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essay methods examples

Brainstorming: The First Step to Writing Your Essay Methodology

The importance of explaining the methodology in a research paper or an essay is that it imparts clarity. Methodology is just between you and your sources, it is the approach adopted in preparing the paper. Though essays are generally shorter and less elaborate in their content than research papers, they also require a methodology description. Short methodology overview will help you to avoid a lot of questions, like “Why did you use only these sources?”, or “Why didn’t you consider Mr. X’s research on the relevant topic”. This page was designed with the aim to explain you on examples how to write your essay methodology .

Navigation through Methodology Example page

Data Collecting Methodology

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Adopting an Approach

Describing your methodology, project methodology examples, download a methodology example.

Essay methodology examples may be easily accessible on the net. However, trying to adapt an essay methodology example from the net for your essay may become messy if care is not exercised. Even if the subject of the example and your assignment are similar, not necessarily the same approach is used in then. Therefore, though choosing the right methodology that suits your assignment is important.

How to introduce Methodology in the Essay?

Though preparing an essay involves defined methods, it is seldom revealed within the essay. But it does not mean that you cannot include essay methodology in your essay. While writing a Frankenstein essay or a Macbeth essay , you definitely would have used some method to collect, research, and organize your information. Try to reflect on that in the essay and it will provide your reader with a guideline to your essay.

For example an essay on Macbeth can be written very differently, depending on your essay question and your methodology .

Research methodology involves the collection and analysis of materials relevant to the study. Thus, in all of these cases there are 4 basic ways to deal with the essay methodology :

– identify data collecting methods

– identify data analysis methods

– adopt the approach of some scholar

– describe what are you doing and why

The type of research method that you follow will be much determined by the type of study. Depending on the purpose, your research method may take different forms. Some of the examples of research methods are: experimental, expository, action, pure, and applied research. Also, based on the source of materials for the research and study, you may have primary research and secondary research. But how do you know which research methods should you use? Decide your purpose of research first; then the purpose itself decides the method. The type of research method that you follow is determined by the type of study. Depending on the purpose, your research method may take different forms. Some of the examples of research methods are: experimental, expository, action, pure, and applied research. Also, based on the source of materials for the research and study, you may have primary research and secondary research. But how do you know which research methods should you use? Decide your purpose of research first; then the purpose itself decides the method.

Data collecting methods may be different. If you’ve done something special to get your information, you definitely need to mention it. For example, you may mention that:

Data collecting methodology also includes the explanation of your choice of sources . Even if in the essay you compare two articles that were given to you at class, your essay will benefit if you’ll try to explain these choice. For instance, that the authors held different views on the same issue because of their different professional background.

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P rof E provides custom essay writing services for students of all curricula. We employ only well qualified professionals to prepare content for our clients. All content is thoroughly checked for plagiarized material. At P rof E , we never re-use content delivered to one client. Rewriting, using copy/paste or paraphrasing is never tolerated. Our professional writers write all content from scratch, including a custom written methodology for you. We will ensure all of this while helping you with an essay methodology example . The best part is that all this comes to you at reasonable prices, so don’t hesitate and order your essay now!

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Data Analysis Methodology (Click on Image to Enlarge)

Data analysis methods may be divided into quantitative and qualitative . For instance you may either conduct a number of interviews for quantitative analysis, or have just a couple of them for case studies.

Quantitative methods are used when you can rely on some reliable statistics. Mostly these are used in the essays connected with economics, where descriptive method can be applied. Quantitative methods are also widely used in social sciences and humanities. It’s hardly possible to imagine a sociological discussion that will not appeal to some statistics. Content analysis is a popular quantitative method used in philology, political science and history. Due to content analysis you may count how often certain topics are connected together in speeches of politics, and arrive at some interesting conclusion.

Qualitative methods are widely used in different research areas. The most popular qualitative method is case study , though context analysis, and surveys are also popular.

You may also follow the methodology of some author in your analysis. For instance, try to apply the approach of Edward Said to the analysis of some book that deals with foreign lands. Or try to find the similarities of description of ceremonies connected with presidential post with the ceremonies of the king’s court as described by Mark Bloch. Though such methodologies don’t have names of their own, it is possible to apply them in your essay.

If you fail to identify your methods, you can always just describe steps of your research. If you keep notes on how you engaged in the research, you will have enough material to prop up a methodology segment in your essay. Ensure that you have data on

A project methodology gives an idea about how the project is carried out and an interpretation of the results. It may be related to entirely new activities, like a project, to bring out a new product or to existing activities like discovering problems and developing solutions. The following is an example of a project methodology for problem solving:

A correct project methodology is a precondition to the successful execution of projects, as it gives the project required degree of consistency.

Research Methods Examples

A research methodology section will inform the reader about:

Research methodology is the main body of any research, thus it deserves good effort and endeavor from the students.

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Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks

Published on February 9, 2015 by Shane Bryson . Revised on December 6, 2021 by Shona McCombes.

This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction , focused paragraphs , clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion .

Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence , and each point is directly related to the thesis statement .

As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and why they work.

An Appeal to the Senses: The Development of the Braille System in Nineteenth-Century France

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

In France, debates about how to deal with disability led to the adoption of different strategies over time. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the most common response to people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them together in institutions (Tombs, 1996). At first, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although the partnership was motivated more by financial considerations than by the well-being of the residents, the institute aimed to help people develop skills valuable to society (Weygand, 2009). Eventually blind institutions were separated from deaf institutions, and the focus shifted towards education of the blind, as was the case for the Royal Institute for Blind Youth, which Louis Braille attended (Jimenez et al, 2009). The growing acknowledgement of the uniqueness of different disabilities led to more targeted education strategies, fostering an environment in which the benefits of a specifically blind education could be more widely recognized.

Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system. The Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris taught the students to read embossed roman letters, a method created by the school’s founder, Valentin Hauy (Jimenez et al., 2009). Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss. As a result, this method did not gain significant success among blind students.

Louis Braille was bound to be influenced by his school’s founder, but the most influential pre-Braille tactile reading system was Charles Barbier’s night writing. A soldier in Napoleon’s army, Barbier developed a system in 1819 that used 12 dots with a five line musical staff (Kersten, 1997). His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light (Herron, 2009). The code developed by Barbier was phonetic (Jimenez et al., 2009); in other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch (Jimenez et al., 2009). This system proved effective for the transmission of short messages between military personnel, but the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read (Herron, 2009). For this reason, it was unsuitable for daily use and was not widely adopted in the blind community.

Nevertheless, Barbier’s military dot system was more efficient than Hauy’s embossed letters, and it provided the framework within which Louis Braille developed his method. Barbier’s system, with its dashes and dots, could form over 4000 combinations (Jimenez et al., 2009). Compared to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. Braille kept the raised dot form, but developed a more manageable system that would reflect the sighted alphabet. He replaced Barbier’s dashes and dots with just six dots in a rectangular configuration (Jimenez et al., 2009). The result was that the blind population in France had a tactile reading system using dots (like Barbier’s) that was based on the structure of the sighted alphabet (like Hauy’s); crucially, this system was the first developed specifically for the purposes of the blind.

While the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources. Many of the teachers at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth resisted learning Braille’s system because they found the tactile method of reading difficult to learn (Bullock & Galst, 2009). This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods. Over time, however, with the increasing impetus to make social contribution possible for all, teachers began to appreciate the usefulness of Braille’s system (Bullock & Galst, 2009), realizing that access to reading could help improve the productivity and integration of people with vision loss. It took approximately 30 years, but the French government eventually approved the Braille system, and it was established throughout the country (Bullock & Galst, 2009).

Although Blind people remained marginalized throughout the nineteenth century, the Braille system granted them growing opportunities for social participation. Most obviously, Braille allowed people with vision loss to read the same alphabet used by sighted people (Bullock & Galst, 2009), allowing them to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them. Written works, such as books and poetry, had previously been inaccessible to the blind population without the aid of a reader, limiting their autonomy. As books began to be distributed in Braille, this barrier was reduced, enabling people with vision loss to access information autonomously. The closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted contributed to a gradual shift in blind people’s status, lessening the cultural perception of the blind as essentially different and facilitating greater social integration.

The Braille system also had important cultural effects beyond the sphere of written culture. Its invention later led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself (Jimenez, et al., 2009). This development helped remove a cultural obstacle that had been introduced by the popularization of written musical notation in the early 1500s. While music had previously been an arena in which the blind could participate on equal footing, the transition from memory-based performance to notation-based performance meant that blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997). As a result, a tactile musical notation system became necessary for professional equality between blind and sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997).

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Bullock, J. D., & Galst, J. M. (2009). The Story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology , 127(11), 1532. https://​​archophthalmol.2009.286.

Herron, M. (2009, May 6). Blind visionary. Retrieved from https://​​content/​articles/2009/05/​blind-visionary/.

Jiménez, J., Olea, J., Torres, J., Alonso, I., Harder, D., & Fischer, K. (2009). Biography of Louis Braille and Invention of the Braille Alphabet. Survey of Ophthalmology , 54(1), 142–149. https://​​j.survophthal.2008.10.006.

Kersten, F.G. (1997). The history and development of Braille music methodology. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education , 18(2). Retrieved from https://​​stable/40214926.

Mellor, C.M. (2006). Louis Braille: A touch of genius . Boston: National Braille Press.

Tombs, R. (1996). France: 1814-1914 . London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Weygand, Z. (2009). The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Frequently asked questions about writing an essay

An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

Cite this Scribbr article

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Bryson, S. (2021, December 06). Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks. Scribbr. Retrieved March 1, 2023, from

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Descriptive Essay Writing

Descriptive Essay Examples

Cathy A.

Amazing Descriptive Essay Examples for Your Help

Published on: Jun 5, 2020

Last updated on: Jan 3, 2023

descriptive essay examples

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Descriptive essays are very commonly assigned essays. This type of essay tends to enhance their writing skills and allow them to think critically.

A  descriptive essay  is often referred to as the parent essay type. Other essays like argumentative essays, narrative essays, and expository essays fall into descriptive essays. Also, this essay helps the student enhance their ability to imagine the whole scene in mind by appealing senses.

It is assigned to students of high school and all other students at different academic levels. Students make use of the human senses like touch, smell, etc., to make the descriptive essay more engaging for the readers.

Examples make an understanding of things better. But before moving on to the examples, let us have a quick look at how to write a good descriptive essay.

Examples make it easy for readers to understand things in a better way. Also, in a descriptive essay, different types of descriptions can be discussed.

Here are some amazing examples of a descriptive essay to make the concept easier for you.

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Descriptive Essay Example 5 Paragraph

Descriptive Essay Example 5 Paragraph 5 paragraphs  essay writing format  is the most common method of composing an essay.

5 Paragraph Descriptive Essay (PDF)

Descriptive Essay Example About A Person

Descriptive essays are the best option when it comes to describing and writing about a person. A descriptive essay is written using the five human senses. It helps in creating a vivid image in the reader’s mind and understanding what the writer is trying to convey.

