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Freshmen of English Department have various backgrounds which affecttheir understanding on English grammar. Meanwhile, English Grammar is the basic need for English Department freshmen to deal with other subjects in the following semesters. Therefore, teaching grammar to first semester studentsneedsstrategies in order to achieve the goal of existing curriculum. One of the strategies is setting the best syllabus on the related course.English Letters Department of University of Sanata Dharma, recently, adjustedits curriculum in 2016. It compounds the syllabus of Structure course of freshman in batch 2016 becomes doubled from the syllabus applied before batch 2016. In other words, grammar study learnt by freshmen of batch before 2016 in the first and second semester advanced into compactly learnt in only one semester by the freshmen of batch 2016. With the same referencewhich isUnderstanding and Using English Grammar 3 rd edition by Betty S. Azar used by the two categories of subjects in this research, later, will be discovered that the syllabus with fewer materials is the most effective syllabus.

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This paper investigates teacher development in EFL in the Asian context, specifically referring to the Thai and Japanese contexts at the tertiary level. It argues that teacher development for native speaker teachers of English would benefit from gaining local knowledge of the norms of classroom behavior and a background to the history of EFL in that country. This goes beyond finding appropriate methodologies for the local context, taking the learning process into the spheres of sociology, economics, politics and religion. As examples of such teacher development, it proposes a teacher development (TD) model for the Thai setting which explores the relationships between the classroom, society and religion. It also puts forward a similar, tabulated model for TD in Japan in which the history of EFL is traced to various social and political events. The paper concludes that there is a need for foreign lecturers to raise their awareness of influences upon the learner and the educational system in which the classroom is framed, and that this process needs to consider local, non-Anglo-centric concepts to enhance teacher development.

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Carlos Enrique Ibarra

One of the main issues in teaching the acquisition of complex language structures to students of a foreign language is what is known as language interference, language transfer, or cross-linguistic influence (CLI). While there is not a consensus amongst researchers on a specific, short definition of what this phenomenon is, there is a certain agreement on what it entails. According to Théophanous (140), two main categories of mistakes which are generally treated separately can be traditionally made out in L2: a. Interlingual mistakes, attributable exclusively to interferences of the mother tongue (L1) (or of another tongue known by the learner) in learning the target language, and studied by means of contrastive analysis. b. Intralingual mistakes, attributable to the intrinsic characteristics of the L2, which can also affect children who are learning their L1. This categorization seems mostly reasonable, except for the fact that Théophanous places (in parentheses, in a.) mistakes caused by the phenomenon of cross-linguistic interference in third language acquisition under the same category of mistakes as those caused by the phenomenon of CLI in L2 acquisition. Grosjean, Cook and Jessner have stated -separately- (qtd. in Cenoz, Hufeisen and Jessner) that ... from a psycholinguistic perspective, third language acquisition research presents specific characteristics derived from the fact that third language learners are experienced learners and also because bilingual and multilingual individuals present a different type of competence as compared tothat of monolinguals This disagreement is an instance of the lack of consistency in the literature concerning CLI; in general, there is relatively little written on the subject regarding monolinguals learning a L2, or bilinguals learning a third language. Authors seem content to put learners of a foreign language together in one group, regardless of their background in terms of their total or partial knowledge of other languages. The present paper deals mostly with Théophanous’ first proposed category above, without taking into account any other language known by the learner, since the majority of subjects whose examples are used in this paper were monolingual English speakers. In particular, I will attempt to show the issue of CLI in learning one very specific structure, the present subjunctive mood, by first and second-year monolingual college students in the United States who are mostly native English speakers. Students who take lower-division Spanish courses include often a few heritage speakers of Spanish who use English as L1; however, I did not use examples produced by anyone in this latter group to illustrate my point, since they belong to Théophanous’ second proposed category above. I will try to make a case through the presentation, classification and analysis of several examples of written and spoken language collected throughout my almost eight years of experience as a first and second-year college Spanish instructor. Some ways of bringing this issue to the student's attention based on the concepts covered by Doughty and William's Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition will be suggested towards the end, as a way to suggest a change in the current teaching paradigm in order to make the acquisition process of this structure more effective. Regarding L3 CLI, it needs to be clarified that the issue of heritage speakers who as young children produced structures atypical of monolingual children of the same age, and which sounded as if they were coming from the child's other language (an issue to which Döpke refers below) is more related to the subject of simultaneously bilingual children (SBC), in spite of the fact that these heritage speakers rarely consider themselves bilingual, so they, in general, cannot be considered SBC (and hence they end up frequently in lower-division Spanish classes). This means that I consider the production of structures showing CLI by heritage speakers to be the subject of a different research altogether.

[email protected] Finch

Lyll Sanchez

Noor Hanim Rahmat, (Associate Professor, Dr) , Azizah Daut

According to Ong etal. (2011), the importance of English in the Malaysian work environment is the main concern of many employers. Some employers reported that having employees with better English would improve productivity. How far is English being used at the workplace in Malaysia? This quantitative study targets at possible direction of a language programme such as English for Specific Purpose especially for Occupational and Vocational purposes. It looks into how much English is used at selected industries in Malaysia. Specifically, it reports on how communication in English is used at different departments in selected industries as well as how the use differs across age groups, genders and industries. Results of this study will have interesting implication for future English for business purposes courses. Keywords: work environment, industries, communication

International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature [IJALEL] , Rahman Sahragard , Hmoud Sanad G. Alotaibi , samira aliakbari , Haleh Parsa , Mehrdad Farahani , Sara Quintero , Assoc. Prof. Dr. Afida Mohamad Ali , Dr. Amir Mahdavi , Hussein Abdullah

Abstract This article discusses the new design of Grammar I syllabus, which is called integrated syllabus. Commonly syllabus of Grammar is just focused on grammar itself but not integrated with the real function of grammar. Learning Grammar without combining it with when and how it is used in real context cannot help students much in developing their English skills. Therefore, the teacher or lecturer needs to design a new syllabus by integrating some types of syllabus. Considering the students’ need, the syllabuses that can be integrated in designing grammar class are topical syllabus, skill based syllabus, task based syllabus, and structural syllabus. Topical syllabus is providing the students with some information they need to be great teachers. They need to understand the related texts and write what they can catch from the texts. The classroom activities are created based on the tasks that the students should do in the class. Finally, the students will be engaging in classroom activities to learn grammar.

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