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essay on climate change resilience

Resilience To Climate Change Essay

The impact of climate change on canadian culture.

Scientists will demonstrate how climate change threatens the existence of the ecosystem and the life of people who depend on agriculture, and “warn that in some countries, climate change is viewed as a potential war issue”, which might transform into a global security issue eventually science will offer you the facts, but we need more than facts to take action. What we decide to do will depend on what we think is right after considering the facts, including what we think of social justice, the way we understand the responsibility of our actions, and our personal views on what you value. These are moral and ethical questions. There are also specific ‘cultural questions’ that need to be addressed when considering the challenges of climate change. Culture relates profoundly to the human dimensions of climate change. The notion of the culture in such a context can be defined as ‘the common way in which a community of people make sense of the world. Some other things that can impact the economy

EGT1 Task 3

“Measuring resilience and adaptive capacity to climate hazards and natural disasters in all countries” is going to be more complex than just collecting the occurrences of these climatic events. Similarly, every government is capable of observing and collecting data on their progress when considering the implementation of measures in target 13.2 and of education programs and the organization of awareness campaigns in target 13.3.

Great Drought Rhetoric

The article written by Michael T. Klare, titled The Coming Hunger Wars: Heat, Drought, Rising Food Costs, and Global Unrest, tries to persuade the reader that the so called “Great Drought” of 2012 has roots in global warming, and “the immediate consequences of the still ongoing Great Drought: dying crops, shrunken harvests, and rising food prices,” and the long term effects including social and political uproars. (Klare 4) Klare uses many techniques in his writing, including ethos, pathos, and logos, which can be very effective when implemented properly. Klare’s audience is widespread because he feels we all play a part in our climate and environment, but he is looking to really hit the climate change non-believers.

Essay About Human Wellbeing

The programs focus on assisting the rural farmers and on relief efforts after natural disasters, making the country more resilient to disasters and climate change. In the Philippines, it seems programs like those run by Caritas are a highly effective factor in increasing the wellbeing and life expectancy of the rural population and in helping combat the effects of the natural disasters that occur in the area. The programs 'Agrarian Justice ' and 'FARMFIRST ' focus on helping the farmers be sustainable and adapted to climate change, while 'Relief and Rehabilitation ' and 'SEARCHDev ' work to minimize the effects of the numerous natural disasters that batter the island nation. Such programs are highly effective when deployed to areas that need them

Summary Of Water Controversies Soil Over By Mat Wiser

In the article, “Water Controversies Boil Over”, from Sacramento Bee “Opinion” section, published on APril 26, 2009 by Mat Wiser. He argues the conflict about conserving the water. Mat wiser exclaims that in the next year nations will fight over water, because it’s not being handled in the most efficient way it should be.

Resilience In Anna Harrington's Article Summary

I like reading Anna Harrington’s readings about resilience and how it defines a person in how they strive and overcome challenges and obstacles that come their way in this world. People with resilience as I would see would be looked as “survivors” unlike those people without resilience tend not to make it in this ever-changing world we live in. I can relate this article to my life being born and raised in Chicago, Illinois to going off into the U.S. Army with multiple of combat deployments during the Iraq war, my time spent in law enforcement agency/legal government sector and to where I am at now.

Climate Change In The Northwest Essay

This article talks about the effects of climate change in the northwest. For example things like water resources, coastal resources, and Impacts on Ecosystems and Agriculture.Climate change is affecting water resources

Essay On California Drought

What will happen when there is no longer water in California? California’s drought has impacted thousands of lives over the past three years and now entering the fourth. California-Nevada Climate Applications Program states usually, water evaporates from the Tropical Pacific Ocean as winds transfer the water vapor toward the U.S. West Coast. Oppositely, in 2014 the water vapor split and carried to either North or South of California. Although, many people know of the situation, many don’t understand or take into consideration how to solve the problem.

Essay About Climate Change

Climate change is believed to be the biggest issue facing the Earth. It is a long-term change in the Earth’s temperatures and climate (“Climate Change”, Dictionary.com). Our atmosphere is part of the reason why we can live on Earth with reasonable temperatures. Humans have been emitting unnatural greenhouse gases, like coal, oil, and gas. This is changing the natural systems that take place in our atmosphere. When all these extra gases are released, carbon dioxide stars to accumulate in the atmosphere. Climate change is a global issue because when the temperature of the Earth changes even very slightly, it can cause droughts and our crops can die. This is affecting our food supply. Also, when water levels rise even slightly, it can be very destructive for

Deforestation In Tropical Rainforests

During the rain seasons and it rains for a long period of time, the top layer of soil loosens and slide down which cause landslides. Landslides may cause the loss of lives and properties. Deforestation causes the soil to lose its stability. Decreasing of trees causes there is lack of tree leaves to protect the soil from the collision of raindrops and also causes the lack of tree roots to hold the soil. Thus, the soil is exposed directly to the raindrop. The top layer of soil is easily washed away by the heavy rainfall. This leads to soil erosion. The water carries away the eroded soil and the eroded soil may be deposited in rivers. Rainwater flows quickly into rivers during heavy rain because there is no reservation of water by plant roots as well as water catchment areas. Due to oozing in the rivers, the water flow is slowed down and become blocked. Thus, water flow interior and causes flash floods in low areas. Flash floods may cause loss of lives and properties. Soil erosion will leads to loss of minerals for the land. The land cannot be used for

Danger Of Climate Change Essay

Climate change is the most rising issue of the modern world that is threatening our planet from the last few decades. In the simplest definition, the term climate change refers to the rising of the planet’s temperature, particularly an increase in the average atmospheric temperature. It should be noted that in the last few decades, many scientists and ecologists has discovered the Earth temperature is increasing at an alarming rate and has affected the planet in numerous of way. The constant change in the climate due to various causes is threatening the preservation of the Earth and its human life. It should be noted that the climate change is linked with several of the human activities that are further directed towards the global warming.

Themes Of Resilience

Resilience is the ability to bounce back from adversity or hardship, Debra Oswald was able to express this through the lives of fictitious characters based on real Australian People. She uses themes concerning people marginalised in society, the struggle to achieve one’s dream and the past affect the present, by using these ideas with the diverse cast of characters as well as the range of literary and dramatic techniques, Oswald was able to show how people face adversity and how important it is to have resilience through the engagement of the characters and there development throughout the play.

Essay About The Solution To Overpopulation

Overpopulation is the excessive population of an area to the point of overcrowding and it is an undesirable condition in every country where the number of existing human population rises to an extent exceeding the carrying capacity of ecological setting. Overpopulation can be result from an increase in births, an increase in immigration, a decline in mortality rates and other factors that may cause overpopulated environment. Therefore, this can cause influence as lack of the available essential materials for survival like water, shelter, social amenities and other because of the numbers of people might be more than the materials for survival. In such condition, this regularly contributes to environmental deterioration, worsening

Essay On Sustainable Agriculture

With the human population continuing to rise, it is vital that the agricultural industry becomes more sustainable to meet the needs of the growing population. One of the impacts of this growing population is an increase in land usage for settlement purposes. This means farmers will have to feed more people with less land. Economic development will also help increase the demand for food products. The biggest challenge facing farmers is to double their production with limited resources.

