of the methodology but is not, by itself, a methodology. This is the part of your methodology where you clearly explain your process for gathering and analysing data, or for approaching your research question. This should be clear and detailed enough that another scholar is able to read it and apply it in some way, outside of the immediate context of your dissertation. If you're offering a new theoretical take on a literary work or a philosophical problem, your reader should be able to understand your theory enough that they can apply it to another text or problem. If you're describing a scientific experiment, your reader should have all they need to recreate your experiment in a lab. If you're introducing a new type of statistical model, your reader should be able to apply this model to their own data set after reading your methodology section.
Your methodology doesn't just describe your method; it discusses the reasons why you've chosen it, and why you believe it will yield the best results, the most insightful set of analyses and conclusions, or the most innovative perspective. This will draw in part from your literature review , presenting your choices as informed and rooted in sound scholarship, while ideally also displaying innovation and creativity. You should also ensure that you relate the rationale for your method explicitly to your research problem; it should be very clear to your reader that the methodology you've chosen is a thoughtful and tailored response to the questions you're trying to answer.
No research method is perfect, and it's likely that the one you've chosen comes with certain trade-offs. You might, for instance, have chosen a small-scale set of interviews because the individual perspectives of a set of interviewees on the problem you're exploring is more valuable to you than a larger set of data about responses to the same question. But that means you've nevertheless sacrificed a quantitative approach to your problem that might have yielded its own set of important insights. Be honest and upfront – but not apologetic – about the limitations of your chosen method, and be ready to justify why it's the best approach for your purposes.
While the outline of your methodology section will look much the same regardless of your discipline, the details are liable to be quite different depending on the subject area in which you're studying. Let's take a look at some of the most common types of dissertation, and the information required in a methodology section for each of them.
Common types of dissertation methodology
A scientific study The methodology section for a scientific study needs to emphasise rigour and reproducibility above all else. Your methods must appear robust to the reader, with no obvious flaws in the design or execution. You should not only include the necessary information about your equipment, lab setup, and procedure to allow another researcher to reproduce your method; you should also demonstrate that you've factored any variables that are likely to distort your data (for example, by introducing false positives into your design), and that you have a plan to handle these either in collecting, analysing, or drawing conclusions from your data.
Your methodology should also include details of – and justifications for – the statistical models you'll use to analyse your data. Remember that a scholar might use any single part of your methodology as a departure point for their own work; they might follow your experiment design but choose a different model for analysing the results, or vice versa!
A study in the social or behavioural sciences As with a scientific study, a social or behavioural sciences methodology needs to demonstrate both rigour and reproducibility, allowing another researcher to reproduce your study in whole or in part for their own ends. However, the complexity of working with human subjects means there are a number of additional questions to consider. First of all, you'll want to answer certain broad questions about the kind of analysis you're undertaking: is it qualitative or quantitative, or a mixed approach that uses qualitative data to provide context and background to quantitative data (or vice versa)? Will you be conducting recorded interviews with your subjects, asking them to complete a written questionnaire, or observing them undertaking some activity or other? Or will you avoid doing your own research with human subjects at all, and base your research on documentary evidence or a pre-existing data set? What is the scope of your data and conclusions? Is there reason to believe it can be generalised to other contexts, or is it highly specific to the particular location or cultural context in which you conducted your research?
In addition to answering all these questions, you must satisfy your reader that you have considered all the ethical questions associated with your research. Part of this, of course, entails obtaining sign-off for your design from the appropriate ethics bodies, but even then there might be aspects of your study – inviting subjects to relive episodes of grief and trauma, for instance, or broaching culturally sensitive matters within a particular target group – that some readers could consider contentious or problematic. Make sure you address such concerns head-on, and if necessary justify your methods by emphasising the potential value of your conclusions.
A critical dissertation in the arts or humanities Methodological rigour is just as valuable in the arts and humanities as in the sciences and social sciences. However, if you're writing an arts or humanities dissertation the way in which you convey this rigour – and convince your audience of it - is a little different. The methodology section in an arts or humanities dissertation is likely to be much more closely linked to the literature review than a scientific or social sciences study; even the most innovative dissertation in the arts or humanities typically involves applying X's theories in a new context, or combining X and Y's insights to yield a new theoretical framework. For this reason it can be tempting to gloss over the methodology section in an arts or humanities dissertation, and move more or less seamlessly from literature review into analysis. But it's crucial that you provide a detailed justification of your chosen frameworks and how they relate to your research question here too; without this justification a critical reader may very well take issue with your entire analysis because you've failed to convince them of the appropriateness of your theoretical underpinnings to the material you're analysing.
In particular, it's vitally important that your dissertation methodology shows an appreciation of the historical and cultural contexts of the theoretical frameworks you use, especially where there's fundamental disagreement between theorists. If you use the work of theorists from differing or even opposing schools of thought to support your readings, your methodology section should show a clear understanding of how these schools of thought disagree and a justification of why there are nevertheless aspects of each approach that you've decided to use in your own work.
A creative arts dissertation Many programmes in the arts offer the option of completing a creative rather than critical dissertation; that is, of submitting a piece of creative writing or a portfolio of artworks, rather than an extended critical project, for the dissertation component of the programme. However, in virtually all cases, your creative project must be accompanied by a substantial critical essay (or introduction, or commentary) that theorises your creative practice. Critically engaging with one's own work is a notoriously difficult thing to do, which makes the development and adherence to a rigorous methodology especially important in this context. You need to not only show that you're capable of detaching yourself from your own creative work and viewing it through an objective lens, but that you are able to see your own creative practice as methodology – as a method of creating work that is grounded in theory and research and that can be evaluated against clear target goals.
What should my methodology not contain?
No part of your dissertation should be hermetically sealed off from the others, and there will undoubtedly be some overlap between your methodology and literature review section, for example. You might even find yourself moving material back and forth between sections during edits. But you should resist the temptation to include the following in your dissertation methodology, even if they seem to belong there quite naturally:
It's likely you'll want to refer to precedents for your dissertation methodology, and to the theorists or practitioners upon whose work it is based, as you describe your own methodology. However, this is not the place for an exhaustive review of methodologies you're not using – that work belongs in your literature review chapter , and you should refer back to that chapter for context on why you're taking (or not taking) a particular approach.
Your methodology section should equip a reader to reproduce your research, but it should also be a readable chapter of your dissertation and should retain the interest of somebody who doesn't necessarily want to reproduce your experiment from start to finish. If it's possible to convey all the information another scholar would need in order to recreate your work in the body of your dissertation, do so; however if your methodology section starts to look like a shopping list, you should move some very detailed content into an appendix and refer to that.
The methodology section is not the place to reproduce any data, even if you're illustrating how a questionnaire or other data-gathering mechanic works. Again, you can place such information in an appendix and refer to it.
