Academic Commons holds the full text of doctoral theses written since 2011 at Columbia and of theses written for a Doctorate of Education at Teachers College since mid 2018. A selection of dissertations from Union Theological Seminary, and from Columbia before 2011, are also available. You can start exploring theses by selecting one of the doctoral programs below.
- Anthropology (112)
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- Chemistry (258)
- Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics (111)
- Classical Studies (13)
- Classics (30)
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- Cognitive Studies in Education (85)
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- Communications (39)
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- Counseling Psychology (64)
- Counseling and Clinical Psychology (4)
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- Knowledge Base
- How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 14, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan.
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .
Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.
You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:
- Start with a question
- Write your initial answer
- Develop your answer
- Refine your thesis statement
Table of contents
What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.
A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.
The best thesis statements are:
- Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
- Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
- Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.
The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .
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You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.
You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?
For example, you might ask:
After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .
Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.
In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.
The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.
In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.
The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.
A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:
- Why you hold this position
- What they’ll learn from your essay
- The key points of your argument or narrative
The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.
These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.
Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:
- In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
- In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.
The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:
- It gives your writing direction and focus.
- It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.
Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.
Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :
- Ask a question about your topic .
- Write your initial answer.
- Develop your answer by including reasons.
- Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.
The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .
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- Dissertation & Thesis Template
As a resource for graduate students, sample Word templates are available to assist with the initial formatting of doctoral dissertations and master's theses. Students are expected to fully format their dissertation/thesis according to the " Preparation and Submission Manual for Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses ".
- This template is a starting point and students may have to add or remove sections/text to accurately reflect their document and adhere to all requirements in the manual.
- Graduate Education and Postdoctoral Affairs (GEPA) does not provide technical support for any of the templates below.
- If using these templates, students must still refer to the formatting manual for full instructions.
The below templates are in Word. If you prefer to use LaTeX, here is a reccommended unofficial template . We are not able to provide technical support for LaTeX.
Master’s Degree Thesis
Doctoral Degree Dissertation
- Degree Completion
- Dissertation & Thesis Submission
- Dissertation & Thesis Manual
The Doctoral Thesis
Doctoral Candidates (who have passed the General Examination) must complete a doctoral thesis that satisfies the Institute and Departmental requirements in order to receive the doctoral degree. General Institute requirements are described in the MIT Bulletin and MIT Graduate Policies and Procedures .
The Ph.D. Thesis Committee
After the Thesis Area Examination is completed, the final doctoral thesis committee is constituted from the members of the two (non Chair) Thesis Area Examination committee members and the advisor(s). The chair of the oral thesis area examination committee step downs after the TAE examination is completed. Thesis committee changes other than this must be approved by submitting a petition to the Chair of the Departmental Committee on Graduate Studies (including addition of new committee members). The final Ph.D. Thesis Committee will have at least two members who are not advisors or co-advisors. At least half the members of the thesis committee must be DMSE faculty. Petitions for inclusion of committee members outside of MIT may be routed to the Departmental Committee on Graduate Studies as well. The general graduate student petition form is available from the Office of Graduate Education should be used for these petitions and submitted to the DMSE Academic Office ( [email protected] ).
The doctoral thesis committee has the responsibility of advising the student on all aspects of the thesis experience, all the way up through the preparation and defense of the final thesis document. The student and supervisor will hold progress reviews with the entire thesis committee at least once a year and written feedback to the student is required, which will also be submitted to the Departmental Committee on Graduate Studies. The thesis advisor holds responsibility for assembling this written feedback and sharing it with the Departmental Academic Office and the student. Frequent meetings of the thesis committee are strongly recommended.
Year 3 Update Meeting
This meeting must be held in the Fall term or Spring term of your third year. Students must register for 3.998 Doctoral Thesis Update Meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to update the thesis committee of your plans and progress and to engage your thesis committee in advising you in your research towards your degree. Starting with your thesis proposal as a point of departure, present your revised vision of the path forward including what you see as challenges and obstacles. All members of the thesis committee are expected to be physically present at this meeting. This meeting is restricted to the student and the thesis committee. Fill out the 3.998 Doctoral Thesis Update Meeting DocuSign Form here.