Essay On Causes Of Flood In Malaysia

Urbanization led many areas becomes more modernized. Lowland areas have been reclaimed by taking land from the hills. There are also small rivers that filled up to be used as a building site. Activities such as these are a common factor of flooding. In the past, creeks and valleys turned into water flow, now the area has been covered with soil. When it rains, the water will flow from the hills to the lower area and then stagnant. Eventually the water will increase and flash floods will occur.

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Essay on Climate Change

essay on climate change resilience

Climate Changes And Climate Change

The concept of climate change has been around for quite a while. The earliest mention of climate change dates back to the 19th century. Swedish scientist, Svante Archenius was the first scientist to study the effect of CO2 on climate. (Rodhe et al 1997) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as “A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g by using statistical tests) by changes in mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists

hear the words “climate change” what comes to mind? Probably weather and the changes. Many of us watch the news or use an app on our cellphones/electronic devices to keep an eye on the weather for the day, week, or even the month. But, there is actually a difference between weather and climate. Weather is actually “the changes we see and feel outside from day to day. It might rain one day and be sunny the next. Weather also changes from place to place” (Dunbar, 2014). Whereas “climate is the usual weather

Climate Change And Climate Change

population growth. Factors like, globalization and urbanization can be contributed to such changes. However, climate change is one of the unpleasant surprise that can be credited to the degraded acts towards the environment due to deforestation, burning of fossils and fuels, industrialization and many more. Vector borne diseases, are one of the most known diseases that can be credited to climate change. Change in the environmental patterns introduce human diseases that could have not been a problem

Climate change is one of the most important challenges of humankind in this century. The ability to adapt, mitigate and reduce carbon emissions will be decisive to preserve the world for future generations. The last IPCC report has provided more evidence regarding the rise in temperature and sea level. Apparently, additional 2°C above the pre-industrial average temperature levels is unavoidable, and it will continue at that level due the accumulation of gases in the atmosphere (Solomon 2009). Climate

Climate change is a major problem that’s continuing to arise with the lack of action that states have taken to stop the increase of global warming. This phenomenon affects both national security and human security across the world. National security is a nation that the government, along with the legislation, should protect the state and citizens against different kinds of “national” crises through different power projections. Examples of the power projections are political power, diplomacy, economic

Climate Changes And Climate Change Essay

Abstract: Climate is inherently variable. Climate changes from place to place and it varies with time. The world now faces one of the complex and important issue it has ever had to deal with: climate change. Climate change today is one of the biggest concerns of human beings on the planet and the effects of climate change are undeniable and it may cause environmental, social, and economic threats to the planet. We already know and easily can highlight several signs of climate change. They are: rising

Climate Change Is A Change

Climate change is a change in global or regional climate patterns. Climate change is a topic that is brought up in many different genres of conversations. Whether it be brought up and discussed in politics, school, family, or friends, some people still limit using those words when in casual conversation. Some of those same people are the people who still deny that climate change is happening. Climate change affects every single one of us. It affects everyone who lives on this earth every day and

The Change Of The Climate Change

The world continues to spin and spin, and we’ve always heard about the condition of the climate. We hear about the changing levels of CO2 in our atmosphere and the Earth’s population contribution to the rise of it. No one usually stops to think about how the food production systems for the food we eat is also a contributing factor to the rise of CO2. “I turn my life upside-down, start biking to work, plant a big garden, turn down the thermostat so low I need the Jimmy Carter signature cardigan,

Climate Change

Climate Change Around the World Did you know that Climate change is affecting people all around the world? Climate change is a very bad thing that has been going on for hundreds of years. So many things are being affected by climate change. Things that are being affected are trees, plants, animals, and even people. One reason that climate change is happening is that the earth is always in orbit so the climate is always changing. Climate change isn’t only nature, climate change is caused from humans

Climate Change Climate change is a problem that we have been and are currently experiencing. It has caused much damage to people and the environment, by temperatures rising and natural disasters. It is a problem that world leaders need to take more seriously, and try to get more people involved to help better the environment. Who knows what it can cause in the future. Climate change is a serious threat for everyone living on earth. The Earth’s temperature has been rising over the years. Sail Bhattacharya

Climate Change Is The Change

Climate change is the change in earth’s climate like temperature and precipitation over a particular region. Climate change has shown its affect all across the globe and is leading to all undesirable loses. Some of the reasons of radical climate changes are: • Irresponsible activities of humans like misuse of fossil fuels, polluting water bodies and use of non-renewable sources • Burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil are rising the levels of carbon dioxide in the air. Climate change is not only

The Impacts of Climate Change on Society: Global climate change has the ability to adversely impact and disrupt many sectors of society —including, people’s health, agriculture and food supply, water supply, ecosystems, and more. Extreme weather events, such as decreased rainfall, lead to prolonged and more intense wildfire seasons which result in decreased air quality for those in proximity. Droughts increase the stress placed on ground water supplies which is resulting a reduction of water quality

images as well as data tables that elaborate the content and helps the reader understand the concept better. The author talks about the common fear that everyone have in today’s world, climate change, and this book illustrates about 100 different methods and procedures that we can all follow to stop climate change from getting worse. All the methods have daring and accurate solutions that are designed by many international

California Attempts to Defy Trump’s Policies on Climate Change Davenport, C., &Nagourney, A. (2017). Fighting Trump on Climate, California Becomes a Global Force. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/23/us/california-engages-world-and-fights-washington-on-climate-change.html?_r=0 In this article, Daventport and Nagourney illustrate how California, the state with the most strict policies and laws on environment, is attempting to defy the federal government’s relaxed policies

1. Introduction Scientific evidence of the world’s changing climate is unequivocal. The expected impacts of the changing climate are likely to adversely affect the well being of all countries and particularly the poorest countries, some of which are in Africa. The changing climate has been manifested in the form of: increased severity and frequency of droughts; floods and storms; water stress, coastal erosion, and higher incidence of vector borne diseases among others. The resulting declines in

Climate Changes And Disruption : Climate Change And Ecosystem

Climate Change and Ecosystem. Climate changes affect ecosystems by altering the water cycle, natural habitats and leading to the changes in food sources, animal migration and the timing of natural processes such as flowering. Disruption of the ecosystems increase the risk of extinction for many species. Animals and plants need to adapt to the environmental change on a fast and bigger scale which put great danger to those species. Changes that disrupt the functioning of ecosystems may increase the

Climate Change And Climate Adaptation

One of the most challenging global issue facing today’s society is climate change, it is affecting all regions across the globe, with some areas experiencing extreme weather events and heavy rainfall, whereas other regions are hit with droughts and heat waves. Climate change can be defined as a “large-scale, long-term shift in the planet's weather patterns or average temperatures.” (metoffice). Consequently, a range of challenges are occurring to not only human settlements, but more importantly to

The Importance Of Climate Change And Climate Change Adaptation

Climate Change and Climate Change Adaptation : Generally Climate Change is a change in weather pattern, when that change lasts for an extended period of time. It has been already proven that CC is the consequence of unchecked pollution. Excessive carbon emission has dangerous effects on the environment, the economy and our wellbeing (Australian Conservation Foundation, 2014, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) The Climate science has already proved that CC is not just a temperature

direct/indirect link between extreme events and climate change and the similar observation was found by Seneviratne et al., 2012) supporting that Climate change has resulted in changes in the occurrence of extreme events. Moreover, Out of 24 extreme events analyzed in this paper, 12 showed direct or indirect links to anthropogenic climate change and some could not be explained. Once a change has been detected it is important to attribute that change to some cause. Attribution, especially to human