Deciding on your methodology
When you start your dissertation project, you may already have some broad ideas about the methodology you want to use. You'll refine these ideas in conversation with your supervisor and develop them further as you read about the previous work that has been done in your field, and other scholars' approach to your subject area. If you're completing a postgraduate dissertation , the chances are you already have a broad awareness of the different theoretical positions and schools of thought in your field, and you may well have a good idea of the schools of thought with which you most closely identify (and, just as importantly, those you don't identify with). If you're writing an undergraduate dissertation , this may very well be the first time you've been asked to engage with such a broad field of literature, and categorising this into distinct approaches and schools of thought may seem like an overwhelming task at first.
Regardless of your level, your dissertation methodology will develop as you review the literature in your field and refine your initial research questions. Your literature review and methodology will therefore develop in tandem with each other. Your response to the literature will help you decide on the approach you want to take to your research question, but your methodology will probably already be decided by the time you actually write up your literature review, meaning that you can frame it so as to position the methodology as a clear, organic and natural progression from your survey of the field. It should be noted, of course, that your methodology won't only be determined by the modes of inquiry or schools of thought that appeal to you most; there are likely to be practical considerations that determine how you approach your problem. Unless you happen to have access to a particle accelerator at your university, the chances are your quantum physics project will be based on theoretical projections rather than physical experimental data.
What makes a great methodology?
The answer to this question depends in part upon whether you're writing an undergraduate or postgraduate dissertation. For most students, an undergraduate dissertation is their first opportunity to engage in detail with scholarship in their fields and to design and conduct a rigorous research project. In an undergraduate dissertation, you therefore need to show a capacity to engage with a broad field of research, to synthesise diverse and even opposing approaches to a problem, and to distil this down into a design for a research project that will address your research questions with the appropriate level of scholarly level. The ability to synthesise what you've learned from scholars in your discipline, and to shape that into a methodology that you can use to shed light on your research question, is, therefore, key to a successful undergraduate dissertation. The best undergraduate dissertations will of course show originality of thought and may even be able to make an original contribution to their field – but the focus will generally be on demonstrating that you have the fundamental research skills to undertake investigative work in your field.
"The ability to synthesise what you've learned from scholars in your discipline, and to shape that into a methodology that sheds light on your research question, is key to a successful undergraduate dissertation."
A postgraduate dissertation , by contrast, can be expected to make a substantial contribution of high-quality, original research to its field. The best postgraduate dissertations will be publishable by leading journals, or even as scholarly monographs. As you build your career as an early career researcher, the impact of your dissertation on its field – as measured by citations in the work of other scholars – will be crucial to enhancing your academic reputation. It's important to remember that the dissertation's value to other scholars won't just be its findings or conclusions, and that your research's emerging importance to the field will be measured by the number of scholars who engage with it, not those who agree with it. Although some scholars may well cite your conclusions as a basis for their own work, a far greater number of citations is likely to result (regardless of discipline) from your development of a framework that other scholars can use as a point of departure for their own work. If you've come up with a methodology that is both original and grounded in the research, this will probably be the aspect of your work that other scholars value the most. Their own work might build upon, develop or modify your methodology in some way; they might apply your methodology to a different data set in order to contest your findings, or they might even take it and apply it in a new context that hadn't even occurred to you!
The best postgraduate dissertations are those that convince at every level – that are based on a rigorous engagement with the field, that develop reproducible frameworks for engaging with that field, and that supply high-quality and convincing results and conclusions. But the methodology is the central point around which the dissertation – and its potential impact to the field – pivots. When developing and presenting your dissertation methodology, you should therefore think not just about how well it can answer your particular question, but also about how transferable it is – whether it can be used by other scholars to answer related questions, or whether it can be made more adaptable with just a few tweaks (without compromising your own use of it, of course). And when presenting your dissertation, don't forget to emphasise the value of the methodological framework you develop, if it is indeed adaptable to other related contexts. You're underselling your research if you suggest its only value lies in its conclusions, when the approach it takes to your data or source material in arriving at those conclusions is potentially of equal if not greater value.
Presenting your methodology
Your dissertation methodology, as we've now discussed in some detail, is the engine that drives your dissertation, and as such it needs to be grounded, theoretically rigorous, and, where possible, sufficiently adaptable to be used in other contexts to answer different research questions within your field. However, in focusing on all this it's easy to forget that all dissertations – even the seemingly driest, most scientific of them – are fundamentally pieces of persuasive writing: their primary purpose is to convince readers of the quality of your research, the validity of your methods, and the merit of your conclusions. A crucial but often neglected component of this persuasive function is the role of rhetoric in persuading your audience of the merits of your work. Rhetoric has acquired something of a bad name in mainstream discourse (phrases like "pure rhetoric" or "empty rhetoric" tend to signify superficiality and/or dishonesty – and certainly nothing positive!) but it's an important component of all types of academic writing, and it's particularly valuable when you're attempting to convince your reader of the validity of a particular choice – like your choice of methodology.
In their seminal book on scholarly writing, "They Say / I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing , Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein discuss what they call the art of metacommentary, "a way of commenting on your claims and telling others how – and how not – to think about them". This kind of commentary allows you to control the agenda for discussion of your work, and to head off potential objections to your arguments and methods at the pass. Sound rhetorical presentation of your methodology is not just "decoration" – it forms an integral part of its overall rigour and structural soundness, and can make the difference between a 2:1 and a First, or between a merit and a Distinction. Here are some of the ways in which you can use metacommentary to shape your audience's response to your methodology.
The roads not taken It's very likely that the approach you've taken to your research question is one of many approaches you could have taken – and in your literature review you probably engaged with or read about lots of approaches that, for one reason or another, you decided not to take. Your methodology chapter is not the place to go into detail about these methodologies (hopefully your literature review does this), but you should remind your reader that you actively considered these other methodologies before deciding on your own. Even if you decided on your methodology early on in your research process, it should appear rhetorically as the result of a careful weighing of competing factors, before you decided on the most logical choice.
A little reassurance goes a long way Judicious use of metacommentary can also help to make up for any shortcomings in your methodology section, or simply create a sense of balance between scholarly groundedness and innovation if your methodology might seem to veer a little too much in one direction or another. If your methodology takes a bold new step that some may find off-putting, you can acknowledge this whilst taking extra care to emphasise its grounded relationship to established work in the field. You might, for instance, ensure that you refer back to your literature review frequently and use phrases like, "This approach may seem like a significant departure from established approaches to this field, but it combines the proven data-gathering techniques of X with the statistical analysis model of Y, along with the following innovations". Conversely, if your methodology is mostly derivative or a synthesis of what has come before, use the opportunity to spell out why this synthesis is in itself innovative, for example, "This project's key innovation does not lie in its approach to human subjects or in the statistical models it employs, but rather in the combination of approach of theory X and approach Y to problem Z”.
Signposting Flagging what each section of an argument is doing is vital throughout the dissertation, but nowhere more so than in the methodology section. You can significantly strengthen the justification you provide for your dissertation methodology by referring back to your literature review and reminding your reader of conclusions you've drawn – and if you're feeling really confident you can gently hint to your readers that they agreed with you, using a formulation like, "As we have seen, method X is extremely useful for approaching questions related to Y, but less applicable to problem Z". You should be careful with this approach, of course – claiming you've proved something when this transparently isn't the case isn't going to bring your readers onside – but if your argumentation is already strong, rhetorical techniques like this can help underline the structural coherence of your work.