Descriptive Essay Example About A Place

If you have visited a good holiday spot or any other place and want to let your friends know about it. A descriptive essay can help you explain every detail and moment you had at that place.

Descriptive Essay Example for Grade 6

Descriptive essays are frequently assigned to students of the school. This type of essay helps the students enhance their writing skills and helps them see things in a more analytical way.

Descriptive Essay Example for Grade 7

Descriptive Essay Example for Grade 8

Descriptive Essay Example for Grade 10

Essay writing is an inevitable part of the academic life of a student. No matter what grade you are in, you will get to write some sort of essay at least once.

Descriptive Essay Example for Grade 12

If you are a senior student and looking for some great descriptive essay examples for grade 12, you are exactly where you should be.

Descriptive Essay Example for University

Descriptive essays are assigned to students at all academic levels. University students are also assigned descriptive essay writing assignments. As they are students of higher educational levels, they are often given a bit of difficult and more descriptive topics.

Look at the below given example and see how a descriptive essay at the university level looks like.

Short Descriptive Essay Example

It is not necessary that every time a descriptive essay isn't written in detail. It totally depends on the topic of how long the essay will be.

Subjective Descriptive Essay Example

It is a common concept that a descriptive essay revolves around one subject. Be it a place, person, event, or any other object you can think of.

Following is one of the subjective descriptive easy examples. Use it as a guide to writing an effective descriptive essay yourself.

Writing a descriptive essay is a time-consuming yet tricky task. It needs some very strong writing, analytical, and critical thinking skills. Also, this is a type of essay that a student can not avoid and bypass.

But if you think wisely, work smart, and stay calm, you can get over it easily. Learn how to write a descriptive essay from a short guide given below.

How to Write a Descriptive Essay

A writer writes a descriptive essay from their knowledge and imaginative mind. In this essay, the writer describes what he has seen or experienced, or ever heard from someone. For a descriptive essay, it is important to stay focused on one point. Also, the writer should use figurative language so that the reader can imagine the situation in mind.

The following are some very basic yet important steps that can help you write an amazing descriptive essay easily.

For a descriptive essay, you must choose a vast topic to allow you to express yourself freely. Also, make sure that the topic you choose is not overdone. An overdone will not grab the attention of your intended audience.

A thesis statement is the essence of any academic writing. When you have selected the descriptive essay topic, then you create a strong thesis statement for your essay.

A  thesis statement  is a sentence or two that explains the whole idea of your essay to the reader. It is stated in the introductory paragraph of the essay. The word choice for creating the thesis statement must be very expressive, composed, and meaningful. Also, use vivid language for the thesis statement.

Once you have created the thesis statement and you are done writing the introduction for your essay, it's time to move towards the body paragraphs.

Collect all necessary information related to your topic. You would be adding this information to your essay to support your thesis statement. Make sure that you collect information from authentic sources.

To enhance your essay, make use of some adjectives and adverbs. To make your descriptive essay more vivid, try to incorporate sensory details like touch, taste, sight, and smell.

An outline is yet another necessary element of your  college essay . By reading the outline, the reader feels a sense of logic and a guide for the essay.

In the outline, you need to write an introduction, thesis statement, body paragraphs and end up with a formal conclusion.

Proofreading is a simple procedure in which the writer revises the written essay. This is done in order to rectify the document for any kind of spelling or grammatical mistakes. Thus, proofreading makes content high quality and gives a professional touch to it.

You might be uncertain about writing a good enough descriptive essay and impress your teacher.However, it is very common so you do not need to stress out.

Hit us up at and get a descriptive essay written by our  professional writers . We aim to facilitate the students in every way possible and to ease their stress. Get in touch with our customer support team, and they will take care of all your queries related to your writing.

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Point by Point Essay Method (1160 words)

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The essay is one of the most concise literary forms that have a clear structure. Different types of essays like an argumentative essay, comparison and contrast essay, narrative, descriptive, etc. can reflect literary criticism, political manifests, arguments, observations of everyday life, the memories and thoughts of the author.

Recently, writing of the essay has become one of the components of formal education as a scientific theory and one of the most common writing assignment at high school. This type of writing is often used by educational institutions to determine the quality of knowledge. College students are encouraged to explain, comment, or evaluate the topic of research in the form of the essay.

In this paragraph, we are going to talk about comparison and contrast essay and ways how to start it. Comparison and contrast essay is aimed at the development of the relationship between two or more things. As a general rule, the goal is to show that superficial differences or similarities are insufficient and that a careful analysis reveals their unobvious, but significant, relationships or differences. You can compare and contrast a different number of items.

In this kind of assignments college students present their own interpretation of facts, express their own argumentative ideas, thoughts, feelings. Writing a good compare and contrast English essay is difficult, but possible. It is necessary to organize their thoughts: to form their personal attitude to the topics, to draw up a clear outline of action. The main problem for students in writing this essay in college is the inability to briefly but correctly put forward their thoughts. Therefore, it is recommended to use point by point method, also called the slice or alternating method and block method. As a rule, these types of methods are useful when you have to make any decision, or you need to choose one of the two different items.

Point by Point Method

A point-by-point method is an organizational scheme of comparison and contrast essay. Point-by-point essay assigns to the comparison of one point of a topic with the point of the other topic. The main peculiarity is that the writer considers the analogies and differences of two comparative topics or items adherently for the purpose to make some conclusions. In comparison to the block method, the point-by-point method comprises more information.

Here is the outline of how to do the comparison and contrast essay in accordance with the point by point method:

So, here are some examples of essay topics where point by point method can be used:

Windows versus Mac OS

Point by point method is simpler to use for college students, as similar and different aspects are more visible when they are located next to each other, and it is easier to make some parallels in compare and contrast process.

Point by Point Essay Example

There is the example of how to start your essay using point by point method.

High school versus College

In the life of every teenager, it’s time to make an important decision: to continue to study at high school or to make a choice in favor of vocational education and to enroll in a college. These both alternatives are good and have some similar facets, but mostly they are different. So, these options can be distinguished according to the following options: the cost, time and schedule and academic load.

Firstly, according to the cost, college is voluntary and expensive, while high school is usually mandatory and free. In a college, every student needs to buy his own books when at a high school they are provided free of charge. Besides, the learning process in here is funded by the government.

Secondly, in terms of time and schedule, college is more suitable for students, as they are responsible for scheduling their own classes, while at the high school the school day is highly structured and organized by teachers. Students are expected to study and work on assignments outside of class unlike school, where they need to work in class. In addition, college students have less time to devote to extracurricular activities because academic expectations are higher and they require more time for studying, despite the fact that they have classes meet 3, 2 or only once a week in comparison to school, where students have most classes meet five days a week. The priority in a college is given to independent processing of the material by the students.

The third block is related to the academic load. If we are talking about tests, it should be noticed, that college is more serious in this aspect, as tests here are mostly cumulative and covers large amounts of material. Test grades usually carry a great amount of weight in the final grade, while at high school homework, quizzes, projects, and extra credit often raise a student`s overall grade. Another peculiarity of college is that most assignments are given in a syllabus at the beginning of the semester. The main point of the college is that students must take responsibility for their own education while at the high school this responsibility belongs to parents and teachers.

Taking into account such points as cost, learning process and academic load, we can make the conclusion that studying in a college sets up for students more serious demands and requires to be more responsible. And every student who is going to enter the college should consider this fact in order to have success in the educational process.

A compare and contrast essay is a commonly used type of English writing assignment in various classes of high school and college, from art to science. The main goal of this type of essay is a critical analysis of any two subjects, finding and pointing out their similarities and/or differences. Depending on the assignment, such an essay can be comparative only (looking just at similar aspects), contrasting only (determining the different aspects only) or both comparative and contrasting. If you are not sure how to do your essay, it is recommended to use point by point method, that will help you to organize the clear structure of your work.

This essay was written by a fellow student. You may use it as a guide or sample for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly . Don’t submit it as your own as it will be considered plagiarism.

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What is the Essay Method for Performance Appraisals?

While some would label it as the “grandfather” of performance appraisal methods, the essay method is still a commonly used appraisal method in a variety of business models. The essay method, sometimes known as the “free-form method,” is a performance review system where a superior creates a written review of the employee’s performance.

These essays are meant to describe and record an employee’s strengths and weaknesses in job performance, identifying problem areas and creating a plan of action to remedy them. Whether the essay is written by the appraiser alone, or in collaboration with the appraisee, essays provide supervisors the opportunity to assess behaviors and performance with greater complexity and attention to detail.

There are many reasons that the essay method--which was one of the first methods used to evaluate performance--is still effective today.

One of the most noteworthy aspects of essay appraisals is their free-form approach to performance reviews. Whereas some employers can feel limited by rigid performance appraisal criteria, the essay method takes a far less structured stance than typical rating scale methods. In so doing, the appraiser is able to examine any relevant issue or attribute of performance that is pertinent to an employee’s job description or overall company growth.

The essay method assumes that not all employee traits and behaviors can be neatly analyzed, dissected, and rated--instead, it allows appraisers to place varied degrees of emphasis on certain qualities, issues, or attributes that are appropriate. Rather than being locked into a fixed system, this open-ended method gives supervisors the freedom of expression and critical thought. For appraisers, there exist special services such as StudyCrumb , which help in writing accurate essays.

When preparing an essay, a supervisor may consider any of the following factors of an employee as they relate to the company and employee relationship: potential and job knowledge, understanding of the company’s policies, relationships with peers and supervisors, planning and organization, and general attitudes and perceptions. This thorough, non-quantitative assessment provides a good deal more information about an employee than most other performance appraisal techniques.

However, as with all performance appraisal methods, there are a few limitations that the essay method suffers from that are worth examining.

One of the major drawbacks of the essay method is its highly subjective nature--they are often subject to bias, and it can be difficult to separate the assessment of the employee from the bias of the evaluator. While the essay can provide a good deal of information about the employee, it tends to tell more about the evaluator than the one being evaluated.

Another element that essays leave out (that other appraisal methods rely heavily on) is comparative results. Instead of utilizing standardized, numeric questions, these appraisals rely only on open-ended questions. While the essay method gives managers the ability to provide detailed and circumstantial information on a specific employee’s performance, it removes the component of comparing performance with other employees. This often makes it difficult for HR to distinguish top performers.

Overall, the appraisal method’s greatest advantage--the freedom of expression for the evaluator--can also serve as its greatest handicap. Even the actual writing of the reviews can upset or distort the process of employee appraisals, as the introduction of inconsistent, unorganized, or poor writing styles can distort and upset the review process. An employee may be unfairly helped or harmed by an evaluator’s writing ability. An evaluator can also find themselves lacking sufficient time to prepare the essay, and can write an essay hurriedly without accurately assessing an employee’s performance.

What is the essay method best used for?

Appraisal by essay is generally most effective in performance reviews for employees with atypical job descriptions or non-numerical goals. While other appraisals work well in analyzing performance for jobs that are subject to goals based on numbers, essays offer a more subjective analysis of performance for employees with managerial or customer service positions.