Hurricanes And Climate Change : The Effects Of Climate Change

burst and power was lost to the entire island of Puerto Rico. 60 people died (“2017 Atlantic Hurricane”, 2017). Hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons play a major role in coastal disasters and could prove even more disastrous with the effects of climate change. Hurricanes form as warm moist air begins to rise over the sea surface and leaves a gap of low pressure underneath. High pressure air then fills this gap, heats up, and then rises again. This creates the cyclonic action (“How Hurricanes Form”

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Kevin C. Urama, Adamon N. Mukasa, and Anthony Simpasa

Bogolo J. Kenewendo

Turning political ambitions into concrete climate financing actions for Africa

Acting Chief Economist and Senior Director of the African Development Institute, African Development Bank

Principal Research Economist, Macroeconomic Policy, Forecasting and Debt Sustainability Division, African Development Bank

Lead Economist, Country Economics Department, and Acting Manager, Macroeconomic Policy, Forecasting and Debt Sustainability Division, African Development Bank

One of the main targets of the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( COP27 ) in Sharm El-Sheik, Egypt, was “ to accelerate global climate action through emissions reduction, scaled-up adaptation efforts and enhanced flows of appropriate finance .” While the breakthrough agreement on a new “Loss and Damage” Fund for vulnerable countries is a welcome development, progress on climate finance leaves much to be desired. This is worrisome for African countries.

Recent reports on climate change such as the African Economic Outlook 2022 and the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have reiterated that the climate crisis is likely to worsen, especially in Africa, and that the time for action to avert the impending catastrophe is now. World leaders have missed (again) the opportunity to move from mere political commitments and ambitions to concrete actions.

Africa’s climate paradox

As the late Kofi Annan perfectly put it, all continents are in the same boat when it comes to addressing climate change. However, individual regions and countries are not equally responsible for global environmental problems. This principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities is at the core of climate justice and just energy transition.

Africa’s case is especially concerning. The continent is the least polluting region 1 of the world but faces a disproportionate burden from the impact of climate change. Between 1850 and 2020, Africa’s contribution to global emissions remained below 3 percent 2 and yet, it lost about 5 percent to 15 percent annually of GDP per capita growth between 1986 and 2015. About 70 percent of the used global carbon budget is accounted for by just the United States, European Union, United Kingdom, and China (Figure 35a). An average African had a carbon footprint of just 0.95 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2eq) in 2020, well below the 2.0 tCO2eq required to achieve the net-zero transition target. On the other extreme, an average American had a carbon footprint of up to 14 tCO2eq, fifteen times higher than that of an average African (Figure 35b).

essay on climate change resilience

From climate finance commitments to reality and at scale

The $100-billion promise , 3 made by developed countries since 2009 at COP15 in Copenhagen, has still not been achieved. According to the OECD , [OECD.2022. “Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2016-2020.”] climate financing provided and mobilized by developed countries reached $83.3 billion in 2020, some $16.7 billion below the target. Indeed, a 2020 report commissioned by the United Nations concluded the only realistic scenario is that the $100-billion target will be out of reach in the short- to medium-term.

Africa’s share of global climate finance—provided and mobilized by developed countries for developing countries—increased by only 3 percentage points on average during 2010 to 2019, from 23 percent ($48 billion) in 2010–2015 to 26 percent ($73 billion) in 2016–2019 (Figure 36). This means that Africa benefited from $18.3 billion a year from 2016–2019, far behind Asia, which benefited $27.3 billion a year, over the same period. Yet, Africa accounted for about 40 percent of all countries eligible to benefit from this support, compared with only 20 percent for Asia. In addition, between 2010 and 2019, debt instruments (mostly loans) accounted for about two-thirds of all climate finance channeled to Africa, out of which two-fifths were on non-concessional terms.

essay on climate change resilience

Climate finance inflows to Africa are dwarfed by the enormity of resources needed for Nationally Developed Contributions (NDCs), estimated to range from about $1.3 trillion to $1.6 trillion between 2020 and 2030, or $118.2 billion to $145.5 billion per year over this period. Under the current climate finance trends, Africa’s annual financing gap could thus reach an estimated average of $108 billion per year until 2030. This climate injustice needs urgent attention.

Mobilizing more climate finance for Africa is within the reach of the global community. For instance, between January 2020 and September 2021, the global community mobilized about $17 trillion through various fiscal measures in response to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost $15.3 trillion (or 90 percent of these fiscal measures) was mobilized by G-20 economies. This demonstration of political will and innovative use of fiscal policy rules to address the global threat posed by COVID-19 is commendable. Like COVID-19, climate change is a global commons problem but perhaps with even longer-term and systemic impacts.

Why Africa deserves more in climate financing

Mobilizing climate finance to avert the growing climate catastrophes in developing countries calls for similar political will and collective action. To this end, an important milestone is for the international community and developed countries to step up to the plate in mobilizing and providing the requisite climate resources to developing countries.

“Ultimately, climate change is a global commons problem. Climate solutions will not be sustainable unless all actors play their part. The climate challenge cannot be addressed if any country fails to meet its Nationally Determined Contributions.”

Achieving this will require significant reform of the current global climate finance architecture , 4 to ensure that the most vulnerable countries (especially in Africa), effectively harness climate resilience opportunities. The structure, flow, and scale of the global climate finance architecture, as currently designed, is misaligned with climate vulnerability. For example, as illustrated in Figure 36 above, more resilient and less vulnerable regions receive more climate finance, in per capita terms, than their less resilient but more vulnerable counterparts. Moreover, the climate finance architecture is modelled to mirror the current global financial architecture that is risk averse and discriminatory against fragile economies. The loose definition of climate finance has also led to proliferation of various climate finance instruments, including debt instruments. The latter exacerbates debt vulnerabilities in countries where climate impacts are already constraining fiscal health.

There is thus need for a clearer definition of climate finance, better coordination among existing global climate finance facilities, dedicated climate initiatives, as well as enhanced harmonization of funding requirements that can channel climate finance flows to the most climate-vulnerable countries. While African countries do have their part to play, the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities requires that the most polluting countries bear the greatest burden of climate financing.

Ultimately, climate change is a global commons problem. Climate solutions will not be sustainable unless all actors play their part. The climate challenge cannot be addressed if any country fails to meet its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

And the world cannot expect Africa to implement its NDCs if the expected climate finance flows to fund the conditional NDCs, are not made available. Should the current trends continue, it is certain that Africa will not achieve its NDCs by 2030. By implication, the global community will not be able to reach the Paris Climate Accord.

The charge due to custodians of the world’s lungs

United Nations Climate Change High-Level Champions’ Special Advisor Former Minister of Investment, Trade and Industry, Botswana

It is time to rebalance the scales in Africa’s favor when it comes to climate finance. The African continent is home to 16 percent of the world’s population and 25 percent of the world’s remaining rainforests 5 —yet Africa attracts only 3.19 percent of global climate finance ($30 billion of $940 billion global climate flows), and the pledges to accelerate adaptation and mitigation financing of $100 billion by 2020 in developing countries are yet to fully materialize. 6 Climate finance can be a catalytic tool for fiscal stability, especially for African countries that are struggling with economic recovery, amid multiple global shocks.