Approximately one year before expected graduation, but no later than 6 months before the planned PhD defense, the student will schedule a plan-to-finish meeting with the thesis committee. At this meeting the student will present the projected outline of the thesis, the important data that will become part of the thesis, and what still needs to be done. The purpose of this meeting is for the committee to evaluate whether the student is likely to be ready for graduation within a year. The student will prepare a written document for the committee which will include the research results, the graduation timeline, a list of papers published or in preparation, and the list of classes the student has taken to satisfy the PhD course requirements. The document is to be delivered to the committee one week before the presentation. This presentation is restricted to the student and his/her thesis committee. At the end of the meeting the committee decides whether the student is likely to proceed towards the PhD defense, or whether another plan to finish meeting is necessary. The committee will prepare brief written feedback to the student.
Doctoral Thesis and Oral Defense of the Thesis
The Department’s long-standing emphasis on original research is a key element in the Candidate’s educational development.
Scheduling of the final PhD defense can take place no earlier than 6 months after a successful Plan-to-Finish meeting. The PhD thesis will be delivered to the committee members one month before the defense. The committee members will respond in two weeks with comments on the written document, giving the student two weeks to modify the thesis.
At least one week prior to the defense the Candidate will hand deliver copies of the final thesis document to the Thesis Committee members and to the DMSE Academic Office along with a proposed date, time, and room for the defense. The DMSE Academic Office will publicize the defense. The defense begins with a formal presentation of approximately 45 minutes based on the thesis. The floor is then opened to questions from the general audience, which is thereafter excused. The Thesis Committee then continues the examination of the Candidate in private. The Candidate is finally excused from the room and the Committee votes. A majority yes vote is required to approve the thesis. It is the responsibility of the principal thesis advisor to give the Committee’s decision whether the thesis is satisfactory or unsatisfactory to the Candidate and submit the form to DMSE Academic Office. In the event of a vote not to pass, the Thesis Committee will make recommendations as to needed changes to render the thesis satisfactory. The revised thesis will then be submitted for a second final defense.
Note: Students are advised to keep in mind that the months of May and August tend to be the months where scheduling a presentation may be difficult because of faculty unavailability and availability of presentation rooms. Keep in mind that faculty are not on academic appointments in the summer, and are often on travel, in some cases scheduled at the last minute. This may lead to the need to reschedule your defense, in some cases into the Fall term. DCGS will not make exceptions to the thesis committee rules for PhD defenses that were originally planned in the summer, and encourages you to schedule your thesis defense in the academic terms.
The usual thesis format, a cohesive document, is traditional and generally desirable. It is not, however, dictated by regulation and occasionally the thesis may separate naturally into two or more sections, which are more directly publishable individually. A thesis written in sections should include a general introduction, abstract, and conclusions. The sections should be arranged so that the document reads as a whole. It is appropriate to put detailed descriptions of procedures and tables of data in appendices so that the thesis sections may be comparable in length and scope to journal articles. Use of this alternate format does not imply a change in the requirement for original research, in the student/supervisor relationship, or in their respective roles in producing the thesis document, all of which still apply.
Candidates should consult Specifications for Thesis Presentation .
Students who would like assistance in improving their writing skills for any task (thesis area proposal, final thesis, and resumes and job application letters) should contact the MIT Writing and Communications Center . The Writing Center offers individual consultations and advice about any writing problem and is open to all members of the MIT community.
- What Is a PhD Thesis?
- Doing a PhD
This page will explain what a PhD thesis is and offer advice on how to write a good thesis, from outlining the typical structure to guiding you through the referencing. A summary of this page is as follows:
- A PhD thesis is a concentrated piece of original research which must be carried out by all PhD students in order to successfully earn their doctoral degree.
- The fundamental purpose of a thesis is to explain the conclusion that has been reached as a result of undertaking the research project.