Defining your own terms If you don't define your own measures for success and failure, readers can infer from the overall structure of your argument the terms on which it was trying to succeed, and judge it accordingly. On the other hand, defining your own set of success criteria and help (within reason) helps to ensure that your readers evaluate your work on these terms. Again, your dissertation methodology is a critical space in which to establish these criteria: "This research does not make any claims about human social behaviour while consuming alcohol beyond the current context of X. It may, however, be possible to adapt the methodology to examine similar phenomena in contexts Y and Z”. By the same token, you can also prevent your readers from drawing unintended inferences from your work by anticipating them: "By adopting this methodology I am not suggesting that the statistical analysis of responses will be a reliable predictor of X; I do, however, believe that the strong correlation between Y and Z is in and of itself a valuable insight”.
10 tips on writing a dissertation literature review
Dissertation introduction, conclusion and abstract
How to write a dissertation proposal
- dissertation help
- dissertation methodology
- dissertation tips
- dissertation writing
- study skills
- writing tips
- Essay Writing Services
- Dissertation Writing Services
- Essay Plans
- PhD Proposals
- Proofreading Service
- Editing Service
- Academic Editing Service
- Marking Services
- Consultation Calls
- Personal Statements
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Fair Use Policy
- Policy for Students in England
- Become a Writer
- Affiliate Login
- Terms & Conditions
- How it works
Research Methods for Dissertation
Published by Carmen Troy at August 13th, 2021 , Revised On January 9, 2023
What are the different research methods for the dissertation, and which one should I use?
Choosing the right research method for a dissertation is a grinding and perplexing aspect of the dissertation research process. A well-defined research methodology helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the results of your research, and makes sure that the study you’re conducting answers the set research questions .
The research title, research questions, hypothesis , objectives, and study area generally determine the best research method in the dissertation.
This post’s primary purpose is to highlight what these different types of research methods involve and how you should decide which type of research fits the bill. As you read through this article, think about which one of these research methods will be the most appropriate for your research.
The practical, personal, and academic reasons for choosing any particular method of research are also analyzed. You will find our explanation of experimental, descriptive, historical, quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methods useful regardless of your field of study.
While choosing the right method of research for your own research, you need to:
- Understand the difference between research methods and methodology .
- Think about your research topic, research questions, and research objectives to make an intelligent decision.
- Know about various types of research methods so that you can choose the most suitable and convenient method as per your research requirements.
Research Methodology Vs. Research Methods
A well-defined research methodology helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the results of your research, and makes sure that the study you are conducting answers the set research questions .
Research methods are the techniques and procedures used for conducting research. Choosing the right research method for your writing is an important aspect of the research process .
You need to either collect data or talk to the people while conducting any research. The research methods can be classified based on this distinction.
Hire an Expert Writer
Proposal and dissertation orders completed by our expert writers are
- Formally drafted in an academic style
- Plagiarism free
- 100% Confidential
- Never Resold
- Include unlimited free revisions
- Completed to match exact client requirements
Types of Research Methods
Research methods are broadly divided into six main categories.
Experimental Research Methods
Experimental research includes the experiments conducted in the laboratory or observation under controlled conditions. Researchers try to study human behavior by performing various experiments. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons. It includes three types of variables;
- Independent variable
- Dependent variable
- Controlled variable
Types of Experimental Methods
The experiments were conducted in the laboratory. Researchers have control over the variables of the experiment.
The experiments were conducted in the open field and environment of the participants by incorporating a few artificial changes. Researchers do not have control over variables under measurement. Participants know that they are taking part in the experiment.
The experiment is conducted in the natural environment of the participants. The participants are generally not informed about the experiment being conducted on them.
Example : Estimating the health condition of the population.
A quasi-experiment is an experiment that takes advantage of natural occurrences. Researchers cannot assign random participants to groups.
Example: Comparing the academic performance of the two schools.
What data collection best suits your research?
- Find out by hiring an expert from Research Prospect today!
- Despite how challenging the subject may be, we are here to help you.
Descriptive Research Methods
Descriptive research aims at collecting the information to answer the current affairs. It follows the Ex post facto research, which predicts the possible reasons behind the situation that has already occurred. It aims to answer questions like how, what, when, where, and what rather than ‘why.’
Historical Research Methods
In historical research , an investigator collects, analyzes the information to understand, describe, and explain the events that occurred in the past. Researchers try to find out what happened exactly during a certain period of time as accurately and as closely as possible. It does not allow any manipulation or control of variables.
Quantitative Research Methods
Quantitative research is associated with numerical data or data that can be measured. It is used to study a large group of population. The information is gathered by performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.
Quantitative research isn’t simply based on statistical analysis or quantitative techniques but rather uses a certain approach to theory to address research hypotheses or research questions, establish an appropriate research methodology, and draw findings & conclusions .
Some most commonly employed quantitative research strategies include data-driven dissertations, theory-driven studies, and reflection-driven research. Regardless of the chosen approach, there are some common quantitative research features as listed below.
- Quantitative research is based on testing or building on existing theories proposed by other researchers whilst taking a reflective or extensive route.
- Quantitative research aims to test the research hypothesis or answer established research questions.
- It is primarily justified by positivist or post-positivist research paradigms.
- The research design can be relationship-based, quasi-experimental, experimental, or descriptive.
- It draws on a small sample to make generalizations to a wider population using probability sampling techniques.
- Quantitative data is gathered according to the established research questions and using research vehicles such as structured observation, structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and laboratory results.
- The researcher uses statistical analysis tools and techniques to measure variables and gather inferential or descriptive data. In some cases, your tutor or members of the dissertation committee might find it easier to verify your study results with numbers and statistical analysis.
- The accuracy of the study results is based on external and internal validity and the authenticity of the data used.
- Quantitative research answers research questions or tests the hypothesis using charts, graphs, tables, data, and statements.
- It underpins research questions or hypotheses and findings to make conclusions.
- The researcher can provide recommendations for future research and expand or test existing theories.
Confused between qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis? No idea what discourse and content analysis are?
We hear you.
- Whether you want a full dissertation written or need help forming a dissertation proposal, we can help you with both.
- Get different dissertation services at Research Prospect and score amazing grades!
At Research Prospect, our expert writers can help you with your quantitative dissertation whether you are a sports science student, medical or biological science, education or business, psychology, social sciences, engineering, project management, or any other science-based degree. We guarantee 100% commitment, 100% Plagiarism-free work, 100% Confidentiality and 100% Satisfaction
Qualitative Research Methods
It is a type of scientific research where a researcher collects evidence to seek answers to a question . It is associated with studying human behaviour from an informative perspective. It aims at obtaining in-depth details of the problem.
As the term suggests, qualitative research is based on qualitative research methods, including participants’ observations, focus groups, and unstructured interviews.