However, for African countries and non-state actors to attract increased climate finance and play a greater role in structuring the green financial architecture, Africa must position itself as a worthy investment destination for climate finance focused on long-term development issues. To achieve this, I propose a few key areas of focus for policymakers. First, countries must have green investment plans, and second, it is critical to bring the private sector to the table and to give it space to innovate. In addition, policymakers should use public finance to de-risk private investment and have a regulatory environment that enables doing business with variable financing tools. Lastly, developed countries must deliver on the pledges already made without any further and new conditionalities to spur green development for a common 1.5 degrees future.

“Of the great rainforests in the world, only the Congo rainforest has enough standing forest left to absorb more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases.”

African Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), that is countries’ action plans to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts, should be accompanied by national investment strategies that prioritize green infrastructure and natural resource protection. These can create a green development pathway that promises economic growth opportunities, industrialization, and jobs, propelling Africa past a more traditional, less green infrastructure and development approach.

Country platforms should also encompass the private sector, so that there is a cohesive approach as to who will invest where, and who is best placed to tackle the varying aspects of mitigation and adaptation and protection. A good example of this approach on leveraging the private sector is the proposal by members of the “ Nairobi Declaration on Sustainable Insurance ” that identified the African insurance sector as a key climate mitigation and adaptation agent; and re-affirmed its triple role of risk manager, risk carrier, and investor through commitment to a Africa climate risk management fund. This fund will cover $14 billion worth of climate and nature-related risks such as floods, droughts, and tropical cyclones through innovative insurance products and solutions. These kind of innovations by the private sector are in line with what the Paris Agreement envisioned.

Second, debt-for-climate swaps and carbon markets should be rolled out more broadly as part of the solution to debt crises which plague a long and growing list of African nations. This effort starts with valuing Africa’s wealth in the totality of its nature assets. Nature has become the world’s most important commodity, and its protection is paramount for the world’s survival. According to the World Resources Institute, of the great rainforests in the world, only the Congo rainforest has enough standing forest left to absorb more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases . 7

Commercializing such nature assets, and making sure they attract fair value and benefit neighboring communities, is a key feature of the Africa Carbon Markets Initiative (ACMI) 8 —an initiative that has created a roadmap for developing African voluntary carbon markets, with the aim to accelerate and scale carbon credit production on the continent. The initiative proposes to leverage an advanced market commitment (AMC), which in essence is an upfront guarantee from buyers and multiple corporations, to purchase African carbon credits. This AMC will help send a strong demand signal and incentivize appetite for good quality and innovative credits. There is huge potential in making carbon markets work to attract more climate finance.

Third, there is need for gender-informed investing to enhance climate adaptation and resilience. At its core, this means acknowledging climate action as a development issue; recognizing that the climate crisis is not “gender-neutral,” and that women and girls are disproportionately affected; and finally, that the devastating impacts of extreme climate occurrences cause more economic scarring to the poorest and most vulnerable in our societies. 2xCollaborative has developed a gender-lens investing toolkit that can, and should be, widely used to promote gender-lens climate finance to businesses and adaptation projects, involved or led by women.

We cannot afford the current architecture of global green finance to perpetuate existing disparities in those it serves. It is time for African countries to unite, strategically position themselves, and demand that the world does more to deliver climate finance for the continent; it promises great return for all, and it is what is due to the custodians of the “lungs of the world.”

Next Chapter

07 | Africa’s Cities Realizing the new urban agenda

Image of Earth, focused on Africa.

On January 30, AGI hosted a Foresight Africa launch featuring a high-level panel of leading Africa experts to offer insights on regional trends along with recommendations for national governments, regional organizations, multilateral institutions, the private sector, and civil society actors as they forge ahead in 2022.

essay on climate change resilience

Africa in Focus


Aloysius Uche Ordu introduces Foresight Africa 2023, which outlines top priorities for the year ahead and offers recommendations for supporting Africa at a time of heightened global turbulence.

Foresight Africa podcast Season 2 art.

The Foresight Africa podcast celebrates Africa’s dynamism and explores strategies for broadening the benefits of growth to all people of Africa.


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Students express understanding and viewpoints about climate change

S tudent essays about climate change offer unique perspectives on the problem, potential solutions, and their thoughts about short and long-term consequences.

group photo of students who participate in climate change essay challenge

Back row: Jacob Onorado,  Mashael Khuda Karam, Courtney Turbaczewski, Tamaria Jones, Jolene Smock. Front row: Alyssa Cranston, Nadieshka Perez, and Keyasia Duck

Jolene Smock, a science teacher at Charter School of Excellence in Erie, PA recently engaged her 11th grade science class to think about science and climate change a little differently. Their challenge: to choose a focus of interest from a list of 29 climate change related topics, research it, and write an essay. Their essays were to describe the issue at hand, offer ideas to solve the problem, consider the types of careers that could help solve the problem, and to express themselves and their opinions.

Smock, who is a second-year participant in Sea Grant’s Center for Great Lakes Literacy (CGLL) teacher training program, says she was trying to find a new way to translate climate change studies to her students. After talking with PA Sea Grant’s senior education specialist, Marti Martz, she decided to engage her students in doing their own research about a topic they found interesting, and to write about it.  “My students didn’t realize how much impact climate change has on things like our food, health, and energy. I’m glad I made the choice to do something a little different, because they really excelled at this assignment.”

Marti Martz thought it would be an interesting opportunity to showcase the students as spokespeople on the topic of climate change, and to share what they had learned this year. “I think these essays do a great job of demonstrating how Jolene’s efforts have brought the issue of climate change home to her students,” Martz said. “It’s a great opportunity to hear the voices and opinions of young students instead of hearing our adult voices all the time.”

"Disclaimer: the following essays are the expressions and opinions of the individual student authors, and are not to be construed as statement of fact, nor the opinion of Pennsylvania Sea Grant. This content is being shared to encourage student engagement and participation in environmental issues, and to validate the importance of learning and the processes involved in better understanding complex scientific issues, such as climate change."

alyssa cranston

Climate Change and the Artic By Alyssa Cranston

Climate change is an important, current and ongoing issue. This is especially true in the Arctic region. If you are unaware of what climate change is, it is a global or regional change in weather patterns that lasts for a long period of time. Climate change is greatly caused by the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide which is produced by the use of fossil fuels, such as exhaust from cars and trucks, burning trash, and factory emissions. These are also contributing to global warming which is, a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the Earth's atmosphere. Some effects of global warming in the Arctic are rising temperatures in the air and in the water surrounding the Arctic. Another is the loss of sea ice and melting of ice sheets which is caused by the increased temperatures. This also greatly impacts the Arctic plants and animals, they are rapidly dying, decreasing in numbers, possibly leading to their extinction. The melting ice sheets are destroying the wildlife population and increasing the sea level.

Humans play a huge role in climate change and global warming on Earth.

Human activities are the leading cause of climate change in the Arctic.  Humans using fossil fuels is one of the biggest causes of climate change, fossil fuel combustion releases harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, negatively affecting it, leading to problems in the atmosphere such as, the hole in the ozone layer (created by CFCs). Pollution is also a huge factor of climate change, air pollutants affect the amount of sunlight coming into the atmosphere, some pollutants warm the Earth, while others cool it down, the most common pollutants are methane, black carbon, ground-level ozone, and sulfate aerosols. Deforestation is another huge leading cause to climate change by reversing the effects of carbon sequestration and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, deforestation is also responsible for about 18% of all global greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, even more than from transportation. Building houses and other structures affects the environment because it produces a ton of waste and harmful chemicals, which pollutes the land and air. The transportation needed to move supplies and the waste from the building site also has a very negative impact on the environment. As you can see, climate change is a huge issue that needs taken care of.