When analyzing production, the essay method is most effective in combination with another appraisal method. Using a graphic rating scale along with essay appraisals allows one method to focus solely on numbers, while the essay portion can be used to analyze other performance goals.

Doing essay appraisals right

Here are 3 things to strive for in order to set your company up for success in essay performance appraisals:

Keeping a standard for style and length of essay appraisals can make the biggest difference in ensuring that your reviews are effective. Essays that are unstructured and unnecessarily complex can be detrimental to an employee’s rating, as well as using unspecific, flowery language that is not relevant to the employee’s performance. In order to remain efficient and effective, today’s evaluators should focus on making appraisal essays short and specific, ensuring that the entire review reflects the performance of the employee.

The appraiser should also ensure that they are making sufficient time in their schedule to prepare the essay. A busy evaluator may compromise an employee’s performance rating by writing a hurried essay, or running out of time to thoroughly assess employee performance. It’s important for all participants of essay appraisals to take enough time to write a consistent, accurate, and succinct review in order to set employees up for success.

2. Proficiency.

If you’ve chosen to use essay appraisals in your organization, it’s important to ensure that your appraisers possess the ability to write well. Even if an essay contains detailed, circumstantial information, it becomes difficult to extract valuable data from a poorly written essay. To ensure that nothing stands between an HR professional’s ability to assess an employee’s performance, evaluators should be trained as well-equipped writers.

Giving writing assistant tools or tips to supervisors can make all the difference in the accuracy and efficiency of an employee’s performance review.

2. Objectivity.

Subjectivity is both a strength and a weakness in essay appraisals. Not only are essays themselves often biased, but the misinterpretation of essays can even further distance the main evaluator from an accurate portrayal of an employee’s performance. Including objective standards in a performance review results in a more balanced and productive review process, and helps to eliminate the forming of incorrect conclusions about an employee’s behavior and performance.

Organizations often implement this goal by pairing essay appraisals with another appraisal method, such as graphic scale ratings, to draw more accurate conclusions and performance data. In so doing, evaluators can utilize all of the free expression and open-ended characteristics of an essay appraisal, while still maintaining accurate, easily translated results that are effective for the overall organization.

What to do next.

Here are three ways you can continue your journey to a more modern and effective performance management strategy:

PerformYard streamlines and automates performance management.

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PerformYard is powerful and simple performance management software. For annual reviews, quarterly goals, continuous feedback and everything in between, we reduce the burden on HR and create a simple experience for your employees.

How To Start An Essay (With 20 Great Examples)

Starting your essay is probably the most difficult thing to do in the whole writing process..

How do you stop staring at the blank page and get things moving?

Writing a good essay can be the difference between great grades and simply ending up as being average.

How to start your essay? – The most straightforward advice

How to begin your essay – the lengthier and more appropriate advice, how long should an essay introduction be.

But if you’re writing something longer, for example, a five-page interpretation of a literary work, the introduction could take two to three paragraphs, or 120-150 words.

The aim of the introductory paragraph

That’s why you need a perfect balance between clinical precision and artistic flair.

20 Great examples and tips on how to start an essay:

I picked examples coming from master essayists just to give you a taste of what a nice opening paragraph looks like. Let them inspire you:

I’ve been to Australia twice so far, but according to my father I’ve never actually seen it. He made this observation at the home of my cousin Joan, whom he and I visited just before Christmas last year, and it came on the heels of an equally aggressive comment. – David Sedaris, Laugh, Kookaburra
One Sunday morning when I was a boy, my father came out of his office and handed me a poem. It was about a honeybee counselling a flea to flee a doggy and see the sea. The barbiturates my father took to regulate his emotions made him insomniac, and I understood that he’d been awake most of the night, laboring over these lines, listing all the words he could think of ending in a long “e.” – Charles D’Ambrosio – Documents

3. Create a mysterious atmosphere

Moths that fly by day are not properly to be called moths; they do not excite that pleasant sense of dark autumn nights and ivy-blossom which the commonest yellow-underwing asleep in the shadow of the curtain never fails to rouse in us. – Virginia Woolf – Death of the Moth
Earlier this summer I was walking down West End Avenue in Manhattan and remembered, with a sadness that nearly knocked me off my feet, just why I came to New York seven years ago and just why I am now about to leave. – Meghan Daum – My Misspent Youth
I know it is coming, and I do not fear it, because I believe there is nothing on the other side of death to fear. I hope to be spared as much pain as possible on the approach path. I was perfectly content before I was born, and I think of death as the same state. – Roger Ebert – Go Gentle Into That Good Night
What is the charm of necklaces? Why would anyone put something extra around their neck and then invest it with special significance? A necklace doesn’t afford warmth in cold weather, like a scarf, or protection in combat, like chain mail; it only decorates. We might say, it borrows meaning from what it surrounds and sets off, the head with its supremely important material contents, and the face, that register of the soul.- Emily R. Grosholz – On Necklaces
In Moulmein, in Lower Burma, I was hated by large numbers of people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me. – George Orwell – Shooting an Elephant

8. Begin by creating great expectations of what’s to come (use the introduction as a bait)

At a dinner party that will forever be green in the memory of those who attended it, somebody was complaining not just about the epic badness of the novels of Robert Ludlum but also about the badness of their titles. (You know the sort of pretentiousness: The Bourne Supremacy, The Aquitaine Progression, The Ludlum Impersonation, and so forth.) Then it happily occurred to another guest to wonder aloud what a Shakespeare play might be called if named in the Ludlum manner. – Christopher Hitchens – Assassins of The Mind
The first time I heard her I didn’t hear her at all. My parents did not prepare me. (The natural thing in these situations is to blame the parents.) She was nowhere to be found on their four-foot-tall wood-veneer hi-fi. Given the variety of voices you got to hear on that contraption, her absence was a little strange. – Zadie Smith – Some Notes on Attunement
When I was young, I thought Life: A User’s Manual would teach me how to live and Suicide: A User’s Manual how to die. – Édouard Levé – When I Look at a Strawberry, I Think of a Tongue
Do you know what a twerp is? When I was in Shortridge High School in Indianapolis 65 years ago, a twerp was a guy who stuck a set of false teeth up his butt and bit the buttons off the back seats of taxicabs. (And a snarf was a guy who sniffed the seats of girls’ bicycles.) – Kurt Vonnegut – Dispatch From A Man Without a Country
The earliest experience of art must have been that it was incantatory, magical; art was an instrument of ritual. (Cf. the paintings in the caves at Lascaux, Altamira, Niaux, La Pasiega, etc.) The earliest theory of art, that of the Greek philosophers, proposed that art was mimesis, imitation of reality. – Susan Sontag – Against Interpretation
Science has beauty, power, and majesty that can provide spiritual as well as practical fulfillment. But superstition and pseudoscience keep getting in the way providing easy answers, casually pressing our awe buttons, and cheapening the experience. – Carl Sagan – Does Truth Matter – Science, Pseudoscience, and Civilization
To do something well you have to like it. That idea is not exactly novel. We’ve got it down to four words: “Do what you love.” But it’s not enough just to tell people that. Doing what you love is complicated. – Paul Graham – How To Do What You Love
Once, in a dry season, I wrote in large letters across two pages of a notebook that innocence ends when one is stripped of the delusion that one likes oneself. Although now, some years later, I marvel that a mind on the outs with itself should have nonetheless made painstaking record of its every tremor, I recall with embarrassing clarity the flavor of those particular ashes. It was a matter of misplaced self-respect. – Joan Didion – On Self Respect
The enormous, pungent, and extremely well marketed Maine Lobster Festival is held every late July in the state’s mid-coast region, meaning the western side of Penobscot Bay, the nerve stem of Maine’s lobster industry. – David Foster Wallace – Consider The Lobster
The collie wakes me up about three times a night, summoning me from a great distance as I row my boat through a dim, complicated dream. She’s on the shoreline, barking. Wake up. She’s staring at me with her head slightly tipped to the side, long nose, gazing eyes, toenails clenched to get a purchase on the wood floor. We used to call her the face of love. – Jo Ann Beard – The Fourth State of Matter

18. Begin by describing the place and circumstances in great detail. Notice how after reading this opening statement, you already know your surroundings

Two blocks away from the Mississippi State Capitol, and on the same street with it, where our house was when I was a child growing up in Jackson, it was possible to have a little pasture behind your backyard where you could keep a Jersey cow, which we did. My mother herself milked her. A thrifty homemaker, wife, mother of three, she also did all her own cooking. And as far as I can recall, she never set foot inside a grocery store. It wasn’t necessary. – Eudora Welty – The Little Store
Saints should always be judged guilty until they are proved innocent, but the tests that have to be applied to them are not, of course, the same in all cases. In Gandhi’s case the questions on feels inclined to ask are: to what extent was Gandhi moved by vanity — by the consciousness of himself as a humble, naked old man, sitting on a praying mat and shaking empires by sheer spiritual power — and to what extent did he compromise his own principles by entering politics, which of their nature are inseparable from coercion and fraud? – George Orwell – Reflections on Gandhi
Fantasists and zealots can be found on both sides of the debate over guns in America. On the one hand, many gun-rights advocates reject even the most sensible restrictions on the sale of weapons to the public. On the other, proponents of stricter gun laws often seem unable to understand why a good person would ever want ready access to a loaded firearm. Between these two extremes, we must find grounds for a rational discussion about the problem of gun violence. – Sam Harris – The Riddle of The Gun

Rafal Reyzer

Methods of Data Collection Essay


The purpose of the paper is the evaluation of data collection methods and the creation of efficient instruments for the accumulation of information about BI System usage and its effects on organizational performance. It is observed that BI software creates benefits in the data organization and operation (Agiu, Mateescu, & Muntean, 2014; Carlsson, Skog, & Tona, 2010). And the purpose of the study is the identification and assessment of BI’s favorable impacts. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. While qualitative methods provide information that may help to identify the patterns between the variables’ interrelations, quantitative data is associated with a high level of precision, accuracy, and objectivity (Creswell, 2003). Qualitative data is interpretable; it is subjective yet can be effectively correlated with the theoretical frameworks (Morgan & Smircich, 1980). Quantitative data is numerical and statistical, and it is characterized by a minimal possibility of result biasing (Brown & Hedges, 2009). The survey, questionnaire, and interviews (comprised of expanded versions of survey and questionnaire questions) complement each other and will help to evaluate the accumulated data from multiple perspectives. The data collection tools will be designed considering the major ethical principles of research conduct. It is important to provide complete information about the purpose of the experiment to the participants to get their consent. In this way, the researchers act according to the principle of voluntary participation (Trochim, 2006). The conduction of experiments without the consent of the individuals may be regarded as a violation of the ethical code. It is also important to use the personal information confidentially and avoid its disclosure without permission (Beskow, Dame, & Costello, 2008).

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Assignment Task

Instruments of data collection.

This survey is a part of an academic assignment. The information provided by you will be kept confidential and will be used for academic/research purpose only.