Qualitative research is very different in nature when compared to quantitative research. It takes an established path towards the research process , how research questions are set up, how existing theories are built upon, what research methods are employed, and how the findings are unveiled to the readers.
You may adopt conventional methods, including phenomenological research, narrative-based research, grounded theory research, ethnographies , case studies , and auto-ethnographies.
Again, regardless of the chosen approach to qualitative research, your dissertation will have unique key features as listed below.
- The research questions that you aim to answer will expand or even change as the dissertation writing process continues. This aspect of the research is typically known as an emergent design where the research objectives evolve with time.
- Qualitative research may use existing theories to cultivate new theoretical understandings or fall back on existing theories to support the research process. However, the original goal of testing a certain theoretical understanding remains the same.
- It can be based on various research models, such as critical theory, constructivism, and interpretivism.
- The chosen research design largely influences the analysis and discussion of results and the choices you make. Research design depends on the adopted research path: phenomenological research, narrative-based research, grounded theory-based research, ethnography, case study-based research, or auto-ethnography.
- Qualitative research answers research questions with theoretical sampling, where data gathered from an organization or people are studied.
- It involves various research methods to gather qualitative data from participants belonging to the field of study. As indicated previously, some of the most notable qualitative research methods include participant observation, focus groups, and unstructured interviews .
- It incorporates an inductive process where the researcher analyses and understands the data through his own eyes and judgments to identify concepts and themes that comprehensively depict the researched material.
- The key quality characteristics of qualitative research are transferability, conformity, confirmability, and reliability.
- Results and discussions are largely based on narratives, case study and personal experiences, which help detect inconsistencies, observations, processes, and ideas.s
- Qualitative research discusses theoretical concepts obtained from the results whilst taking research questions and/or hypotheses to draw general conclusions .
Now that you know the unique differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods, you may want to learn a bit about primary and secondary research methods.
Here is an article that will help you distinguish between primary and secondary research and decide whether you need to use quantitative and/or qualitative primary research methods in your dissertation.
Alternatively, you can base your dissertation on secondary research, which is descriptive and explanatory in essence.
Types of Qualitative Research Methods
Action research aims at finding an immediate solution to a problem. The researchers can also act as the participants of the research. It is used in the educational field.
A case study includes data collection from multiple sources over time. It is widely used in social sciences to study the underlying information, organization, community, or event. It does not provide any solution to the problem. Researchers cannot act as the participants of the research.
In this type of research, the researcher examines the people in their natural environment. Ethnographers spend time with people to study people and their culture closely. They can consult the literature before conducting the study.
Mixed Methods of Research
When you combine quantitative and qualitative methods of research, the resulting approach becomes mixed methods of research.
Over the last few decades, much of the research in academia has been conducted using mixed methods because of the greater legitimacy this particular technique has gained for several reasons including the feeling that combining the two types of research can provide holistic and more dependable results.
Here is what mixed methods of research involve:
- Interpreting and investigating the information gathered through quantitative and qualitative techniques.
- There could be more than one stage of research. Depending on the research topic, occasionally it would be more appropriate to perform qualitative research in the first stage to figure out and investigate a problem to unveil key themes; and conduct quantitative research in stage two of the process for measuring relationships between the themes.
Note: However, this method has one prominent limitation, which is, as previously mentioned, combining qualitative and quantitative research can be difficult because they both are different in terms of design and approach. In many ways, they are contrasting styles of research, and so care must be exercised when basing your dissertation on mixed methods of research.
When choosing a research method for your own dissertation, it would make sense to carefully think about your research topic , research questions , and research objectives to make an intelligent decision in terms of the philosophy of research design .
Dissertations based on mixed methods of research can be the hardest to tackle even for PhD students.
Our writers have years of experience in writing flawless and to the point mixed methods-based dissertations to be confident that the dissertation they write for you will be according to the technical requirements and the formatting guidelines.
Read our guarantees to learn more about how you can improve your grades with our dissertation services.
FAQs About Research Methods for Dissertations
What is the difference between research methodology and research methods.
Research methodology helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the results of your research and makes sure that the study you are conducting answers the set research questions.
Research methods are the techniques and procedures used for conducting research. Choosing the right research method for your writing is an important aspect of the research process.
What are the types of research methods?
The types of research methods include:
- Experimental research methods.
- Descriptive research methods
- Historical Research methods
What is a quantitative research method?
Quantitative research is associated with numerical data or data that can be measured. It is used to study a large group of population. The information is gathered by performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.
What is a qualitative research method?
It is a type of scientific research where a researcher collects evidence to seek answers to a question . It is associated with studying human behavior from an informative perspective. It aims at obtaining in-depth details of the problem.
What is meant by mixed methods research?
Mixed methods of research involve:
- There could be more than one stage of research. Depending on the research topic, occasionally, it would be more appropriate to perform qualitative research in the first stage to figure out and investigate a problem to unveil key themes; and conduct quantitative research in stage two of the process for measuring relationships between the themes.
You May Also Like
Disadvantages of primary research – It can be expensive, time-consuming and take a long time to complete if it involves face-to-face contact with customers.
Quantitative research is associated with measurable numerical data. Qualitative research is where a researcher collects evidence to seek answers to a question.
A case study is a detailed analysis of a situation concerning organizations, industries, and markets. The case study generally aims at identifying the weak areas.
Ready to place an order?
Useful links, learning resources.
- How It Works
Thank you for your interest in our company.
Unfortunately, we are not hiring writers now due to low season.
We will be glad to review your application in the future.
Make sure there's no plagiarism in your paper
Write your essays better and faster with free samples
Generate citations for your paper free of charge
Everything About Dissertation Methodology
Updated 05 Dec 2022
Dissertations are highly important not only as standard evaluation tools in awarding degrees to undergraduates, Masters, or PhD students – these are also important because they teach students how to work with academic literature and information sources within their fields, how to analyse, integrate, present complex data from different sources, how to properly cite evidence, formulate research goals, objectives, hypotheses, etc. Importantly, they also teach students to work with dissertation methodology – an ability that is of great use in the information society.
What Is Dissertation Methodology?
A methodology section is the dissertation part that answers two key questions: how exactly research is performed and why exactly it is performed the way it is? These questions address: data collection techniques, sampling techniques, data analysis strategies, theoretical frameworks used to model processes and phenomena – their use must be justified considering alternative techniques/ methods. A proper dissertation methodology structure is expected to:
- List the original research questions and argue that the methods used are suitable for approaching these questions, based on what is known from literature.
- Inlist and describe methods, models, design strategies, statistical methods, data analysis pipelines, etc. in such a manner that they can be applied by others outside the immediate context of this project.
- Present explanations and arguments supporting utilisation of these methods to the detriment of alternative ones. Careful consideration must be taken to select reliable methods (or innovative methods with big potential) that are able to address the research questions.
- Describe the pros and cons of selected methods. It must be clear that you are aware of both the advantages and trade-offs but nevertheless consider that these methods will perform best when compared to others.