We started to realize and correct the problem in the late 1970s. The event that lead up to this point was in 1800-1870, when people noticed the level of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere was increasing after the industrial revolution. Humans are causing the problem by polluting the air and water and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, increasing the temperatures, causing global warming in the Arctic region. There are some environmental laws/treaties that were passed to help stop the problem. These laws/treaties are, The Polar Code, The Barents Sea fisheries agreement, and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Most people now realize that climate change is a huge problem and needs to be fixed.

There are solutions to this problem, as long as we actually use and perform them. We can save gas and reduce its emission into the air by walking and biking more. We could also use electric cars, instead of using vehicles that emit gas and other chemicals into the air. Planting more trees and plants can help because they take in the carbon dioxide, removing it from the air and replacing it with oxygen, which is healthy for us and the Earth/atmosphere. We should plant as many or more trees than we are cutting down, because we’re cutting down a ton of trees without replacing them and we need trees, they are essential for life and the air on Earth, without trees we wouldn’t have oxygen and our atmosphere wouldn’t be the same. We can eat more locally grown food that will reduce gas emissions from transporting food to us from out of town. Using less heat and air conditioning can also help, just lowering your house temperature two degrees in the winter and keeping it two degrees higher in the summer can make a pretty big difference. Saving electricity by turning off all lights, computers, TVs, and other electrical devices when you are not using them can also help. Also, if we use less hot water by lowering the temperature on your hot water tank, using low flow shower heads, washing clothes with cold water, and using the energy saving mode on dishwashers can also be very helpful. You could also use the reduce, reuse, recycle model. There are some technological advancements that could help with climate change in the Arctic. One that could really help is building giant walls around glaciers that can prevent warm ocean water from eroding the glaciers’ edges, by doing this, you can block the flow of warm water, shielding the glacier from warm water and reducing the melting rate significantly. Another technological advancement that could greatly help is creating cooling tunnels in the ice by drilling holes in glaciers, creating tunnels in the bedrock and pouring cold brine into them, which would freeze some of the water underneath the glacier, and slow the moving ice, and give the glacier more time to solidify once the brine starts flowing through the glaciers.  Implementing new and improved navigation and communications satellites because the current ones are inaccurate and unreliable at higher heights can also help.  You can educate others and raise awareness about this problem by testing and training oil companies to clean up possible oil spills, donating time and money, posting about it on social media, putting it in the news, writing news articles or blogs about it, signing petitions, and using and attending different programs and training courses relating to it. It is possible to solve this issue, but the majority of us, humans have to be willing to work together and perform different actions to help stop climate change.   There are many different careers and people that help to stop and limit climate change. Some people who work to reduce climate change are Environmental Engineers, Environmental Scientists, and Public Relations Specialists. Environmental Engineers work to figure out ways to protect or fix and correct environmental damages. Environmental Scientists mainly focus on forming and devising ways to prevent or reduce pollution and improve the health of Earth and its dwellers. Public Relations Specialists work in media and communications to spread information to the public, they aim to get the public to support environmental causes, inform them, and increase their understanding of issues such as climate change. People who really care about the detrimental effects of climate change on the environment and want to help stop it, can get a job in this field or just doing some of the things mentioned can also help stop climate change.

Climate change is a very real and important problem that we need to pay more attention to and do more to reduce and limit climate change.

The Arctic sea is important because its ice keeps the Polar Regions cool and helps moderate global climate. With climate change on the rise, the temperature of the sea is increasing and the ice is melting, which is very bad. If the temperature increases too much, the ice will melt, destroying habitats for wildlife, but will also raise the sea levels, causing flooding to coastal cities. As the temperature rises and the ice melts, Arctic animals and plants will die and their numbers will decrease, even possibly becoming extinct eventually. Some ways to bring more attention to this problem are, to inform more and more people about it, show more of it in the news and media, post more on social media, promote it more, sign petitions, and donate time & money to the issue. We can help ease this problem by reducing the amount of pollution in the air and water and decreasing the use of fossil fuels, so greenhouse gases do not rise into the atmosphere, heating up the Arctic air and sea temperatures. Figuring out another way to power cars without using dangerous fossil fuels, to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere could also help. Also, using less electricity and more solar energy would be helpful.  In conclusion, we, humans really need to pay more attention to the climate change in the Arctic and work together to help minimize the dangerous effects of global warming in the Arctic region.

Resources: GuJune, Katt. “The Arctic is not doomed: 8 Easy Ways You Can Stop the Arctic Ice from Melting.” BetterWorldInternational.org, https://www.betterworldinternational.org/planet/8-easy-ways-stop-arctic-... Cox, David. “Two audacious plans for saving the world's ice sheets.” NBCnews.com, https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/can-these-bold-plans-keep-world-s-i... Rascoe, Ayesha and Shalal, Andrea. “U.S. Needs to Invest in Arctic Ships, Technology to Prepare for Climate Change.” Scientific American, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/u-s-needs-to-invest-in-arctic... Sheng Hu, Feng. “Effects Of Human Activities And Climate Change.” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/tundra/Effects-of-human-activities-an...

keyeshia duck

Climate Change & Extreme Weather Conditions By Keyasia Duck

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change can be caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, & volcanic eruptions. Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere in the amounts of greenhouse gases, aerosols, (small particles), and cloudiness. The largest known contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere.

It is very important people become aware of this because it causes more extreme weather.

We discovered Climate Change & Extreme Weather existed when we burn fossil fuels, such as coal & gas and we release carbon and it builds up in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases and aerosols affect climate by altering incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared (thermal) radiation that are part of Earth’s energy balance. River floods worldwide shows that 21 million people worldwide are affected by river floods each year on average. This number could increase to 54 million in 2030 due to climate change and socio-economic development. The following laws have been passed to help with increased flooding. The national Flood Insurance Act of 1968, The Flood Insurance Protection Act of 1937, & The National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994.

Some solutions to fix this problem is we can take sensible steps towards protecting our environment and human health. We can also take actions to prepare our communities for present and future effects of climate change. We can also reduce the release of heat trapping gases like carbon can help protect our health and well being by decreasing impacts on our climate system. We can educate people and raise awareness by making posters about it or the reporters can talk about it around the world to spread it around.

Solving this problem is very important because it can prevent a lot of things from happening or even beginning like houses and buildings being damaged by flooding from extreme weather. It can also be important because it can save people's lives.

Resources: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/floods/...

tamaria jones

Climate Change and Asthma By Tamaria Jones

Climate change is associated with rising temperatures, changes in worldwide weather patterns, airborne pollution levels, and duration. Climate changes have also been observed to impact human health, including that of allergic individuals. When we burn carbon-based materials, carbon dioxide is emitted from what we burn and therefore, emits C02 into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide absorbs heat, and increases in atmospheric C02 levels suggest that the increase is coming from burning fossil fuels.

The warming of the earth is correlated to, and follows rising C02 emissions, which can influence climate. It can affect sun and ocean cycles, which can impact experiments relating to natural versus human influenced simulations of changes to the Earth. Increased water temperatures from climate change causes flowers to bloom earlier and increase the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. The changes in temperatures cause an increase in the concentration of pollen in the air. This increases the strength of airborne allergens and causes an increase in allergy symptoms.