The data collection tools were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the BI System application in the randomly selected UAE police office. The items included and assessed in surveys may be regarded as the representative indicators of BI impacts (Moskovitz, & Even, 2014). Their analysis will allow the identification of dynamics in interrelations between the study variables. The data collection tools were designed considering the principles of voluntary participation, informed consent, and confidentiality. According to other ethical principles the researchers need to reduce the possibility of harm and negative influencing on the participants not merely in terms of physical well-being but terms of psychological state and social identity as well (Trochim, 2006). However, this principle is irrelevant to the current study methods because the assessed information addresses impersonal characteristics and cannot damage participants.

Agiu, D., Mateescu, V., & Muntean, I. (2014). Business Intelligence overview. Database Systems Journal, 5 (3), 23-36. Beskow, L. M., Dame, L., & Costello, E. J. (2008). Certificates of Confidentiality and Compelled Disclosure of Data. Science , 322 (5904), 1054–1055. Web. Brown, B., & Hedges, D. (2009). Use and misuse of quantitative methods: Data collection, calculation, and presentation. In D. Mertens, & P. Ginsberg (Eds.), The handbook of social research ethics. (pp. 373-387). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Carlsson, S., Skog, L., & Tona, O. (2010). The success of a business intelligence system in a police organization: An evaluation study . Web. Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach . London, UK: Sage Publications. Morgan, G., & Smircich, L. (1980). The case for qualitative research. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 5 (4), 491. Web. Moskovitz, E., & Even, A. (2014). The Impact of a BI-Supported Performance Measurement System on a Public Police Force. International Journal of Business Intelligence Research (IJBIR), 1 (5), 13-30. Web. Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Ethics in Research. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Web.

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Exam Tips: How to write a research methods essay

Travis Dixon March 17, 2019 Research Methodology , Revision and Exam Preparation

essay methods examples

Updated Feb 2021

One of the most difficult of the five types of exam questions to write about in IB Psychology is research methods. Like most other essay questions, students tend to focus on studies and miss other important aspects of the essay. In this post, I offer my best tips for how to write an excellent essay on research methods.


IB Psychology - Teacher Support Pack - Chapter 6: Quantitative Methods

Our unit on Quantitative Methods is designed to help students answer these challenging questions.

These three simple questions are an excellent guideline for most of the IB Psych’ course. Research methods essays are no different. You want to show you:

The following helps you figure out how to address these key questions. However, the structure and content of your answer will depend on the specific question you’re answering and the materials you’ve used in your course.

Step 1: What?

The first thing to get right is the definition . It’s really important to have a clear, precise and accurate definition of the research method/s you’re writing about. This could be either in the introduction or in the first body paragraph of the essay (i.e. the central argument). After defining the method, the explanation of how and why should begin.

Step 2: How?

Every essay answer should have a central argument that shows knowledge and understanding of the topic in the question (watch this video for more essay advice). In the case of research methods questions, the central argument should be an explanation of how and why the particular method is used in that particular topic . This is a key part of the answer that many students miss.

For example, if you’re explaining the use of a true experiment the “how” would include the nature of the independent variables and perhaps common ways the dependent variable is measured. For instance, in true experiments on the brain the IV is commonly a factor hypothesized to affect brain activity like chemical messengers such as serotonin and the effects of the manipulation of this IV on the brain is measured using fMRI.

Tip:  A detailed central argument explaining how and why the method is used is the key to scoring top marks in the “knowledge and understanding” section of the essay rubric. Your explanation of the method would be identical in an SAQ and an essay.

Step 3: Why?

This is straightforward – give reasons why this method is useful. Weak answers will be generic, such as “true experiments are helpful because they can establish causal relationships.” Stronger answers will focus on specific details of the field of psychology in question. For instance, an essay on true experiments might focus on animal experimentation and the benefits of manipulating brain activity in rodents and animals in ways that couldn’t be done in humans but provide valuable additional information alongside human quasi experiments and correlational studies.

Scroll on for more exam tips.

DOWNLOAD Example Research Methods Essay

Common Error: What is a “method”?

One of the biggest mistakes a student can make in a research method essay is writing about a method that actually isn’t a “ research method .” For example, if a student wrote about animal studies, twin studies, or brain imaging technology as a research method they would score very low marks because these are not research methods (according to the IB).

To quote the official IB FAQs document, “…the different research methods for the study of psychology at this level: case studies, naturalistic observations, interviews, experiments, field experiments, quasi-experiments, natural experiments, correlations studies.” Therefore, make sure the method/s you are writing about is from this list.

Tip:  Prepare to write about true experiments and/or correlational studies for Paper 1 and 2. These are used in every topic and it simplifies the preparation for this tricky question. Our IB Psychology Revision Textbook follows this approach.

Research Methods from the IB Guide

Screen Shot 2019-03-17 at 5.24.22

This screen shot of the online IB Psychology guide shows the list of “research methods” that you have to choose from.

Link to the topic!

A common weakness in research methods essays is they do not fully address the question by explaining the use of the method in relation to the approach or the topic in the question. A good way to check if the answer has applied the explanation to the topic is to read the explanation and see if it could also be true of any topic in IB Psychology. If it’s generic enough so it could be used across multiple topics, then the application needs to be clearer. Another even easier way to check is to see if the topic or approach is even mentioned at all in the explanation!

Explain studies, don’t just describe them!

Examiner’s reports always complain that “there’s too much description in essays”. This is actually the wrong complaint. A lot of description is great, but  it needs to be matched with explanation . So the real critique should be “there’s not enough explanation in essays.”

So how do you go beyond describing so you’re explaining a study? The key is in the final 1-3 sentences after the results when you make it clear what the results show about the question, i.e. what conclusions are we drawing from those results?

In research methods essays, however, it’s a little different. Many students make the mistake of explaining what the results show about behaviour , whereas in research methods essays you need to explain how the study shows the use of the method . For example, if using a study that’s a true experiment you explain how the manipulation of the IV in a controlled environment enabled causal conclusions to be drawn, or why it was useful in a correlational study to show the strength of a relationship between the two variables in the study, etc.


Remember : In ThemEd’s three levels of learning, describing means to summarize individual things and explaining means to show how they’re related. In this type of essay, this means explaining how the procedures of a research method are applied in a particular topic (see the example essay for a demonstration of this being done).

Evaluate the method, not the studies

To show critical thinking in a research methods essay, it’s important you can explain strengths and limitations of the research method you are writing about. So when you’re evaluating the studies, it’s not a good idea to explain the limitations of the study (e.g. lacking generalizability) without focusing on how the methods are limited in some way.

For example, if I was writing about Loftus and Palmer’s car crash study to show the use of a true experiment to study cognitive processes, it would not be that relevant to the question to explain a limitation of the study based on the characteristics of the participants (e.g. they had limited driving experience) because this isn’t really linked to the true experimental method. A far better evaluative point to make is to explain that maybe these results in a controlled environment might not be reflective of what happens in real life, possibly due to the fact that in this scenario there were no consequences for a wrong answer and the level of emotion is much lower than when witnessing real crimes. These are better points to make because they are focused on a key aspect of the true experiment – the controlled environment.

When explaining limitations of correlational studies, don’t just say “correlational doesn’t mean causation” but actually provide examples. For example, how could the relationship work in both directions, or what are some other factors that might explain the relationship? For example, if I was critiquing the use of correlational studies to study personal relationships, I might say that correlational studies (e.g. Gottman and Levenson) that show a correlational between marital satisfaction and communication could be explained in either direction (what we call bidirectional ambiguity): it could be that poor communication is leading to decreased marital satisfaction (being unhappy in a marriage), or that being unhappy in the marriage is causing more poor communication.

Tip:  Go beyond one sentence explanations of limitations like “ecological validity.” This post explains exactly how to explain limitations of ecological in detail.

Often a third variable can explain the connection between two variables in a correlational study, like in this example of crime and ice-cream. Explaining possible links like this is an excellent way of highlighting the limitations in correlational studies.

Study one method in depth

My advice to students is to prep true experiments and correlational studies, but for every topic they should choose one of these to prep in depth. This is because there is a good chance you might be asked to write an essay about just one method. For example, if the question was “Evaluate the use of one method to study emotion and cognition.” If you revised two or more methods for this topic, then that would have been a wasted effort. By preparing to write about one in-depth (and perhaps having a second with just one study as an example), you are best-prepared to write an excellent essay.

This post about why depth is better than breadth in IB Psychology might help clarify this point.

Tip:  Use one method to critique the other. This is another reason why I like true experiments and correlational studies – their strengths and limitations can be used to evaluate one-anothers.

Discuss vs evaluate – what’s the difference?

There is none. While some teachers will argue that these command terms require different content, I argue (and can demonstrate) that this is simply not the case, especially when it comes to research methods. You can read more about this on this blog post. 

One method or two?

A common question is “do quasi and true experiments count as one method or two?” The truth is no-one yet knows how the IB is going to mark this in the exams. It appears from the IB materials that they are considered two (see quote and image above). However, this is another reason why prepping correlational studies and true experiments is a good idea because they are clearly two separate methods.

Example Essay

You can read an example essay that (I hope) follows the advice given in this blog pots. This essay has been taken from the resources in the  Quantitative Methods Teacher Support Pack.   Even if you’re not teaching using our textbooks, this TSP would still be useful.

Note to students: This has been submitted to turnitin and will be known by your teachers, so it would be very unwise to try to submit this as your own work.

Example Questions

You might be asked about research methods in relation to any of the  topics   in the IB Psychology curriculum. For example, you might be asked to evaluate the use of one research method used in the study of the brain and behaviour. However, you would not be asked to discuss the method used to study neuroplasticity, since this is a sub-content point related to the broader topic. It’s possible that the question might be linked to the approach as well.

Remember that essay questions will be either discuss, evaluate, to what extent or contrast. It is unlikely that the “to what extent” command term will be used for a research methods essay (but not impossible) and it’s also unlikely that “contrast” will be used as well because it is more likely you’ll be asked to write about “one or more” methods. So here are some example essay questions:

Check the IB Guide or your textbooks for a list of the topics in the course.

Good luck and I hope this post was helpful. Remember to check out our store to find the latest revision materials and resources.

Was this helpful? Feel free to leave questions and comments.

Travis Dixon

Travis Dixon is an IB Psychology teacher, author, workshop leader, examiner and IA moderator.

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Scientific method Essay Examples

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Frequently Asked Questions about Scientific method

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essay methods examples

Essays on Research Methods

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essay methods examples

compare and contrast essay block method example

Compare And Contrast Essay Block Method Example

A compare-and-contrast essay is a type of essay in which you first compare the subjects, then contrast them. This type of essay is often assigned at the college level tо help students better understand the relationship between thе two subjects. This essay is also called a “block essay” because you compare and contrast thе subjects in thе beginning аnd then discuss both of their similarities аnd differences in the conclusion. This type of essay is similar to the “point by point” method of writing.