Common Types of Dissertation Methodology
Depending on the discipline, one can distinguish several types of studies:
Methods should be described precisely, concisely, comprehensively, without leaving place for speculation – all these to prioritize transparency and reproducibility. Such studies normally list and describe, equipment, techniques, model organisms, experimental designs, including various controls.
Studies in social or behavioural sciences
These studies might use qualitative, quantitative, or mixed approaches, particularly surveys, interviews, observation, controlled experiments. Methods must be compliant with ethical norms as stated, for instance, by the Research Ethics Service supports ethical research in the NHS.
Critical dissertations in arts or humanities
Here, methodology is not as defined as in scientific works, but is still required. Methods may be represented by innovative and creative theoretical frameworks, for instance, combining different schools of thought, or by application of a certain framework in a new context – all these need to be clearly justified.
Creative arts dissertations
Some international programs in arts require a creative sample or portfolio of written or visual artwork along with a critical auto-evaluation text that tries to make authors take a detached perspective and reflect on the methodology of creating their own art.
5 Common Dissertation Research Methods
The methodology section of dissertation is typically a combination of methods, many of which are discipline-specific. Some frequently employed methods are as follows:
These are direct face-to-face (or telephone/ Internet) conversations in which comprehensive and personal answers can be provided, which qualifies them as primarily qualitative methods. Questions can be adaptive.
Subjects are presented with lists of questions, typically with standardized answers to pick from, hence, questionnaire-based surveys typically serve as quantitative tools.
This involves observing individuals/ animals/ systems, typically, to make conclusions about their behaviour in specific circumstances. controlled experiments – these are experiments that are manipulated so that a single variable is tested at a time. Independent variables are altered to witness how systems, organisms, on dependent variables are impacted.
These implement models that aim to describe and predict the behaviour of various systems, including living systems. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lg0uLSj8uuI
Example of a Methodology Section
Below is a dissertation methodology example for a biological project focussing on just one objective: Objective: to prove successful creation of a fusion protein between a DNA-binding domain (zinc-finger) recognizing a unique DNA sequence and an enzyme participating in a bacterial biosynthetic pathway, which produces a violet pigment from a precursor chemical; and to prove that this fusion protein has not lost its function, while also becoming capable of binding DNA specifically. This objective is very easy to test using very simple biophysical laboratory techniques. Methodology (2 controlled experiments): To test whether protein function has not been impaired, the unaltered enzyme was compared to the fusion construct by using a colorimetric assay – the concentration of the violet end product is assessed by measuring light absorption at the wavelength-specific for violet light - 450 nm. (Increased light absorption indicates presence end product adundence, hence, an active enzyme). Equivalent amounts of each enzyme were added to 1 ml vials containing solution with the chemical precursor (5% concentration). Synthesis of the violet-coloured end product was monitored at time intervals of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 minutes for each protein and obtained time-series were compared. This assay is the most direct, simple, and effective way of testing protein function, hence, it was chosen as a preferred method – especially considering that it yields quantitative results (and even allows temporal resolution). To test whether this fusion construct forms a complex (binds) the target DNA sequence, electrophoretic mobility shift analysis was used on a polyacrylamide gel of X% for a total duration of 20 minutes. This assay is an electrophoresis experiment that tests migration of three biological samples in three distinct lanes: lane 1 has only DNA with the target sequence (negative control), lane 2 contains DNA and non-binding protein, and lane 3 contains DNA plus binding protein (our fusion construct). Only DNA is imaged. Unlike in lanes 1 and 2, in lane 3, the heavier DNA-protein complex formed is expected to migrate slower in an electric field, which demonstrates DNA binding. This assay is a standard molecular biology technique and was chosen because it is very straightforward, cheap, easy to perform, and very informative. In particular, one can also assess DNA-protein complex stability – if binding is weak, dissociation happens, which yields another band in lane 3 (corresponding to the unbound DNA in lanes 1 and 2). Now that we’ve explored how to write a methodology for a dissertation as well as the studies types and their corresponding methodology, it should be easier to visualize and conclude which type is suitable for a given research paper or project. Besides, it should be clearer now how to produce a good methodology structure.
Was this helpful?
Thanks for your feedback, related blog posts, dissertation presentation is a key to success.
Dissertation presentation feels challenging to most students, which is natural, considering all the anxiety and a necessity to include only the mos...
Step-By-Step Guide On How To Write a Dissertation Discussion
Gathering information, conducting the survey, interviewing people, calculating, and analysing the results is very important. However, this is not a...
Receive regular updates, discounts, study guides and more
You have subscribed to EduBirdie news.
Thanks for subscribing!
Check your inbox to verify your email.
- Essay Database >
- Essay Examples >
- Essays Topics >
- Essay on Information
Research Approach Dissertation Methodology Sample
Type of paper: Dissertation Methodology
Topic: Information , Study , Questionnaire , Researcher , Organization , Survey , Adoption , Methodology
ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS
The chapter offers the methodology with the justification and explanation of research approach and design. Methodology or research methodology can be defined as the systematic process of solving the research problem. It is a field of study that focuses on the methods for the research to obtain knowledge (Kumar &Phrommathed, 2005). It is very significant and important for the researcher to devise a methodology for solving the chosen problem of the research. The following methodology explains the research design for the factors affecting the adoption of business intelligence.
The researcher chose research approach according to the goals and objectives of the research and the type of study (Saunder, Lewis &Thornhill, 2009; Yin, 2013). In this research, researcher has to examine the factors affecting the implementation of business intelligence in the organizations, therefore, the deductive approach is more appropriate for the conducting the research. The deductive strategy can be defined as strategy that takes support from already developed theoretical framework (Zikmund, 2003). The deductive approach conducts the research to the specific from very general information or also be defined as the top to down research approach. The deductive approach can be more clearly understood from the process mentioned in the diagram below: As the following research was aimed to test the hypotheses developed based on the previous literature and models, therefore, the researcher has used the deductive approach.
After selecting research approach, the next step is to carefully select the research strategy for conducting research (Saunders et al., 2011). Mainly, there are two categories of research methods; quantitative and qualitative research (Cherry, 2000; Ritchie et al., 2013). In this research, the researcher has used quantitative methodological strategy for conducting research to increase the validity and authenticity of the research. As the deductive approach was used in the paper, therefore, the quantitative strategy was more aligned with the approach (Soiferman, 2010). To test the hypotheses about different factors affecting BI adoption in Saudi Arabia, the empirical and statistical study was required. The empirical data can be collected by experimentation and survey etc. that are the widely used techniques in quantitative method. For the quantitative research, researcher collected data through survey in which the respondents were provided with the questionnaire. By doing analysis of the responses of the questionnaire, the researcher was able to assess the research results on quantitative basis.