People need to know this because allergies can be deadly. Everyone has different allergies and different reactions. The severity of allergies varies from person to person and can range from minor irritation to anaphylaxis, a potentially life threatening emergency. While most allergies can´t be cured, treatments can help relieve your allergy symptoms.

I think if people know how much climate change hurt them and someone with allergies they would help stop things that pollute the air and cause climate change.

In 1984 corticosteroids were first used to treat asthma and allergic reactions. They worked by reducing the inflammation that would be caused by the allergens. The discovery of most cells in 1953 helped to identify what caused allergies to set off the immune response of the body. Maybe standoff with laws that were passed to slow climate change.

An Environmental law was passed and signed in March 2017 at the environment protection agency headquarters. This act saw the dismantling of the clean power plan of 2015. under the clean air act, the plan set state by targets for carbon emissions reductions and aimed to lower national electricity sector emissions overall by 32% below 2005 levels by 2050.

Eating healthy, can help people with allergies if you eat lots of fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts, grapes, apples, oranges, and tomatoes you will have fewer allergy symptoms. A nasal rinse tube that cleans your nose also reduces symptoms.

You can bring awareness to climate change and how it affects allergies by going more into depth with about climate change and explaining it to people all around the world.

Immunologists and doctors work with patients of all ages with allergic problems. Doctors can help you find some type of cure to stop it at the moment or reduce it. Stopping climate change is important for people who have allergies because in a way it helps them with their allergies. We need to talk about it more and bring more attention to the topic by seeing a doctor or immunologists or using technological tools to help.

Resources used:   www.aaaai.org;  www.webmd.com

Student essay writer Mashael Khudakaram

Climate Change and Food By Mashael Khuda Karam

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Human activities that cause climate change are: Human burning fuel and coal which release too much greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere like carbon dioxide that traps the heat in the atmosphere which, leads to a faster climate change. People and companies started to cut down forests by cutting a huge amount of trees each year from 3.5 to 7 billion trees each year and then they sell the timber to other countries in order to make furniture. Smaller trees are used for the production of charcoal, and human agriculture by replacing large trees with smaller plants that absorbs fewer amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Which is another reason why the rate of carbon dioxide keeps increasing.

Human activities have increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

Scientists notices changes in average temperatures, rainfall, pests, diseases; atmospheric carbon dioxide, ground-level ozone concentrations, and changes in the nutritional quality of some foods. Causes to all of these problems are human activities that lead to increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

Some of the laws or treaties that have been passed to slow or stop the problem of climate change are: The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations, itś long-term goal is to keep the increase in global temperatures down since this would substantially reduce the risks and effects of climate change. Presidents signing treaties with other countries to help the environment and slow or stop climate change will encourage other governments or countries to get involved in the treaty too; which will allow for better collaboration and better solutions.

It is important to solve climate change because the impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk.

One of the dangerous effects are drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Some possible solutions are: reducing food waste by storing food in the right place, saving leftovers, keeping track of what is being thrown away, work on preserving food, keeping the fridge clutter-free, eat the skins of the fruits and vegetables, and shop smart. Encourage tropical forest restoration by starting organizations, groups, or associations, or even school groups that can save seeds, plant some trees, and work on planting native trees that belong to the area that is being restored. We should also limit power plant pollution by preventing about 90% of the mercury in the coal burned in power plants from being emitted to the air. This would reduce 88% of acid gas emissions, and reduce 41% of sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants. Having companies go beyond the reductions expected from the cross-state air pollution rule would help reduce climate change even more.

There are some technological advancements to help deal with the problem of climate change. Some of them are: sensors that help farmers reduce the number of chemicals in their fields. Smart boats which can help the fishermen manage their catch effectively, increasing profits and fish in the sea. Google cars mapping air pollution and its health effects. Wearable bracelets that track your daily chemical exposure.

There are different ways to educate or raise awareness by persuading others to collaborate toward a possible solution that is easy for everyone in the group. It can be a solution that can be done in a reasonable amount of time. You can encourage family and friends to spread the word, and join organizations such as the UNESCO association, and work with different schools and Universities. Another way to tell others about the impacts of climate change like drought, the rise in temperature, rise in sea level, fire danger in forests, and severe storms is by encouraging others to care about this climate change and collaborate to find a solution that will help our planet, the organisms, and our health.

There are careers where people work on ways to stop the problem. They are: Atmospheric Scientists/Meteorologists, environment Scientists, and Specialists, and Environmental Engineers. Atmospheric Scientists and Meteorologists are commonly associated with producing weather forecasts, and they are concerned with understanding climate and some specialize in understanding how Earth’s climate is changing while others concentrate on determining the long-term impacts of climate change.

Environmental Scientists and Specialists specifically focus on developing ways to reduce or prevent pollution and improve the health of the planet and its inhabitants. Some specialize in their field and work as climate change analysts and are responsible for conducting research specifically related to the impact climate change is having on the world. Environmental Engineers are professionals who work to find ways to correct or prevent environmental damage, and their duties can involve researching climate change and developing ways to protect the environment, different scientists and people are working in careers related to the environment and the atmosphere. They are working hard to slow climate change and the impact of its occurrence.

It is important to solve climate change because the long-term impacts of it will put every organism on the Earth at a big risk. One of the effects is drought which leads to a lack of water, and without water, we die. Ways to bring more attention to climate change and its impact on food are by making posters to describe the problem, ways to solve it and show others that is something that needs to be solved. Posts on social media about the dangers on the food supply from changing the weather like: climate change increasing the risk of foodborne illness, lowering the nutritional value of the food. Climate change can also lead to chemical contaminants in the food chain, and extreme weather limits access to safe foods. Lastly, you can attract people to join environmental organizations that talk about the environment and the impacts of climate change on it, so they have a better understanding of the problems and know what should be done. There are plenty of ways to attract people’s attention to climate change, but we need to find the best way.

References used: United states environmental protection agency. “Causes of Climate Change.”  EPA, https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-clim... Unesco. “Climate Change Education and Awareness.” Unesco organization, https://en.unesco.org/themes/addressing-climate-change/climate-change-ed... David Suzuki. “Food and climate change.” David Suzuki foundation, https://davidsuzuki.org/queen-of-green/food-climate-change/; Nanyang Technological University. “How can human activities cause climate change?” EarthObservatory, https://earthobservatory.sg/faq-on-earth-sciences/how-can-human-activiti...

student Jacob Onorato

Climate Change and Strength of Hurricanes - Mostly Just Climate Change Cus It’s Hard To Just Focus On Hurricanes Alone... By Jacob Onorado

Climate change is the gradual change in average global weather activities caused by multiple factors, including the average temperature of the Earth (Known as global warming) due to excess greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, as-well-as others. Climate change contains many effects prevalent in the atmosphere, from increased overall temperatures to rising sea levels, to stronger storm and hurricane strength, to heatwaves, droughts, and floods, as-well-as other notable effects.

Although there are many causes of climate change, especially those caused by humans, the most notable/obvious human-related causes of climate change include that of global warming, in the form of an increase in greenhouse gas emissions from sources such as the burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, and other areas of activity.