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay

When you begin to write a compare and contrast essay, it can seem daunting. The first thing to do is to determine what yоu are going to write about. You can compare and contrast anything. It could be an object, person, concept, idea, etc. Thе best way to determine this is tо brainstorm аnd choose two subjects you want to compare. Next, you need to decide which subject you are going tо write about first. This will help you determine the order in which you are going to write the two subjects. The order matters for the overall flow of the essay .

Next, you need to write your thesis statement. Thе thesis statement is a one to two sentence that summarizes your overall point. It should bе clear and concise. You don’t want to start writing your compare and contrast essay without having a clear thesis. Your thesis statement should include your thesis statement for the first subject and your thesis statement for the second subject. This way, yоu cаn easily transition between the two subjects and show your reader the relationship between them.

After the thesis statement, you need to write a topic sentence. The topic sentence will outline the point you are going tо make about each subject. This is the most important sentence in your compare and contrast essay. This sentence should also include your thesis statement for the first subject and your thesis statement for the second subject. This helps the reader understand the relationship between thе two subjects.

After the topic sentences, you need to write a conclusion. The conclusion should summarize your points and then tie it all together with a strong thesis statement. A strong thesis statement is what ties your essay together. It іs a sentence that makes your points аll come together. It gives your essay direction. It also gives the reader a sense of direction. It makes the essay look cohesive. A strong thesis statement is what makes your compare and contrast essay look cohesive. It also makes your essay appear well structured. A strong thesis statement is what makes your essay appear well organized and coherent.

Hоw to Compare and Contrast іn an Argumentative Essay

When writing аn argumentative essay, the points you choose will depend on what type of essay you are writing. For instance, an argumentative compare and contrast essay will compare and contrast the points of two subjects, whereas a compare and contrast essay will compare аnd contrast the points of one subject and explain the similarities and differences between them. In an argumentative essay, you will have to use evidence from both subjects to support your points. You will also have to use evidence to disprove the point of one subject and support your point with evidence from thе other subject.

In a descriptive essay, you will compare or contrast the things you have іn mind to show how they are similar оr different. In this type of essay, you will not have to provide evidence to support your point. Yоu will just describe the things аnd give examples of how they arе alike or different. In this type of essay, the points you choose will depend оn the type of essay yоu are writing.

Writing an Argumentative Compare and Contrast Essay

In order to write an argumentative compare and contrast essay, yоu will have to first decide on the subjects you are going to compare or contrast. The subjects can be anything from books, films, theories, to people. You may also have to compare and contrast the same event оr objects. The two subjects must have some sort of relationship. For example, you cаn compare and contrast two things that seem completely different, such as two people or two cars, but if they have something in common, you can also compare and contrast them.

When deciding on your subjects, you must decide whether you are making a general statement, a comparison, or an argument. General statements are statements that are not specific to the subject you arе comparing. For example, yоu can write a general statement about thе two people or two cars, but if you compare them, yоu will be making a point about their similarities and differences. A comparison statement will focus on one aspect of the subject аnd will focus on the similarities between the two subjects. A comparison statement іn an argumentative essay will focus on one point and will compare the subject tо something in common. A comparison statement іn an analytical essay will focus on one point аnd will focus on the similarities and differences of thе subject.

In an analytical essay, yоu will be making a claim about the subject. A claim is a statement that states a position about thе topic and is backed by evidence. A claim in an analytical essay will be supported by examples. For example, if you are writing an analytical essay on the causes of World War II, you will first focus on the causes of the war and then provide evidence that supports the claim that Germany started the war.

An argumentative thesis statement is similar tо an argument in an analytical essay. However, in an argumentative essay, you will bе making an argument about your point of view. Yоu will provide evidence to support your point оf view.

In a typical compare аnd contrast essay, you will be writing about one subject at a time. For example, if you are writing about the similarities between apples and oranges, you will first identify the two subjects and then write about the differences. In a typical compare and contrast essay, you will write about one subject аt a time. Fоr example, if you arе writing about thе differences between a Ford Expedition and a Toyota Prius, you will first identify the two subjects and then write about the similarities.

Writing an argumentative essay block method requires that you identify the two subjects you will bе comparing, and then write about the similarities and differences between the two subjects.

The block method can also be organized in a manner that uses only the first subject as the first subject and the second subject as the second subject. In this case, the two subjects you are comparing will be the first twо subjects оf the block method.

In this method, you first identify the first subject, then the second subject and finally the third subject. You then discuss the first subject іn the first body paragraph, then the second subject in the second body paragraph, and finally thе third subject in the third body paragraph.

This method іs more balanced because it allows you to compare more subjects and also allows you tо compare the same subject more than once. However, this method does not always work well because you can end up comparing subjects that arе too similar. In such cases, you may end up writing paragraphs that are either too long or too short. In addition, this method does not allow for any counter arguments.



I'm Abrielle Schneider and I'm a 34-year-old educational blogger. I enjoy writing about education topics and sharing helpful tips with others. I also enjoy photography and spending time with my family.

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Essay Sample on Occupational Hygiene Methods

Essay Sample on Occupational Hygiene Methods

In the task at hand concerned with the differentiation of multiple analytical methods for NIOSH chemicals, there is the selection of silica, with its two analytical methods with numbers 7500 and 7601, respectively. For Silica, it is an oxide of silicon and has the chemical formula Si02.

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Analytical methods of silica

Starting with NIOSH 7500, it can be put into use in the measurement of the exposure to the respiratory crystalline silica in the place of work (workplace), such as the sand processing sites and factories. Such crystalline silica is quite small, with a radius of fewer than 10 micrometers. NIOSH 7500 has the capability of distinguishing the concentrations of all the polymorphs of crystalline silica, which include the tridymite, cristobalite, as well as quartz.

On the other hand, NIOSH 7601 is used in the determination of the crystalline silica in total or respirable dust, the settled dust, or even the biological samples. All three crystalline polymorphs: which are made up of tridymite, cristobalite, as well as quartz: cannot get distinguished by the method at hand (Ashley & O'Connor, 2017). The method is mainly used in the research areas alone, primarily because the alternative x-ray diffraction, as well as IR methods, possess better laboratory to laboratory agreement compared to the visible absorption methods. Using the method, any of the compounds with silicon can be dissolved in HF, hence producing a positive interference in the process of conducting research. In the event there is the use of infrared spectrometry, it is established that the three polymorphs can quickly get distinguished and determined, and at other times only two of them can be present, whereby in both cases, there needs to be the use of less sensitive peak. Such happens irrespective of the amorphous nature of silica and the silicates, and with their massive amounts, they can easily interfere with the Infrared spectrometry.

Principle of Operation of the Methods

Niosh 7500 and 7601.

Both the NIOSH 7500 and 7601 have been developed for use in the chemical analysis of quartz, tridymite, as well as cristobalite. However, their settings vary, here NIOSH 7500 is applicable in the field extraction and processing of sand, while NIOSH 7601 is applied in the laboratory scientific research for the chemical components of sand, as per the objectives of the study. However, they also differ where they make use of two different analytical techniques but at the same time, provide similar results with some minor merits and demerits. For NIOSH 7500, the analytical technique used is the X-Ray diffraction, while for NIOSH 7601, the analytical technique used is the Infrared spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction technique refers to the fast method of analysis, which is used primarily in the phase of identification of the crystalline materials and has the ability to provide the data on the individual dimensions of material cells. For the case of infrared spectroscopy, it concerns the analysis method, which deals in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is the light having long wavelength as well as low frequency compared to the visible light (Ashley, 2015). The two techniques have the ability to detect the various polymorphs of sand when used.

Ashley, K. (2015). NIOSH Manual of analytical methods 5th edition and harmonization of occupational exposure monitoring. Gefahrstoffe, Reinhaltung der Luft= Air quality control/Herausgeber, BIA und KRdL VDI und DIN, 2015(1-2), 7. Retrieved from Ashley, K., & O'Connor, P. F. (2017). NIOSH manual of analytical methods (NMAM). Retrieved from

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Research Design And Methods Essay Samples

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Food , Education , Focus , Students , Community , Information , Design , Study

Words: 3250

Published: 03/17/2020


Research design

This refers to the plan, structure and format of any scientific or statistical work. It serves the purpose of guiding the researcher in his study and will set out the framework to be used. Research design will basically cover the data collection process, tools of collecting such data, how the tools will be used to collect data and how to analyze the collected data into a useful form (Gosling, 2014). A problem will be raised by researcher in which he will carry out his course study to draw an answer through collecting data (Meyer, et al, 2012). A research design is an essential component while planning to carry out a research on a particular subject or population. The characteristics of the subject determine the methods of data collection to be used in the research. Furthermore the instruments and the means of their deployment are determined during the research design. In this paper, we delve into the research methods in an educational institution. The research will take place at a local high school to determine the student’s preferences in accordance to meals offered by the school.

Characteristics of the Organization

This research will cover the Edgewood Senior High School, Ashtabula in Ohio. This is a very prominent school that excels in many activities that are offered in the school curriculum. The school was started in the early 1960’s to cater for the growing need for better education in the locality. Athletics make the backbone of the sporting calendar to the school. Therefore this research will take into consideration the effect of the meals given to the students on their performance mainly in the field. There has been a problem in the high school such that more than 40% of the students do not take their lunch portions. This makes a lot of food to go to waste thereby draining the resources offered by the federal government. The research is primarily aimed at finding and amicable solution to the problem and if not possible develops better ways of feeding the students at the school. The research organization being an educational institution also ensures that there will be a wide range of data that can be used for analysis. This therefore dictates the use of methods that will cover the school efficiently while at the same time using the fewest resources as possible.

Research Design Process

The research process is as follows: Statement of problem is identified; making a plan how to start actual research is determined; determining research type to use and stating methods to use. Below are some of the most significant research design methods to be used

Observational Design

This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. Here a control group can be selected to be another high school within the locality. The high school should have a big number of the students taking their meals at the cafeteria. There are two general types of observational designs. In direct observations, people know that you are watching them. Unobtrusive measures involve any method for studying behavior where individuals do not know they are being observed. An observational study allows a useful insight into a phenomenon and avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of setting up a large and cumbersome research project (Jaksić, F. 1981).

Philosophical Design

This is empathized as more as a wide approach to studying a research problem than a methodological design, philosophic analytical review and argument is aimed to dispute deeply rooted, frequently unmanaged, assumptions laying an area of study (Jaksić, F. 1981).