Data collection process is termed as one of the most important processes of conducting the research. The primary sources of data collection can be defined as first hand data that is gathered through some personal sources including surveys, questionnaires, interviews, focused group, observations, experiments and so on (Hox&Boeijie, 2005). It is an appropriate approach for the quantitative research methodology. In this research, primary data was research in a well-defined manner. It is also necessary to utilize appropriate and proper data collection sources for achieving desired objectives of the research. In this research, researcher utilized primary sources of research that are defined as below: In this research, primary data was collected by utilizing Survey and questionnaire techniques to collect real information related to research topic. The research for determining the correlations between the variables is usually done using surveys. For conducting surveys, close ended questions were used in the questionnaire for the clarity of the responses.These questions were asked to the respondents. The questionnaire was based on 37 questions that were mainly related to the factors affecting BI implementation in the organisation, identified in the review of the literature. The questionnaire was used to facilitate the researcher in determining and explaining the relationship of the factors with the BI adoption. Flexibility to answer the questions in survey is mainly considered as non standardized questionnaire. However, to ensure the interaction, Likert scale was used to provide the level to the respondents to express their opinions and responses.
Population and Sampling
The population of the research is based on the total number of people that are included in the research study (Saunder, Lewis &Thornhill, 2009). In this research, the population of the study includes four organizations of Saudi Arabia. These four organizations are as follows: (SIDF) Saudi Industrial Development Fund (MCI) Ministry of commerce and industry (SAMA) Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, which is the central bank of Saudi Arabia (ELM) which is a joint-stock company owned by the Public Investment Fund (PIF) The research sample was chosen by utilizing purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling can be defined as a sampling technique that is used when the researcher needs to access to the particular group of people (Palys, 2008). The reason for selecting purposive sampling is that the researcher of the following research was needed to access to the Business intelligence and information technology related people in these organizations. The sample size chosen for the questionnaire survey was 100 employees. The reason for designing small sample size was that there was a lack of these specialists in all these organizations. Therefore, the questionnaire was sent to all the available specialists of BI and information technology. The survey questionnaire was comprised of 37 questions. The questionnaires were distributed to the participants through emails as it is the cheapest and less time taking method of survey. It is also significant to offer adequate time to the respondents to think of the answers and make proper replies.
As it has already mentioned that the questionnaire was based on 37 questions, here, thedesign and structure of the questions is needed to be discussed. The researcher has divided the questionnaire into two sections mainly include demographic questions and psychographic questions. Tareq Almaghabi, who is an expert in the field, has reviewed and developed the questionnaire. He is a Data Warehouse consultant having more than 15 years of experience in his field. Out of total 37 questions, three questions were demographic; five were psychographic, while remaining questions were about the factors affecting BI adoption. The demographic questions were used to obtain the profile of the respondents that were the employees associated with the information technology and BI departments of the four organisations mentioned in the previous section. The psychographic section possessed the questions to determine the level of information technology. The questions of third section were designed to test the relationship of each factor identified in the literature and hypotheses that can affect the Business Intelligence adoption in the organisations of Saudi Arabia. The five questions of second section that were asked to identify the level and the intensity of technology and software in the organisations of the respondents. The next section was designed to bring the opinions of the employees about the factors in each category include external, technological and internal. Question 9 and 10 were aimed to determine the affect of competition on BI adoption, question 11 was aimed to identify the impacts of demand on BI adoption, and question 12, 13, 14 and 15 were designed to understand the impacts of government regulations on the BI adoption in the organisation. All of these questions were placed under external factors category. Questions from 16 to 24 fall in the category of technological factors. Question 16, 17 and 18 were supported the reliability affecting BI implementation, question 19 was linked with the complexity, question 20 and 21 with observability and 22, 23 and 24 with perception of strategic value affecting BI adoption. From question 25 to 35, all questions were linked with the internal factors. To determine the impacts of size, question 25 and 26 were asked, 27 and 28 for employees’ resistance, 29 and 30 for culture, 31 for managers’ innovativeness, 32 and 33 for data environment and 34 and 35 for skilled resources availability impacts on the BI adoption. The last two questions were asked to obtain the recommendations of the employees for the organisations to adopt BI. To measure the intensity of the answer, the five levels Likert scale was used assorted from strongly agree to strongly disagree.
As the questionnaires distributed through emails, therefore, pilot testing was done to check the level of participants to understand the questions in the questionnaire. Pilot or pre testing has been found as very important in conducting survey research by many researchers (Hunt, Sparkman & Wilcox, 1982). For pilot test of the questionnaire of the following research, the researcher has used the questionnaire for the pre survey of five respondents. The pre testing conducted to measure the outcomes as desired and then the final questionnaire for the survey revised based on the outcomes of pilot testing.
Data Availability and Credibility
After data collection process, the next step involves data analysis; data analysis process requires the researcher to arrange raw data in an organized form for conducting data analysis. The data analysis tools are selected on the basis of research methods employed for the study (Bendat&Piersol, 2011). For the quantitative data analysis, it is done by using statistical tools such as the SPSS software and the results are interpreted on the basis of research hypothesis.
It is important for the researcher to pay great attention towards ethical standards and values of the research and considers them as the highest priority of conducting research (Creswell, 2013). To meet the standards of data collection and to get accurate and authentic information from the research participants, the researcher has to take following measures: The research participants were given written informed consent which ensured that information collected for research will not be used for other purposes. The research participants were informed about the research objectives and were required to submit consent to participate in the research on voluntarily basis. An informed consent was also provided to the research participants to mention that the personal and professional information of each participant will be kept confidential.
The research methodology chapter provides a complete overview of the scientific research methods used for conducting research. The chapter explained all the essential components of conducting research. Moreover, the chapter also discussed the ethical considerations of the research.
Bendat, J.S. and Piersol, A.G., (2011). Random data: analysis and measurement procedures (Vol. 729). John Wiley & Sons. Cherry, A.L. (2000). A research primer for the helping professions: Methods, statistics, and writing, Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Belmont, California. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications. Hox, J. J., &Boeije, H. R. (2005).Data collection, primary vs. secondary.Encyclopedia of social measurement, Vol. 1, pp. 593-599. Hunt, S.D., Sparkman, R.D. & Wilcox, J.B. (1982). 'The pretest in survey research: issues and preliminary findings. Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 19, pp. 269-73. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques.New Age International. Kumar, S., &Phrommathed, P. (2005).Research methodology (pp. 43-50).Springer US. Maxwell, J.A., (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach: An interactive approach. Sage. Palys, T. (2008).Purposive sampling.The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods, Vol. 2, pp. 697-698. Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C.M. and Ormston, R. eds., (2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage. Saunders, M. Lewis, P. &Thornhill, A. (2009).Research methods for business students.Prentice Hall, India. Saunders, M.N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A., (2011).Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson Education India. Sekaran, U. (2000). Research method for business: a skill building approach. John Wiley and Sons, Singapore. Soiferman, L. K. (2010). Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches.Online Submission. Yin, R.K., (2013). Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications. Zikmund, W. (2003).Business Research Methods.7th edn, Thomson/South-Western, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cite this page
Share with friends using:
Finished papers: 2724
This paper is created by writer with
If you want your paper to be:
Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate
Original, fresh, based on current data
Eloquently written and immaculately formatted
275 words = 1 page double-spaced
Can't find a free sample that matches your requirements?
Subscribe to WowEssays Premium and get access to over 1 MILLION high-quality downloadable samples
GET ACCESS NOW
Practical nurse essay.