There are many problems that climate change and global warming bring, and we’re just making them worse. We need to change how we do things, and we need to work on how to fix the problems we’re causing, as-well-as fixing the causes.

The average amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is approximately 400 ppm (parts per million). That’s 100 ppm higher than the previous highest carbon dioxide density in our atmosphere for the last Million years! This is undoubtedly causing problems in our atmosphere. Over the course of human history, we have witnessed natural events caused by climate change and global warming, such as storms, hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves. We’ve been able to see the correlation of the change in the strength and amount of these events with the change in the average global temperature of Earth. Now, of course, it is good to note that correlation does not necessarily equal causation, although based on the evidence, it’s very hard to argue that climate change hasn't had an effect.

Although there are some who believe otherwise, the main cause of Climate Change, and Global Warming, is humans. We release so much pollution and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, that we’re changing an entire planet. From cars to power plants to agriculture, and more.

As the knowledge of global warming, climate change, and pollution, and their consequences, such as the increasing power and frequency of ocean storms has been increasing over the years, more and more laws and regulations have been proposed and passed in order to cope. Such laws as the Clean Air Act of 1963 or the Paris Climate Agreement are notable examples.

We know that we’re causing a problem, and many of us are trying to fix it, and so the main problem lies not in that we are causing a problem, but that there are those who disbelieve in the evidence and try and turn back the progress we’ve made in trying to fix it.

We’re slowly killing an entire planet, but not just any old rock in space, but our home. If we don’t fix what we’re breaking, we won’t have a home to live in. Our successors that we try our best to make a good future for, won’t have a future in the first place.

But what can we do to fix this? • Increasing awareness of climate change and the consequences • Doing our best to reduce our use of greenhouse gas emitting sources, such as fossil fuels from cars, or power plants, to finding better food production techniques. • Finding better ways to accomplish the same things we use greenhouse gas producing sources for, such as heat, transportation, food production, electricity, and more.

We’ve made many technological advancements that are very promising, such as renewable energy. These technologies allow us to replace the main use of fossil fuels, and decrease a large portion of our greenhouse gas emissions. There are also advancements made in agriculture that allow us to be much more efficient.

In regards to the effects of climate change, such as increased extreme weather conditions (droughts, heatwaves, storms, hurricanes, etcetera) certain advancements such as better transportation, storage of goods, and early warning systems, have helped us deal with the largest portion of problems.

The best way to deal with these issues, though, is to raise awareness of them.

We need to make these issues widely known and talked about. The more people know of these issues and the problems they cause, the more push there will be to change policies and laws to prevent and fix them. There are organizations and websites that allow people to gain information and research the problems that are being caused by Climate Change, and make their voices heard. If you believe Climate Change is an issue, I urge you to go to these websites, learn as much as you can about the problems being made, and make your voice heard.

There are many people who work to reverse climate change. Activists that help raise awareness of the issues that we have to deal with. Scientists study the climate and the effects of its changes. Engineers advance technologies to allow us to use more efficient and eco-friendly sources and products. These people help to change our world for the better, and hopefully, their efforts work.

Climate Change is not natural, at least not how we’re seeing it. What we’re seeing is caused by humans, we’ve exploited our planet too much, and we’re seeing the effects of it. We’re experiencing not only small weather problems, but big ones, and we’re seeing more of them too. Heat waves, droughts, storms, hurricanes: All of these used to be rare issues, or at the very least they used to be less of a common issue. The thing is though, we already have solutions to these problems! The only thing we need to do now raise awareness of these problems, and enact these solutions by replacing all our problematic technologies with less problematic, and more efficient ones!

Resources: C2es.org https://www.c2es.org/content/international-emissions/;  Climate.Gov https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-chan... https://www.wikipedia.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Air_Act_ (United_States)


The Greenhouse Effect By Nadieshka Perez

Climate change is the changes that occur in the Earth's climate system, resulting in new weather that lasts for a few decades or millions of years. A few human activities that cause climate change are the burning of fossil fuels (such as oil and coal), deforestation, and agriculture. Those three things emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Though some of the things that release greenhouse gases occur naturally, the concentration of CO2 did not rise above 300 parts per million (ppm) in the past. Today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is about 400 parts per million.

The greenhouse effect is the trapping of the Sun's warmth in the planet's lower atmosphere. The combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, fertilizer usage (which increases the nitrous oxide emissions), and the transporting, extracting, processing, and distributing of fossil fuels all release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. There have been many attempts to slow down greenhouse gas emissions by making laws. Examples include  a law introduced by Senator Chuck Grassley, who added the renewable energy production tax credit to the energy policy. Another example would be June 2009, when the House passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 by a vote of 219 to 212.

It's important to find a solution to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Increases in greenhouse gases can result in climate change and temperatures getting out of control. Some simple solutions to the problem could be ‘reducing, reusing, and recycling’, driving less and walking or riding a bike instead, or using less electricity. A way of releasing less greenhouse gases could be using the heater and air conditioning less.

There's quite a few jobs that attempt to prevent climate change and slowing down the greenhouse effect. There are environmental scientists, environmental engineers, environmental protection specialist, etc. There's also greenhouse gas verifiers and greenhouse gas program managers. Greenhouse gas verifiers collect data and audits as well as develop verification reports and sampling plans. Greenhouse gas program managers are responsible for defining and executing greenhouse gas compliance strategies for North America and other places.

Climate change is any specific long term change in the pattern of average weather of a region over a significant amount of time. Some ways of bringing more attention to the greenhouse effect and its causes in climate change are talking about it with others who are interested in reducing their greenhouse gas thus slowing climate change.

You could talk about it on social media, or make a video or blog about the subject and posting it since many people are online a lot.

It's important to find a way to slow the greenhouse effect before temperatures get out of control.

Resources: “How human activities produce greenhouse gases” -United Nations Environment Program    https://unfccc.int/cop3/fccc/climate/fact22.htm;   “Discovery of the greenhouse effect” - J.M.K.C. Donev et al. (2019). Energy Education https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Discovery_of_the_greenhouse_effe... “ Congress Climate History” - Center For Climate And Energy Solutions https://www.c2es.org/content/congress-climate-history/;  “Ten Ways To Reduce Greenhouse gases” http://www.eastgwillimbury.ca/services/Environment/Ten_ways_to_Reduce_Gr... “Innovating Energy Solutions: Research and Development highlights” https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/Research-and-innovation/Research-and...


Climate Change in the Arctic By Courtney Turbaczewski

About half of the light reaching Earth's atmosphere passes through the air and clouds to the surface, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward in the form of infrared heat. About 90 percent of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases and radiated back toward the surface, which is warmed to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius).

Scientists agree that today’s warming is primarily caused by humans putting too much carbon in the atmosphere, like when we choose to extract and burn coal, oil, and gas, or cut down and burn forests.

Many Places like India and china (places that are overpopulated) are much more a main part of why this is happening.

My project is on climate change in the arctic. The arctic region is warmer than it used to be and it continues to get warmer. Over the past 30 years it has warmed more than any other region on Earth. Most scientists agree that Arctic weather changes and climate change, generally, are a result of human activity. Because, the Arctic is warming the sea ice, snow cover, ice caps and the permafrost are all changing and not in a good way. Arctic sea ice cover has declined by 30 percent in the past 30 years. Studies also show that overall snow in the Arctic has also decreased.

Changes in the Arctic climate are important because the Arctic acts as a refrigerator for the rest of the world. The arctic region gives off more heat to space than it absorbs from outside, which helps cool the planet.