Sequential Design

This is research done that is deliberate in action, arranged approach. It is serial in nature. The stages follow each other in succession. After completion of one, the other will start. The former stage (output) will be the input of the new stage. This will take place until data extracted is enough for basing judgments on the theory. In this study, sample size is not determined. Researcher will analyze each sample and may accept the null hypothesis or accept the alternative hypothesis. He may also decide to select other pool of subjects and start carrying out the study again. Researcher can use a countless number of subjects before deciding whether to accept the alternative or null hypothesis. Using a quantitative model, a sequential study will utilize sampling and stratified techniques to collect data and apply statistical techniques to analyze collected data. Using a qualitative framework, sequential studies will utilize samples of group’s individuals [age brackets] and use qualitative techniques such as interviewing or observing, to collect information from each and every sample

Other main factors to consider

Exploiting all avenues of research environment (Exploratory study) This is a vital role in any research problem (Lawson, A. E. 2000). The researcher will define the study taking place. This is common in research studies where no other researcher has conducted any study on and it the environment of study is not known to research (Campana, P., & Varese, F. 2012). Such kind of study will lack any formal plan used in project study and is only meant to get a writer familiarized. Description in Study- This study seeks to provide an in depth answer to the problem posed in the form of question to the researcher. Such a study will give more information as compared to an exploratory study conducted (Robinson, 2004). The study is better compared to other research methods since the writer is able to give all details relating to the world and how it is. This is through study of possible trends and patterns followed by a certain variable and if there is any linkage to that effect. An example of descriptive question asked can be: "How often?", “What percentage", “What amount"," what proportion", "what is", “what are”. The following is a list of questions where descriptive study is brought out clearly; Question: What percentage of students takes lunch? Question: Which meals are the most popular among the students? Variable: Calories. Group: Students. In each of the descriptive questions we are quantifying the specific variables we require to ask (Sanchez Martin, et al., 2000). In our case above the descriptive questions seek to determine the frequency or the number. You may use descriptive questions to ask about percentage and counts involved.

Analytical study

As the name suggests the study carried out is explanatory in nature. Analytical studies will link the study of the cause to actual causes. The study usually will lead to an action. Analytical research is structured in form unlike exploration study. Exploratory study is used to provide qualitative data in research process (Xing, Q., Hulin, W., & Rui, H. 2013).A researcher will have to use his knowledge to determine how exploratory research should be and should not be used in his course work (Sartor, Maureen A., et Al).Exploratory research will involve the researcher asking people questions and taking note of the responds made during the study (Data analysis techniques). The researcher will ask questions will guide respondent but will be semi-structured and not formal in nature.

Exploratory Techniques to be used

Focus group interviews This is a small group of individuals usually six to a maximum of fifteen people and will include a moderator who will guide the group in discussing the agenda of the meeting (Singer, F. 2007).Researchers will ask the group specific questions related to what is being researched. Focus groups are selected randomly by the researcher and will be done so to achieve convenience of the researcher and respondents Brace, I. (2008). Focus groups will have a variety of advantages and disadvantages depending on the scenario at hand. This method provides an impromptu scenario where the data that is to be collected will be rarely influenced by anything. It also offers the researchers an opportunity to take information that is tailored specifically to the subject at hand. In this research the student groups will provide varied information on their preferences and even give reasons to why some don’t take their meals (Jaksić, F. 1981). Focus groups will be in different forms namely (Types of focus groups).Two-Way Focus Group, Moderating focus groups, moderator focus groups, Dueled moderating focus groups, Client focus participation group, Respondent driven moderator group, Small focus groups also known as mini groups, Teleconferenced focus groups and Online driven focus groups (Brace, I. 2008). Expert undertaken surveys: A researcher may decide to rely on expert survey information instead of undertaking a survey which he is not sure of. In expert surveys, a list of question is prepared by the researcher which is open ended structure. This will ensure that experts have a greater extent of freedom to place on answering questions asked (Tam, V. Y., Shen, L. Y., & Ochoa, J. 2013d). The expert will use their acquired skills and expertise to give detailed answers useful in the research process. In relation to this organization, Looking at previous instances can give the researchers an opportunity to have beforehand information regarding the subject matter. Looking at previous studies in other schools at the locality will enable the researchers to gather more data that can be used in critically analyzing the data collected in the research. This is a very significant component because it prepares the researchers for the obstacles that may be encountered in the research. Such obstacles may include non cooperation, inconclusive data and unreliable data (Jaksić, F. 1981). These surveys also need to have a specific subject to ensure that the jargon and other unwanted information are done away with. It will eventually save a lot of time and resources to be used in conducting the research. Conducting interviews: Here depth interview will be conducted. Depth interviews are somehow more or less the same to focus groups, but have a deeper need of acquiring information about feelings of customers and the general public about anything e.g. Product( Kluga, et al., 2012). For this study, this is the most effective method to carry out the research. The personal interviews should be carried out systematically and should be able to carry all the required information. The interviews should be divided to cover those who take the meals and those who don’t. For those who depend on the school for meals, the quality of the meals should be the most important area to concentrate on (Jaksić, F. 1981). The questions should also be formulated in such a way that the students easily understand them. Some of the questions may include, “Are the meals sufficient?”, “Is the quality of the food good?”” how many times in a week do you take the meals at the school?” For the students that do take meals, the questions should be more engaging than the above group. Furthermore, these interviews should be deeper since the students may have more concrete reasons to avoid taking meals at the school dining facility (Lawson, 2000). This group of students can provide a more detailed data set towards knowing what influence their choices. Some of the questions to ask this group include, “Why do you miss the meals at the dining hall?”, “Is the food offered at the institution up to standard?” Projective Techniques: This is the use of opinions, beliefs and attitudes of respondents to obtain research data (Lawson, 2000). This method is deployed to mine what is hidden by the interviewees. It enables the researchers to relate what the interviewees say and the information that the researchers may presume is being withheld. Regarding this research, the students who skip meals may deliberately holdback important information regarding the quality of food. It may be due to the fear of being in bad books with the schools administration. This technique can be useful in covering the students with diverse ethnic and cultural origins. Students with Asian backgrounds may find it hard to voice their opinions because of the model of the family that they are raised in. Their culture is bent on respecting the authorities above anyone else (Campana, P., & Varese, F. 2012). In order for this technique to be successful, the research group will have to source for some professionals who can explain certain behaviors during the interviews. Using open ended questions: This is similar to expert surveys in a way. It gives researcher’s ability to get views, comments, complaints, feelings, and attitude and ensure respondents have a forum to air their view of things (Guthery, F. 2007). The students will have a good opportunity to relay their feelings on the subject matter. It will enable them to give a much more detailed account on the quality of the food in the dining halls. Furthermore, it gives them a chance to feel free during the interview and thereby will provide much more relevant information to the researchers (Robinson, A. 2004).

Below are some examples;-

Research Design will take 2 forms mainly which includes, Generating of data from various sources: This includes using data collection methods to generate data. This can be through the use of questionnaires, doing of experiments, course studies undertaken and carrying out ethnographic studies (Robinson, A. 2004).. Analysis of existing and generated data testing of data will be in two main forms which are; Using numerical data analysis where the modeling of statistical data takes place and secondary data analysis. Using textual data to analyze which includes: discourse analysis, content analysis among other methods (Singer, F. 2007).

How the research will be conducted

Planning for the research is very essential. This will determine the quality of the data collected and the overall reliability of the answers given by the interviewees. The research will be divided into different portions to cover the whole school and capture the different perspectives pertaining the subject matter. (Campana, P., & Varese, F. 2012).

Survey on the Students

This is the most important segment of the research. They are directly involved in the matter and are the ones that consume the food provided by the institution. It is therefore paramount that the methods of interview are not threatening since many may give false information. Furthermore the questions will have one backbone and will essential aim at getting the reasons behind why some don’t consume the food at the dining hall. In this group, employing both qualitative and quantitative methods will help get a good set of data. Some of the research methods must involve direct communication with the students. The other ones will need observation especially on the ones who rarely take their food at the dining hall (Robinson, A. 2004).

Survey on the Catering staff

These researches will provide complementary data to the one gained from the students. The staff can provide more data on the amount of food that is received by the school and whether it is of acceptable quality. Furthermore, the staff at the dining hall may have greater information and may offer more conclusive data about the students’ feeding habits (Singer, F. 2007). The researchers are also supposed to take an impromptu visit to the cooking area. This should however be preplanned with the school administration. The researchers should be provided with passes to be able to access the kitchen. Once in the kitchen, observation and taking of notes should be done immediately to prevent the staff from changing the environment to suit their words (Campana, P., & Varese, F. 2012).

Survey on the school administration

The school administration is supposed to cater for all the students in the school. However, failure of some of the students to consume the food provided may point to a disconnect within the school policy. The department involved should be assessed. School records can provide enough data about the amount spent and the type of food bought by the administration. Furthermore, it should be noted that there may be some obstacles in this section. Some of the staff involved may deliberately hide some information if they have a hand in the problem. To counter this, the research should also look at the documents of surrounding schools to get a general scenario. After that, the information gained should tally with others because the institution is government funded (Brace, I. 2008) .

The research design methods should be tailored to a specific subject. The characteristics of the subject matter should be studied extensively first. This will ensure that the type of questions formulated fit into the program. Furthermore, the methods and designs need to be determined before the research takes place.

List of References

Brace, I. (2008). Questionnaire Design : How to Plan, Structure and Write Survey Material for Effective Market Research. London: Kogan Page. Campana, P., & Varese, F. (2012). Listening to the wire: criteria and techniques for the quantitative Analysis of phone intercepts. Trends In Organized Crime, 15(1), 13-30. Gosling, E. (2014). New Science Museum Reseach Centre designs inspired by 'sitting under a tree on a summer's day'. Design Week (Online Edition), 7. 23-29. Guthery, F. S. (2007). Deductive and Inductive Methods of Accumulating Reliable Knowledge in Wildlife Science. Journal Of Wildlife Management, 71(1), 222-225. doi:10.2193.2006-276 Jaksić, F. M. (1981). Recognition of Morphological Adaptations in Animals: The Hypothetico- Deductive Method. Bioscience, 31(9), 667-670. Lawson, A. E. (2000). The Generality of Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning: Making Scientific Thinking Explicit. American Biology Teacher (National Association Of Biology Teachers), 62(7), 482. Meyer, W., Caprioara-Buda, M., Jeynov, B., Corbisier, P., Trapmann, S., & Emons, H. (2012). The impactof analytical quality criteria and data evaluation on the quantification of genetically modified organisms. European Food Research & Technology, 235(4), 597-610. doi:10.1007/s00217-012- 1787-7. Robinson, A. (2004). Preserving correlation while modelling diameter distributions. Canadian Sartor, Maureen A., et al. "Genomewide Analysis Of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binding Targets Reveals An Extensive Array Of Gene Clusters That Control Morphogenetic And Developmental Programs." Environmental Health Perspectives 117.7 (2009): 1139-1146. GreenFILE. Web. 27 Nov. 2014. Sánchez-Martín, M. J., Sánchez-Camazano, M., & Lorenzo, L. F. (2000). Cadmium and Lead

Tam, V. Y., Shen, L. Y., & Ochoa, J. (2013). Design for Green Property Development in Developing Cities. Journal Of Professional Issues In Engineering Education & Practice, 139(4), 310-316. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EI.1943-5541.0000161 Singer, F. (2007). Dualism, Science, and Statistics. Bioscience, 57(9), 778-782. doi:10.1641/B570910 Xing, Q., Hulin, W., & Rui, H. (2013). The impact of quantile and rank normalization procedure testing power of gene differential expression analysis. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(1), 1-10.