- The typical PhD thesis structure will contain four chapters of original work sandwiched between a literature review chapter and a concluding chapter.
- There is no universal rule for the length of a thesis, but general guidelines set the word count between 70,000 to 100,000 words .
What Is a Thesis?
A thesis is the main output of a PhD as it explains your workflow in reaching the conclusions you have come to in undertaking the research project. As a result, much of the content of your thesis will be based around your chapters of original work.
For your thesis to be successful, it needs to adequately defend your argument and provide a unique or increased insight into your field that was not previously available. As such, you can’t rely on other ideas or results to produce your thesis; it needs to be an original piece of text that belongs to you and you alone.
What Should a Thesis Include?
Although each thesis will be unique, they will all follow the same general format. To demonstrate this, we’ve put together an example structure of a PhD thesis and explained what you should include in each section below.
This is a personal section which you may or may not choose to include. The vast majority of students include it, giving both gratitude and recognition to their supervisor, university, sponsor/funder and anyone else who has supported them along the way.
Provide a brief overview of your reason for carrying out your research project and what you hope to achieve by undertaking it. Following this, explain the structure of your thesis to give the reader context for what he or she is about to read.
2. Literature Review
Set the context of your research by explaining the foundation of what is currently known within your field of research, what recent developments have occurred, and where the gaps in knowledge are. You should conclude the literature review by outlining the overarching aims and objectives of the research project.
3. Main Body
This section focuses on explaining all aspects of your original research and so will form the bulk of your thesis. Typically, this section will contain four chapters covering the below:
- your research/data collection methodologies,
- your results,
- a comprehensive analysis of your results,
- a detailed discussion of your findings.
Depending on your project, each of your chapters may independently contain the structure listed above or in some projects, each chapter could be focussed entirely on one aspect (e.g. a standalone results chapter). Ideally, each of these chapters should be formatted such that they could be translated into papers for submission to peer-reviewed journals. Therefore, following your PhD, you should be able to submit papers for peer-review by reusing content you have already produced.
The conclusion will be a summary of your key findings with emphasis placed on the new contributions you have made to your field.
When producing your conclusion, it’s imperative that you relate it back to your original research aims, objectives and hypotheses. Make sure you have answered your original question.
Finding a PhD has never been this easy – search for a PhD by keyword, location or academic area of interest.
How Many Words Is a PhD Thesis?
A common question we receive from students is – “how long should my thesis be?“.
Every university has different guidelines on this matter, therefore, consult with your university to get an understanding of their full requirements. Generally speaking, most supervisors will suggest somewhere between 70,000 and 100,000 words . This usually corresponds to somewhere between 250 – 350 pages .
We must stress that this is flexible, and it is important not to focus solely on the length of your thesis, but rather the quality.
How Do I Format My Thesis?
Although the exact formatting requirements will vary depending on the university, the typical formatting policies adopted by most universities are:
What Happens When I Finish My Thesis?
After you have submitted your thesis, you will attend a viva . A viva is an interview-style examination during which you are required to defend your thesis and answer questions on it. The aim of the viva is to convince your examiners that your work is of the level required for a doctoral degree. It is one of the last steps in the PhD process and arguably one of the most daunting!
For more information on the viva process and for tips on how to confidently pass it, please refer to our in-depth PhD Viva Guide .
How Do I Publish My Thesis?
Unfortunately, you can’t publish your thesis in its entirety in a journal. However, universities can make it available for others to read through their library system.
If you want to submit your work in a journal, you will need to develop it into one or more peer-reviewed papers. This will largely involve reformatting, condensing and tailoring it to meet the standards of the journal you are targeting.
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Dissertation vs. Thesis: A Comparison
No matter what your field or specialty is, earning a graduate degree is one of the best ways to advance your career. In fact, for some professionals, earning a master’s degree and a doctoral degree is a requirement. A graduate degree program nurtures professional critical-thinking skills and refines field-specific knowledge, enabling you to prove your expertise and competence.