Password recovery email has been sent to [email protected]
Use your new password to log in
You are not register!
Short on a deadline?
Don't waste time. Get help with 11% off using code - GETWOWED
No, thanks! I'm fine with missing my deadline
- Will you write my paper for me? - Yes, we will.
What we offer:, let’s write a paper for you in no time, follow these 4 simple steps and solve you problem at once.
Provide details such as your topic, the number of pages, and extra requirements, and we’ll do a paper for you in no time!
Log in to your personal account to know the current status of your paper(s). You can also turn to our support team for the same purpose. Enjoy your life while we're working on your order.
As soon as we write the paper(s) for you, check it for correctness, and if everything is good to go, just download it and enjoy the results.
Our customers’ feedback
Still hesitant just look: others have already used our services and were pleased with the results.
Thank you guys for the amazing work! I got an A, and my professor was impressed. You have done the impossible, and I will never forget your help! The best service ever!
I ordered my paper two weeks ago and received it on time. The quality is very good, much better than other companies provide. My support agent is a pro, fast and simple explanations. Thanks!
I am firmly convinced that you will never disappoint me because you haven’t done it before. Amazing approaches and solutions at perfect prices! Please continue working the way you do!
I’ve been using WritePaperFor.me for about five months, and I have nothing to complain about. Excellent quality, perfect grammar, delivery on time, nice support team, pleasant prices, amazing results.
This service helped me focus on my job, and I will never forget the support I received. I’ve got a promotion in the end! Thanks a lot for everything you do for people like me!
I have to admit that searching for a reliable and professional service was a tough quest. Nevertheless, I am happy that I managed to find writepaperforme! Everything is much better than I expected!
The best bargain is just a few clicks away!
Get an original paper that doesn’t cost a fortune!
- 450 orders completed daily
- 86 disciplines of expertise
- 820+ professionals on our team
- 4.88/5 is the average order rating
Still have questions?
Contact our support agents and let them help you!
Is it time to write a paper for you? Contact us and relish the highest academic performance!
Our professionals will do their best!
You’ll write my paper for me, won’t you? We certainly will!
So tired of writing papers that you’re starting to think of your professor’s demise? Relax, we’re only joking! However, even a joke is woven with the thread of truth, and the truth is that endless assignments are constantly nagging at you and keeping you up all night long.
‘Writing my papers is unbearable!’ you may think But you’re not alone… What if we told you that we know a magical place where professionals can write your essays so perfectly that even professors’ most sophisticated requirements will be met? You’ve probably already guessed that we’re talking about WritePaperFor.me — the most delightful, facilitating, and destressing custom paper-writing service!
We are not going to be shy about our wish to see you as our steady customer. As a result, we aren’t twiddling our thumbs but permanently improving our services; we carefully select writers who always bone up on their subjects and disciplines, and we won’t rest unless you’ve gotten your ideal paper(s). All your wishes become our unshakable rules!
Why would I ask you to write paper for me?
Despite the obvious and even natural resistance to the idea of paper writing in principle that may occur with any student, you may also ask yourself, ‘Why would I need you to help me write my paper?’ The answer to this question lies in the spectrum of your routine actions. It’s not surprising that studying becomes part of our lives, but sometimes we’ve just got too much going on!
When you write an essay or academic paper, you just do one of the numerous things you face daily or weekly. This part of your life consumes lots of energy and time, so how can you possibly get around to doing other things like having fun, working, playing sports, helping relatives, and spending time with friends?
People are social creatures, and it’s only natural of us to request help from experts.. That’s why we ask doctors, electricians, or plumbers to help us! They’re all specialists. Who writes essays for you better than you do? Right, people who write numerous essays every day. We are experts in academic writing, aimed at satisfying all your needs related to education.
You just hire a professional to get a paper written, like you normally do in other situations. Our team of writers know everything about writing your paper and can cope with assignments of any complexity and academic level. Well-researched and expertly-written papers are what we do for our customers, and we always do our work professionally so that you could kick back and enjoy your life to the fullest.
The undeniable benefits of our custom paper-writing service
Apart from a paper written in accordance with the highest standards, we provide a wide range of contributory advantages to make your life easier. Let’s take a closer look at them.
Round-the-Clock Support. Our paper-writing service works day and night to help you with all current issues. Our friendly support team is available whenever you need them, even if it’s the middle of the night. They will gladly guide you and answer all your questions on how to order customized papers or consult you about the matters at hand. Feel free to share your questions or concerns with them and get comprehensible answers.
High-Class Quality. ‘Will you write a paper for me that meets all requirements?’ This question is frequently asked by many students, and we always answer in the affirmative. Our main goal is to deliver a perfectly written paper the meets the highest possible writing standards. We don’t rest unless you are satisfied with our work. If you hire a paper writer online, we guarantee you that you get 100% original and plagiarism-free assignments of high quality.
Complete Anonymity. We value your privacy and use modern encryption systems to protect you online. We don’t collect any personal or payment details and provide all our customers with 100% anonymity. ‘Can you write a paper for me and let me stay anonymous?’ Of course, we can! We are here to help you, not to cause problems.
Fast Delivery. We completely understand how strict deadlines may be when it comes to writing your paper. Even if your paper is due tomorrow morning, you can always rely on us. Our writers meet all set deadlines unequivocally. This rule is ironclad! The offered range is wide and starts from 6 hours to 2 weeks. Which one to choose is totally up to you. On our part, we guarantee that our writers will deliver your order on time.
Free Revisions. Our mission is to hone your paper to perfection. That’s why we offer you free revisions to make everything ideal and according to your needs. Feel free to ask for revisions if there is something you would like to be changed. That’s how our paper writing service works.
Money-Back Guarantee. You can get up to a 100% refund if you are dissatisfied with our work. Nevertheless, we are completely sure of our writers’ professionalism and credibility that offer you hard-core loyalty to our guarantees.
Comprehensible Explanations. ‘Can someone write my paper for me and provide clarifications?’ This question arises from time to time. Naturally, we want you to be totally prepared for the upcoming battle with your professor. If you need to fill the gaps in your knowledge, you can always ask for clarifications related to your paper. Moreover, when you order ‘write my paper for me’ service, you can always turn to our support agents for assistance. They will be glad to provide you with the necessary information and comprehensible explanations.
Fast and Customer-Focused Solutions. ‘Is it possible to do my paper for me so that I don’t worry about it at all?’ It certainly is! We offer all-encompassing solutions to all your academic problems by defining issues, determining their causes, selecting proper alternatives, and ultimately solving them. You are free to do your favorite activities while we are taking care of ongoing matters. You can always rely on us when it comes to essay-writing online and taking an individual approach to every case.
Who will write my paper when I order it?
Another crucial advantage of our service is our writers. You may have asked yourself, ‘I’d like to pay someone to write a paper for me, but who exactly will that person be?’ Once you order a paper, our managers will choose the best writer based on your requirements. You’ll get a writer who is a true expert in the relevant subject, and a perfect fit is certain to be found due to our thorough procedure of selecting.