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 Difference Quantitative and Qualitative method in consumer Behavior

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In developing an effective marketing strategy, researchers tend to conduct basic as well as applied studies to determine the critical variables that are relevant to the understanding of the consumer behavior. These qualitative or quantitative research studies are usually aimed at providing the marketers with information that aids them in reducing uncertainty and making a better decision (Barnham, 2015). In such cases, the researchers are always poised to analyze the consumer behavior based on the collected data to identify the needs and the wants of the consumer at a given time. However, there always exits differences between the qualitative and quantitative research studies regarding consumer behavior.

The most basic differences between the quantitative and qualitative research are that the former always use logic, numbers, statistics, and models to collect responses from consumers. Besides, it mostly uses scientific methodology in the analysis and collections of data. Some of the consumer-related information customarily obtained using this approach includes product references, brand penetration, and awareness among many others (Belk, 2000). On the other hand, the qualitative research method often applies the techniques such as interviews, opinions, discussions, art, and images to understand the complex behavior of consumers. This research method is commonly used when there few respondents involved in  data collections.

In deliberating the behaviors of the consumers, the quantitative research approach tends to be concerned with ‘what’ questions, especially when trying to find out the number of consumers who are interested in particular substitute products. On the other hand, the qualitative research, usually concerned with ‘why’ questions while undertaking motivational research as well as suggestions through interrogative strategies. These ‘what’ and ‘why’ questions are usually applied to understand the behaviors and attitude as such, they are always considered as a widespread belief in eliciting the motivation of the consumers regarding physiological forces that affect the consumer’s decisions.

In concern to the conventional distinctions, the primary task of quantitative is most centered towards establishing representations of the consumer’s ideas regarding a particular market product. In this aspect, the quantitative research, tend to rely on physical sciences to build an intellectual platform for the firm (Gummesson, 2005). The qualitative research method is often ambiguous in that it is mostly concerned with the manner in which the consumer thinks or behaves towards a particular product within the market. This research method is mainly applied by researchers when examining the more profound inspirations of the consumer’s attitude

While considering the strength and the weaknesses of these two research methods, it is often evident that the qualitative research approach is always flexible as compared to the quantitative research methodology. This is because, during the process of getting a response from the consumer, the researcher might be allowed to rectify the discussion structure to align with respondents’ answers (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). This is however not possible in the case of quantitative research method as the process of data collections is usually fixed and does not create space for modifications.  Another difference between the two research methods is that the qualitative research tends to be natural as compared to the quantitative research method. This results from the fact that the quality research always can analyze the modifications that may arise with time. 

Despite the difference between the quantitative and the qualitative research methods, the two usually share a wide range of applicability in market intelligence. They are always the best method considered by researchers in delivering a quality research. This why it is often recommended that both approaches should be applied by researchers while studying a phenomenon. 


essay methods examples

Examples Of Ethos Pathos Logos

Example of ethos pathos logos.

the least ineffective rhetorical appeal is "logos"although there may be some logic in saying hi to a person when you see them most people do not say hello back to you. When i was younger i said hello to everyone i meet but there were always people that did not respond back. The reason why they did not respond back is because they didn't care or were not feeling to well to say hi. Most people say hi to send back the generosity of someone greeting them, others don't and just leave and smash your generosity on the ground.

What Is An Example Of Ethos Pathos Logos

The cotton advertisement utilizes both pathos and logos to convey their message. The ad uses pathos by presenting the consumer a picture of a group of friends smiling and laughing. The example set by the picture, sends the message that if the consumer purchases items from that company, that they too can be as happy as them. However irrational the message, the ad is able to send a subconscious message to the brain which ultimately will help determine the conscious decision of whether or not the consumer would buy the products. Additionally, the company’s logo in the bottom right corner of the ad followed by the website, shows ethos. The company’s logo and website embellishes their authority and professionalism, which in turn creates trust in

Ethos Pathos Logos

Aristotle’s terms of persuasion can help to validate whether or not an ad will be successful. In this case the ad is for a Chevrolet 1500 Silverado Truck (2015 Chevrolet Silverado 14 Oct.2015). The terms of persuasion that help to evaluate this ad are Ethos, Logos and pathos. The use of rhetoric in the ad can play a major role in the ads success. As well as identifying the colors in the ad and there meaning, it can help to understand the persuasion used in the ad. By evaluating these terms of persuasion and by doing a theoretical analysis one can find and view the success of the Chevy truck ad.

Imagine having an opportunity to further your education and build a better future for your family and yourself. Then all of a sudden all of those things have a possibility to vanish out of nowhere and now there is only fear. That is the feeling that many young people are feeling right now across the country. Tim Marema and Bryce Oates write about how the end of DACA affects every single person in the United States. They apply pathos and logos to appeal to the reader by informing them about what the issue is and what will happen.

Persuasion is an art; and mastering this art requires the manipulation of the rhetorical triangles: ethos, pathos, and logos. “Ethos” deals with the credibility of the author; “pathos” refers to the emotional appeal of the text; and “logos” is the logics behind the argument; and these three fundamental appeals are the basis of persuasion. The rhetorical methods used in the two visuals, "How to Gain or Lose 30 minutes of Life Everyday" and "People Kill with Guns More Than Any Other Weapon," both by Mark Fischetti will be analyzed, compared and contrasted in reference to the broader contexts of each source.

I used anaphoras, rhetorical questions, devices, analogies, and epigraphs to express the ethos, pathos, and logos in my speech. I wrote with anaphoras to get the point of America failing over and over again across to the reader. This gets the reader emotional and upset about America’s choices made, which makes the above pathos. I used rhetorical questioning to make the audience really think about the topic and to dissect all of the information given before the question. These form a light bulb in the audience’s head and again, make them think harder. These are great transitions from opening sentences to facts and information. That means this part of the speech was also pathos, due to the call of action it releases. I also used devices in my

These words are strong sources of pathos appeal because it persuades the audience. He goes very deep, and at the same time he permits the audience understand in their way the ideas. This diction appeals to those values the audience contains. It also makes the tone a bit formal, appropriate for new president of the United States.

things did not go as planned, and ended in a disaster, the war turned against Germany. Hitler became surrounded by the Allied troops, with their military and submarines. That’s when Hitler came to believe, that Germany lost World War 1. He thought, by killing all the Jews would solve the problem. When the war ended he killed himself.

In my classical argumentation essay, I used several rhetorical strategies in order to make my essay more appealing and convincing towards my readers. In my essay, I used rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, and pathos). I used logos by providing statistics on the amount of children that are not in school and the amount of children that are employed in places like India, Nigeria and Brazil. I then used pathos by providing facts on how children are placed in hazardous environments and their lack of education. I used ethos by providing the authors of the sources that I used, who are experts in their respective fields. An additional strategy I used was organization, as I organized my paper according to the framework for a classical argumentation.

I will assess an argument with ethos, logos, and pathos which are important to present the points in my essay and these can help me make my argument appeal to audience. Ethos is thinking ethical appeal which involves convincing my audience that I have enough knowledge and can be trusted. I have to prove myself that I understand what I am arguing. Next is logos which is thinking logical appeal. I use it when I credible evidence to support my argument. The evidence includes facts, examples, precedents, authority, and deductive or inductive. Finally, pathos is thinking passionate or emotional appeal which can be effective if it is not overdone, especially my topic is an emotional one. Using the reasonable appeal to each audience bring positive

In every presidential campaign, candidates and their PR team work hard to grab the attention of their audience. As of today, Bernie Sanders, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump all used similar techniques to appeal to the people. Using the different elements; Ethos, Pathos and Logos the people were able to decide which side they want to support.

Ethos, logos, and pathos are persuasional tools that can help the writer present their argument in a way that is appealing to the audience. The combination of tools will differ from essay to essay depending upon which tools will be the most effective with the targeted audience that will read the essay.

There has been various of methods of appealing to an audience whether or not if it's trying to sell to a consumer or just wanting to get an attention to a person. This is called Ethos Pathos and Logos. Steve Job was using this type of method whether if it’s giving out a speech, coming out with a new iphone or coming out with a new computer. He would always use logos to Pathos to appeal to buyers and newcomers.

With any commercial in today’s society they are always trying to get you to buy their product in any way possible. You should think about three key things throughout the commercial. One being what is the product, two is how the product performs, and finally how is the company behind the product is trying to pull you in and but their product. The company will use three appeals, these are Ethos, Pathos, And Logos. While logos in a commercial will have a more logical approach, Ethos will have a trustworthy approach, and finally Pathos will impact most people due to the emotional approach. If the commercial does not get you to buy their product then they are not persuasive towards you, but in with other people they could persuade them into buying

Example Of Ethos Pathos And Logos

The Chop-athon. An annual, school-offered event in which students cut vegetables and fruits for the disadvantaged and homeless.

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Essay Service Examples Crime Criminal Investigation

Methods of Inquiry in Criminal Investigation

There are many investigative techniques used in a criminal investigation. Each technique is different in providing evidence that can be used in the courtroom to prove someone guilty or innocent. Some of these investigative techniques are intelligence databases, forensic techniques, profiling techniques, surveillance techniques, and interview techniques.

The use of intelligence databases has been used in criminal investigations. This refers to information that has been obtained and recorded. This can be stored in a variety of different databases. One is the Police National Database which includes intelligence about suspected criminal activity. It holds over 3.5 billion searchable records. Another database is the Police National Computer which stores extensive information on people`s arrests and convictions, vehicles and driving licenses, and finally missing and wanted people. In the brief, the police checked the police databases for known offenders living in the area. By doing so, they can identify any offenders who live within where the murder was committed and be able to match any patterns or occurrences to find a suspect. Furthermore, another database is the Criminal and the Gangs Matrix. This includes information on criminals, suspects, protesters, and suspected gang members. Finally, the last of the databases would be the international databases. The information used in databases can also be accessed and shared by different countries. Examples of the data would be INTERPOL databases on child sexual exploitation, biometric records, stolen property, firearms, and organized crime networks. In a criminal investigation, the Police National Database would be the most useful. This is because if the databases were in the Police Station, they would have quick access. This can allow police to receive details for a suspect or already have a profile for another criminal which gave help them to convict an offender. Also, due to it having over 3.5 billion searchable records, there is a huge likelihood of retrieving details of suspects. However, the Criminal and the Gang Matrix may be the least useful because it has been criticized for being racially discriminatory, and in 2017, the names and addresses of 203 alleged gang members were accidentally leaked and those named suffered serious violence from rival gangs.

One investigative technique useful in criminal investigations would be forensic techniques. This includes scientific tests to examine evidence like biological materials; blood, semen, and hair; as well as fingerprints, shoe prints, weapons, fibers, paint, etc. In the brief, investigators found footprints and a red scarf which allowed the police to look for DNA evidence to match Gareth Hughes. DNA analysis has led to important developments in solving serious crimes since fingerprinting was invented. Furthermore, it has led to samples of family members’ DNA being used to aid the identification of offenders, due to the similarity of DNA profiles. For example, this was apparent in the case of Collette Aram. Colette Aram was raped and murdered in 1983 before DNA analysis existed. However, the offender (Paul Hutchinson) was found and convicted due to a similarity in DNA samples, after his son was arrested for motoring offenses later on.