When completing a graduate degree program, students are required to produce a major research and writing project, such as a dissertation in a doctoral program or thesis in a master’s program. These two projects are often confused, so what is the difference between a dissertation vs. thesis? There are a few major differences and similarities between the two that are important for any potential graduate student to know.
What Is a Thesis?
A thesis is an academic paper completed near the end of a student’s course of study for a master’s degree program. Note that most master’s degrees require the completion of a thesis for graduation. Some bachelor’s degree programs even require students to write an undergraduate thesis, which is typically shorter and less in-depth than a master’s degree thesis.
To write a master’s thesis, students select a reasonably narrow topic of interest in their field. For example, if you’re earning a degree in nutrition science , you might examine the effects of varying compositions of pregame meals on athletic performance.
The next step is to conduct an in-depth review of existing research on your topic. You would then formulate an academic argument (for example, that high-carb pre-game meals are advantageous for endurance athletes) and use the existing research to prove your assertion.
A thesis is typically structured in a relatively rigid format, depending on the policies of the university and the individual department. The following components are often required:
- Abstract (summary)
- Table of contents
- Table of figures/maps
- Body, typically divided into chapters
What Is a Dissertation?
In contrast to a thesis, students working on a doctoral dissertation conduct their own original research after reviewing the established research. The goal of a dissertation is not only to prove the student’s own knowledge and skills but also to add to the existing body of knowledge in their field.
Students may present a new theory or hypothesis in their field or present research disproving a previously presented theory. Alternatively, they may tackle a new angle, taking the established research in a new direction.
The traditional order is to take doctoral courses, complete the qualifying exams and then write the dissertation. However, there are exceptions to this. At some universities, the dissertation process is integrated into the coursework. This allows students to get a jumpstart on their research while working toward the completion of their course requirements. As a result, they may graduate more quickly.
The process of writing a dissertation begins in a way similar to the process for a master’s thesis. Students select their topic and then conduct a literature review, which is a thorough analysis of the existing research on that topic. From there, students can work on developing a new theory, debunking a previously established theory or finding a new angle on an existing theory.
The dissertation defense is often one of the most intimidating aspects of the doctoral degree program. However, students work closely with their selected committees throughout the dissertation process. This means you can rest assured that if your committee has allowed your work to proceed to the point of the dissertation defense point, then your dissertation will almost certainly be accepted, and you will be granted your degree after your successful defense.
Like that of a thesis, the specific makeup of a dissertation depends on the policies and requirements of the university and the doctoral candidate’s department. In general, however, dissertations include the following:
- Literature review and theoretical framework
- Discussion of findings (interpretation, analysis and applications)
- Reference list
Differences Between a Dissertation vs. Thesis
The primary difference between a dissertation vs thesis is the degree programs that require these projects. Students in a master’s degree program will write a thesis, whereas students in a doctoral degree program will complete a dissertation.
Another difference between the two projects is that a dissertation usually requires an oral defense, whereas a thesis generally does not. After submitting the completed dissertation to their dissertation committees, students will schedule dates for the oral presentation of their work. The committee members will ask questions and sometimes pose challenges. Students must be able to justify their methodology and interpretation of their findings.
Additionally, as you might expect, a typical master’s thesis is far shorter than a typical doctoral degree dissertation. A thesis might be between 40 and 80 pages, although it can vary from one degree program to the next. In contrast, the average dissertation is between 100 and 300 pages.
Similarities Between a Dissertation and a Thesis
Despite the differences, there are some similarities between a dissertation and a thesis. Both require intensive research and the completion of a lengthy paper comprised of original writing.
In addition, both projects require the following:
- The skillful defense of an academic argument (the stance or main point of the paper)
- Analytical reasoning and critical thinking
- In-depth expertise about the subject area
- A significant investment of time (years for dissertations and months for theses)
- A willingness to rewrite and edit based on feedback from professors, peers or committee members
Another similarity is the committee. All doctoral degree students work with a committee comprised of faculty members, advisors and similar professionals who guide the student’s research and writing. It’s also customary for students writing a master’s thesis to have a committee.