Every applicant passes a complex procedure of tests to become one of our permanent writers. First of all, they should provide their credentials. We need to make sure that any prospective writers we hire have the proper experience.. The next step resides in passing a series of tests related to grammar, in addition to subject and/or discipline. Every paper-writer must pass them to prove their competency and their selected field of expertise.
One more step includes writing a sample to prove the ability to research and write consistently. Moreover, we always set our heart on hiring only devoted writers. When you ask us to write your essay or other academic works, you can be sure that they always do their best to provide you with well-structured and properly-written papers of high quality.
The final chord is related to special aspects of academic paper-writing. It means that every writer is prepared to cite properly, use different styles, and so on, so you don’t have to be worried about formatting at all.
‘So, can they write an ideal paper for me?’ We answer in the affirmative because we select only the best writers for our customers. Approximately 11% of all applicants can pass the whole set of tests and are ready to help you. All writers are fully compensated for their work and are highly motivated to provide you with the best results.
We are online 24/7 so that you could monitor the process of paper-writing and contact us whenever necessary. Don’t forget that your satisfaction is our priority. Our writers fully focus on your order when it comes to the ‘write my paper’ procedure. Our managers will immediately send all the information to your writer if any corrections are required.
It’s time to write my paper! What should I do?
‘I am ready to pay to have a paper written! Where do I start?’ Our team hears these words every day. We really believe that every student should be happy. That’s why we offer you to look at the simple steps to make the process even more convenient.
- Fill in the comprehensible order form located on the main page of our website. If you need some help with it, feel free to contact our support team.
- Provide the necessary details, such as the topic, subject or discipline, paper format, your academic level, etc.
- Select the deadline, and we will strictly follow it.
- Pay the total price. Submit a preferred payment method. The full sum will be deposited into your account on our website. The money will be transferred to your writer in case you approve the paper.
- If you have additional materials provided by your professor or may simply assist in writing your paper, please attach them too. They will help the assigned writer meet your professor’s expectations.
Every paper we can write for you is expertly-researched, well-structured, and consistent. Take a look at some types of papers we can help you with:
- Research papers
- Case studies
- Term papers
- Business plans, etc.
Questions like ‘I would like you to write a paper for me without destroying my reputation. Can you promise to do so?’ or ‘Can you write my paper for me cheap and fast?’ often arise, and we take pride that these options are included in the list. Your safety and anonymity are parts of our common priority, which is to make you fully satisfied with all offered services.
Moreover, our pricing policy is flexible and allows you to select the options that totally suit your needs at affordable prices. You will be pleased with the results and the amount of money spent on your order. Our managers and writers will do the rest according to the highest standards.
Don’t hesitate and hire a writer to work on your paper now!
We believe that students know what is best for them, and if you suppose that it is time to ‘write my paper right now,’ we will help you handle it. ‘Will you do my paper without any hesitation?’ Of course, we will. Our service has all the necessary prerequisites to complete assignments regardless of their difficulty, academic level, or the number of pages. We choose a writer who has vast experience and a breadth of knowledge related to your topic.
Our ‘write my paper for me’ service offers a wide range of extra features to make the ordering process even more pleasant and convenient. Unlike lots of other services, we provide formatting, bibliography, amendments, and a title page for free.
‘When you write my paper for me? Can I monitor the process?’ Naturally, you can. We understand that you may want to ensure that everything is going well. Furthermore, there may be situations when some corrections are needed. We believe that a tool like this can come in handy. The assigned writer will strictly follow your and your professor’s requirements to make sure that your paper is perfect.
‘Is it possible to write my essay from scratch?’ We don’t do just proofreading or editing. Our goal is to fully carry your burden of writing. When this or similar questions appear, we always assure our customers that our writers can do whatever they need. Apart from writing from scratch or editing and proofreading, our experts can effortlessly cope with problem-solving of all kinds;even sophisticated software assignments!
Our ‘write my paper for me’ service is good for everyone who wants to delegate paper-writing to professionals and save precious time that can be spent differently and in a more practical way. We want you to be happy by offering the great opportunity to forget about endless and boring assignments once and forever. You won’t miss anything if your papers become the concern of our professional writers.
Don’t waste your precious time browsing other services. We provide you with everything you need while you are enjoying yourself by doing things you really enjoy. ‘Write my paper then! Do my paper for me right now!’ If you are ready to exclaim these words with delight, we welcome you to our haven, a place where students spend their time serenely and never worry about papers! It’s your turn to have fun, whereas our mission is to provide you with the best papers delivered on time!
Questions our customers ask
Can someone write my paper for me.
Yes, we can. We have writers ready to cope with papers of any complexity. Just contact our specialists and let us help you.
Who can I pay to write a paper for me?
We will help you select a writer according to your needs. As soon as you hire our specialist, you’ll see a significant improvement in your grades.
Can I pay someone to write a paper for me?
Yes, you can. We have lots of professionals to choose from. We employ only well-qualified experts with vast experience in academic paper writing.
What website will write a paper for me?
WritePaperFor.me is the website you need. We offer a wide range of services to cover all your needs. Just place an order and provide instructions, and we will write a perfect paper for you.
Is it safe to use your paper writing service?
Our service is completely safe and anonymous. We don’t keep your personal and payment details and use the latest encryption systems to protect you.
What are you waiting for?
You are a couple of clicks away from tranquility at an affordable price!
Tips for writing a strong methodology chapter. 1. Focus on your objectives and research questions. The methodology section should clearly show why your methods suit your objectives and convince the ... 2. Cite relevant sources. 3. Write for your audience.
Common types of dissertation methodology. A scientific study. The methodology section for a scientific study needs to emphasise rigour and reproducibility above all else. Your methods must appear robust to the reader, with no obvious flaws in the design or execution.
Research methods are broadly divided into six main categories. Experimental Research Methods Experimental research includes the experiments conducted in the laboratory or observation under controlled conditions. Researchers try to study human behavior by performing various experiments.
Common Types of Dissertation Methodology Depending on the discipline, one can distinguish several types of studies: Scientific studies Methods should be described precisely, concisely, comprehensively, without leaving place for speculation – all these to prioritize transparency and reproducibility.
Best Dissertation Writing Service - Qualitative And Quantitative Methodologies. OUR COMMITMENT. The writer will send you your work before the deadline, and you can ask for any revision if required. From the prices to the services, ... Best Dissertation Writing Services in the USA. Dissertation ...
The research method that will be used is quantitative research method because it will allow to measure things through statistical control so the conclusion will be more logical. It has been decided to use the descriptive research design for this research as increases the validity of data and decreases the biasness.
Summary. The research methodology chapter provides a complete overview of the scientific research methods used for conducting research. The chapter explained all the essential components of conducting research. Moreover, the chapter also discussed the ethical considerations of the research.
Dissertation Methodologies Essay How to Order Our Online Writing Services. There is nothing easier than using our essay writer service. Here is how everything works at : You fill out an order form. Make sure to provide us with all the details. If you have any comments or additional files, upload them.