Forensic techniques can be very useful in criminal investigations. Due to DNA being found in almost every cell and each person`s being unique, this allows for easy identification of those in the databases and provides a profile of the offender. Also, even if the DNA cannot be matched, DNA from close relatives, such as siblings, have many similarities in common and matches may be made from this. Through this, it can prove a suspect to be innocent or guilty and avoid any miscarriages of justice. This allows for forensic techniques to be extremely useful in criminal investigations because it provides high chances of profiling and convicting the perpetrator.

However, forensic techniques may not be useful in criminal investigations. This is due to the possibility of contamination. When collecting DNA material, investigators must secure the scene and wear protective clothing. However, if this does not occur contamination can occur and result in a miscarriage of justice. This was the case with Adam Scott, who was wrongly convicted of rape after the contamination of a DNA sample. Also, forensic techniques may not use because to match DNA samples, the offender must be in the Police National Database. Furthermore, with DNA tests being quite expensive, the recent budget cuts in many forensic fields may lead to certain cases being burdensome as they are unable to fund the DNA evidence needed to prove someone guilty or innocent.

Another investigative technique that is useful in criminal investigations would be Profiling techniques. This is when by examining the characteristics of an offense, we can predict the characteristics of the offender. One type of profiling is typological profiling. This aims to put offenders into different types by the characteristics of how they behave at the crime scene. Profiling divides the crime scene and the offender into organized and disorganized types. For example, an organized murderer would have above-average intelligence, be manipulative, and be angry at the time of the attack, whereas a disorganized murderer would be socially inadequate and be frightened or confused at the time of the attack. By doing this, the police can identify and narrow down their search for the offender and predict future behavior. Another type of profiling is clinical profiling. This is when clinical psychologists use their professional experience to get into the mind of the offender this allows them to gain insight to predict future behavior. This was used in the brief, where a criminal psychologist was used to create an offender profile of the killer, which led to the arrest of Gareth Hughes who fitted the description given. The third type of profiling is geographic profiling. Due to offenders making choices about where they offend, geographical profiling aims to investigate where the offenses occurred to identify where the offender lives. This is based on the least effort principle (where the offender chooses the offender nearer to home) and the buffer zone principle (where offenders will avoid offending too close to home). This has been explained through the marauder whereby drawing a circle through the two furthest apart offenses, the offender will live in the middle. The commuter where the offender will travel away from home and once they are there, the crimes will all be clustered together. For example, this was the case with John Duffy. 23 women were raped at railway stations throughout the southeast. Geographical profiling was used by studying where the rapes occurred, and the patterns involved with the offenses. This helped profile Duffy and identified where he lives to convict him.

essay methods examples

There are several advantages to profiling techniques being used in criminal investigations. One strength would be it can link crimes committed by the same offender. This can be very useful as it can allow police to be ahead of the offender and to be able to find and convict them before any further offending occurs. Also, through this, we can predict future offenses and prevent any further victims. Furthermore, profiling can be useful in criminal investigations as it can help the police target their resources and priories suspects. With recent budget cuts in the police departments, there is a lack of resources. However, targeting the offender early on, allows for fewer resources to be used and therefore can save them for bigger cases.

However, there are also some weaknesses to profiling techniques, which may lead to them being not useful in criminal investigations. For example, typological profiling can be useful in a criminal investigation because it allows offenders to be caught sooner and prevents any future crimes to occur. However, the profile based on the offender`s likely personality is subjective and may be completely different from the offender`s actual personality. This would prove that profiling to not be useful in criminal investigations. Also, clinical profiling could produce unsupported speculation about the offender’s characteristics and motivations. This may sidetrack the investigation and may lead to arresting innocent people. This occurred in the case of Rachel Nickell. Rachel was murdered in broad daylight in 1992. Paul Britton, a criminal profiler, was used in the investigation and Colin Stagg was convinced to be the murderer as he fitted the description. However, they lacked forensic evidence and therefore, Britton came up with a plan to tempt Stagg into a confession using a honey trap. Although Stagg didn`t confess, he was still charged with the murder. However, with the use of the honey trap, the trial collapsed as they tried to incriminate an innocent suspect. Profiling techniques, such as geographical profiling can be useful in criminal investigations because it has been able to predict where to find the offender in a range of crimes e.g., rape, arson, etc. However, if the offenders change patterns and ways of offending, profilers will find it difficult to predict the offender`s future offending. Also, geographical profilers rely on accurate data. If crime locations are not recorded correctly, this will make the map inaccurate. Despite this, geographical profiling may be the most useful in a criminal investigation. This is because it can help with a variety of crimes, and it can help prevent any future offending and save further victims. Also, it can help you track down where the offender lives and be able to arrest and convict them to bring rightful justice.

Another investigative technique that is useful in criminal investigations would be Surveillance techniques. Surveillance techniques involve watching over someone or something to help provide evidence for criminal investigations. This can involve CCTV, Covert surveillance, and observation. CCTV is used to give 24-hour coverage of a location, and the crime and to help identify the offender and victims. This is very useful in a criminal investigation. For example, it proved very useful in the case of James Bulger. James Bulger was abducted, tortured, and murdered by two 10-year-old boys. Bulgers’ body was found on the train tracks a few miles away from Liverpool`s shipping Centre. CCTV footage from the shopping Centre showed the offender observing the children and selecting Bulger. The boys walked out of the shopping Centre with Bulger, and CCTV footage found them walking toward the train station. It caught Thompson and Venables (the offenders) beating Bulger up and pushing him onto the train tracks. This footage was used in court, and Thompson and Venables got convicted guilty of murder. However, CCTV may not always be useful. This is because due to CCTV being fixed, it lacks the ability to follow a suspect around the corner. Also, CCTV cameras can be easily spotted which may result in offenders avoiding them or disguising themselves. Furthermore, CCTV footage may not always be of good quality, which may make it difficult or impossible to identify someone. Despite this, however, CCTV is the most useful in a criminal investigation. This is because CCTV cameras are placed in most streets, laboratories, police stations, and outside and within big institutions. With the camera running constantly, this increases the likelihood of catching criminal activity. This evidence may help convict someone of being guilty or proving someone`s innocence, which proves its usefulness in a criminal investigation.

Another type of surveillance technique would be covert surveillance. This is planned surveillance carried out so that those being monitored are unaware. Examples of covert surveillance are: tracking devices and GPS, tapping phones, unmarked police cars, etc. Cover Human Intelligence Sources can also be used. They are individuals who maintain a relationship with the target to gain information. Despite covert surveillance being successful in helping o gain information and insight into offenders to prevent future offending, it may be the most useful technique used in criminal investigations. This is because carrying out covert surveillance may breach the target’s human rights to private life and entrapment. If carried out unethically, this can result in the information being found to be inadmissible and the case being collapsed. This will result in the technique being not useful. Covert Surveillance is pre-planned surveillance; however, observation is not. Observation may occur if a police officer not on duty unexpectedly comes across suspicious activity taking place. The police officer may keep the situation under observation to decide whether there is a crime being committed.

Finally, the last investigative technique used in criminal investigation is the interview technique. Interview techniques involve interviewing witnesses to a crime or experts that can help provide evidence to a court. One example of an interview technique is eyewitness testimonies. This is evidence given by a witness to a crime which is often accepted by juries as accurate, and more weight is given to this than to other types of evidence. In fact, in 74% of cases, a lineup identification was the only prosecution evidence as mentioned by the Devlin Committee in 1976. This can show the usefulness of the technique in criminal investigations. However, despite this, the innocent project showed that over 70% of the 352 wrongful convictions were due to eyewitness misidentifications. This may result in the technique being not useful. Also, eyewitness testimonies may have problems in criminal investigations. This is due to the nature of relying on a witness`s memory acquisition (how well they absorbed the details of the crime), memory retention (storing the events for long periods of time), and memory retrieval (how well the witness recalls the memory accurately). The witness’s memory may be affected by the crime, resulting in them providing inaccurate details of a crime and therefore being not useful in a criminal investigation. For example, in the brief, two witnesses came forward and claimed to have seen a man acting suspiciously in the park. However, when brought in to identify the man from the lineup, only one of them showed up. The witness who identified Gareth Hughes could`ve recognized his face due to the mass media interest the case was receiving and therefore gave an inaccurate statement. This case was brought to the innocent project to be checked upon as the eyewitness testimony may have given a misidentification, resulting in a miscarriage of justice for Gareth Hughes. In order to avoid these problems, the cognitive interview is brought instead of the standard police interview. This includes asking the witness to reinstate the context of the crime. This involves imagining themselves back in the situation; and reporting everything they saw. Using cognitive interviews in criminal investigations can prove to be extremely useful because it maximizes the chances of gaining accurate information from witnesses and therefore provides useful evidence to be used in court.

Another example of an interview technique would be expert witnesses. They can play an important role in criminal investigations by providing information and advice on different crimes and aspects of the investigation. For example, there are experts in fields such as blood patterns, fires, explosions, offenders’ likely behavior, likely cause of death, insects, etc. In the case of Leanne Tierman, an expert in dogs was used. Leanne Tierman`s body was found in a shallow grave with her body with a black plastic bag over her head, held in place with a dog collar. The police called a canine expert to track down the collar, in which they found the suppliers of the dog collar and found that a man from Bramley had bought several like the one found around Leanne Tiernan`s neck. His name was John Taylor. The experts were able to trace dog hairs found on the collar and matched the dog to John Taylor, which led to his sentencing to two life sentences in July 2002. In February 2003, he was convicted of two rapes, based on DNA evidence, and given two additional life sentences. Expert interviews can be extremely useful in criminal investigations because police can ask them for clarification which allows there to be no miscommunication. Also, due to the specialist knowledge in many different categories, answers about the crime can be answered quickly and efficiently by the experts. However, despite having this specialist knowledge, experts may sometimes get it wrong and this can lead to a miscarriage of justice. For example, in the case of Sally Clark. Sally Clark was wrongly jailed for the murder of her two sons after an expert witness told the jury that the chances of both her baby`s death being accidental was one in 73 million. When in actual fact, experts now believe that the risk could have been as low as one in 100. Despite this, the expert witness would appear to be the most useful technique in a criminal investigation. This is because experts are more likely to have specialist knowledge in order to discuss parts of the crime. This can therefore explain what happened to the victim of any sort of crime and allow the police to understand what measures must take place next.

In a criminal investigation, there are many different techniques used. Techniques such as forensics, surveillance, interviews, and profiling. However, the technique that would be most useful in a criminal investigation would be forensics. This is because DNA is unique to everybody (other than twins) and can allow for matches on the databases to appear in previous offenders. Furthermore, if it is someone`s first offense and they are not on the database, close relatives’ DNA has also been found to match. This is useful in a criminal investigation as it allows for the majority of first-time and reoccurring offenders to get identified with information that can help track them down in order to arrest and prosecute them rightfully.

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