In both thesis and dissertation committees, the committee chair is the primary point of contact for the student. In other words, the chair is the person who is most closely involved with shaping the direction of the student’s research, academic arguments and writing.
For both types of degree programs, the thesis or dissertation is a requirement to graduate with the degree. It is typically considered the capstone project.
Grand Canyon University offers a wide range of master's and doctoral degree programs to choose from. GCU is committed to helping students enhance their career qualifications, transition to new careers or simply fuel their passion for learning. Click on the Request Info button above to learn more about GCU’s graduate degree programs and how to apply
The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author’s and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Grand Canyon University. Any sources cited were accurate as of the publish date.
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA
How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA
In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.
Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .
Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.
Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.
Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.
In-text citation example:
- Parenthetical : (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
- Narrative : Ames & Doughty (1911)
If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:
- The institution is presented in brackets after the title
- The archive or database name is included
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.
Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.
In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.
If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.
In-text citation examples :
- Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
- Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL
Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf
Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745
It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.
In-text citation examples:
- Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
- Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
- Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
- Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)
We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.
If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.
To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :
- Undergraduate thesis
- Master’s thesis
- Doctoral dissertation
You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .
When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:
- Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
- Year published
- Title of thesis or dissertation
- If it is unpublished
- Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
- Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
- Thesis or dissertation
- Name of institution awarding degree
- DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)
Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.
To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:
- Unpublished thesis or dissertation
- Published thesis or dissertation from a database
- Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database
American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative
Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.
Author Surname (Publication Year)
(Author Surname, Publication Year)
Reference list entry template and example:
The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL
Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf
To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:
Author Surname (Year)
(Author Surname, Year)
The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.
Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.
APA Citation Examples
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Award: 2014 Doctoral Dissertation Award Title: Secure Virtual Architecture: Security for Commodity Software Systems University: Stanford University Faculty: Management Science and Engineering Author: Shayan O. Gharan Award: Doctoral Dissertation Award 2013 Title: New Rounding Techniques for the Design and Analysis of Approximation Algorithms
A selection of dissertations from Union Theological Seminary, and from Columbia before 2011, are also available. You can start exploring theses by selecting one of the doctoral programs below. Anthropology (112) Anthropology and Education (24) Applied Anthropology (26) Applied Behavior Analysis (75) Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics (124)
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay. It usually comes near the end of your introduction. Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across.
Dissertation & Thesis Template. As a resource for graduate students, sample Word templates are available to assist with the initial formatting of doctoral dissertations and master's theses. Students are expected to fully format their dissertation/thesis according to the "Preparation and Submission Manual for Doctoral Dissertations and Master's ...
Students must register for 3.998 Doctoral Thesis Update Meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to update the thesis committee of your plans and progress and to engage your thesis committee in advising you in your research towards your degree. Starting with your thesis proposal as a point of departure, present your revised vision of the path ...
A PhD thesis is a concentrated piece of original research which must be carried out by all PhD students in order to successfully earn their doctoral degree. The fundamental purpose of a thesis is to explain the conclusion that has been reached as a result of undertaking the research project.
o The font size can be one size smaller but must be legible. o If graphics, tables, or figures are in landscape mode, orient the top of the printed page at the dissertation binding edge (left side of the paper) with the page number in the upper right-hand corner in the portrait page setup. o Images may be submitted in black and white or color.
The primary difference between a dissertation vs thesis is the degree programs that require these projects. Students in a master’s degree program will write a thesis, whereas students in a doctoral degree program will complete a dissertation. Another difference between the two projects is that a dissertation usually requires an oral defense ...
Doctoral dissertation You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished. When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation: Author’s last name, and first and middle initials Year published
II. Title of Doctoral Thesis “Variable Dimension Complexes, with Applications,” B. Curtis Eaves, thesis advisor III. Principal Fields of Research Interests: Mathematical optimization, including linear optimization, nonlinear optimization, first-order methods, interior-point methods, complexity theory, fixed point methods, and