Changes in the Arctic climate could affect the climate in the rest of the world.

I do think solving this problem is important because after it keeps happening for a while it could be dangerous, the Earth could overheat and humans could die.

Flooding could also occur due to an increased amount of water in the ocean. This will cause some low lying areas to be covered in water.

To solve this problem we would probably have to find different sources for things we use that cause climate change. 

Sources: Callery, Susan.” How’s our planet doing.” https://climate.nasa.gov/; No author. “The Arctic and Global warming” https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/arctic/issues/global-warming/


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Home > Theses and Dissertations > Dissertations > All Dissertations > 1388

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Margarita Portnykh , Clemson University Follow

Date of Award

Document type.


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Legacy Department

Committee chair/advisor.

Mroz, Thomas A

Committee Member

Dougan, William R

Climate change represents a formidable challenge for mankind going forward. It is important to understand its effects. In this thesis I study how people adopt to climate change and argue that these responses could go a long way towards mitigating the effects of climate change. I show that in some cases accounting for such adaptation could completely reverse the negative effects of climate change. In the first chapter of my thesis I consider the general impact of adaptation without focusing on a particular adaptation mechanism studying mortality in Russia. Using regional monthly mortality and daily temperature data, I estimate a flexible non-parametric relation between weather and mortality. I find evidence that regions are better adapted to temperature ranges they experience more frequently. In particular, damages from the high heat are smaller in regions where the average summer temperature is higher and damages from cold are lower in regions where winters are usually more severe. On the basis of these estimates I propose a novel way to account for adaptation to climate change without restricting attention to one particular channel. Namely, I assume that if some currently cold region in the future will be exposed to the high heat on a regular basis, then its (future) response will be similar to the present response of a warmer region which currently is exposed to such heat on a regular basis. I illustrate my approach constructing predictions for the impact of climate change on mortality using business- as-usual temperature predictions from several climate change models. I find that the no- adaptation specification predicts 0.7 percent increase in mortality by 2070-2099. When adaptation response is taken into account, however, I forecast a decrease in mortality by 1 percent by 2070-2099. In the second chapter of my thesis I study migration as an adaptation mechanism to climate change. I estimate a discrete location choice model, in which households choose residence locations on the basis of potential earnings, moving costs, climate amenities, and population density. I treat population density as endogenous using geological structure as an instrument. This model allows me to estimate counterfactual migratory responses and welfare changes resulting from non-marginal changes in temperature, such as these predicted by most climate models. I also account for general equilibrium effects on population densities arising from individual migration decisions. I find that the costs of climate change are likely to be quite large. In the absence of migration, American households would require their incomes to increase by 20-30 percent on average to attain their present day level of utility. The distribution of those costs is uneven across geographical locations. Some areas in the South would require more than 50 percent increases in terms of current incomes, while some northern locations actually see benefits around 20 percent. Allowing for migratory responses decrease those extremes considerably because of the resulting shifts in population densities. For the hardest hit areas, migration would reduce the costs by more than 10 percent (4-5 percentage points). Areas benefiting the most from climate change without migration would see their benefits reduced due to migratory inflows from other locations.

Recommended Citation

Portnykh, Margarita, "ESSAYS ON ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE" (2014). All Dissertations . 1388. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_dissertations/1388

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essay on climate change resilience

Climate Solutions » Resilience Solutions

Climate resilience portal, at-a-glance.

As greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, climate change will continue to accelerate. Even if emissions were to stop today, the climate would continue to change for some time as the Earth’s system responds to the warming already underway. It makes sense to anticipate changes and act now to minimize future economic and social risks.

Climate resilience is often associated with acute events – like heat waves, heavy downpours, hurricanes, or wildfires – that will become more frequent or intense as the climate changes. However, good resilience planning also accounts for chronic events, like rising sea levels, worsening air quality, and population migration.

Cities and local communities are responding by investing in infrastructure updates and climate-smart planning to mitigate the impacts of acute and chronic events. For example, a combination of nature-based solutions and building improvements, like planting street trees and installing green roofs, can help mitigate extreme heat. Actions like these are especially important in historically marginalized communities, where climate impacts can exacerbate existing inequalities. Baltimore and Minneapolis are among cities that have implemented Resilience Hubs , housed in trusted community facilities that provide day-to-day services and operate as resource centers during and after hazard events like floods or extreme heat.

Governments and businesses alike are planning now for the environment and economy they will face in the future. Recent research found that each dollar of federal grant assistance spent on risk mitigation returned $6 in value. The federal government has responded by implementing new pre-disaster mitigation grants to help communities build resilience to climate impacts. And, recognizing that climate impacts pose uncertain risks to the U.S. financial system, the Securities and Exchange Commission is considering how best to support climate risk disclosure among publicly traded U.S. companies. For their part, businesses increasingly recognize how supporting local governments and building their own climate resilience helps create competitive economies they can thrive in.

While there is still much work to be done, there are many inspiring cases of resilience planning that can serve as models for future initiatives.

Examples of Resilience Planning

Overview of Resilience Solutions

Creating climate resilient communities calls for action from businesses, states, cities, and the federal government. Each is poised to approach resilience with varied strategies.

Business Resilience Solutions: Businesses take a variety of approaches in addressing risks, and often view climate change as a “threat multiplier” that makes existing risks worse. Business initiatives to build resilience include developing disaster recovery plans, adding onsite energy resources like combined heat and power systems or rooftop solar, and identifying backup supply and distribution chains. Small businesses may deploy different strategies like installing green roofs for water retention and communicating preparedness information to employees.

C2ES examines how companies are preparing for climate risks, the strategies they are using to build resilience, and what more they can do in Weathering the Storm: Building Business Resilience to Climate Change and Weathering the Next Storm: A Closer Look at Business Resilience . We also explore best practices for climate risk disclosure in a series of reports focused on the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures . More information is available on our Business Action on Resilience page.

Federal Resilience Solutions : The federal government provides support for state and local climate resilience in a number of ways, the most visible of which is significant grant and loan funding for state and local resilience-related projects. Federal agencies are also a primary provider of climate data, models, planning tools, and technical assistance that help planners and policymakers assess risks and opportunities for action. While federal agencies and programs have successfully sponsored many local resilience-building projects, these resources must be scaled up significantly to meet the needs of communities already preparing for and recovering from climate-related extreme weather events. Increasing these resources is particularly critical for low-income and marginalized communities, who are disproportionately impacted by climate-related extreme weather events and often face challenges in accessing support to prepare for and recover from these events.

State Resilience Solutions : State governments are crucial in convening local and private interests related to climate change and pooling the resources and expertise of the many departments or agencies that can be affected by or help address climate change. Nineteen states currently have climate adaptation or resilience plans, (with six more states currently developing them). States can be influential by adopting resilience practices in state-owned assets and operations and by adopting policies that mandate or incentivize climate resilience in insurance, transportation, and building codes. For example, Rhode Island’s Coastal Resources Management Council includes changing sea levels in its special area management plan for communities on the shoreline.

C2ES explores what states are doing on our State Action on Resilience page and explores how they can engage with businesses in Framework for Engaging Small- and Medium-sized Businesses in Maryland on Climate Resilience.

City Resilience Solutions : Cities and smaller communities face a variety of challenges including sea level rise, flooding, heat, and drought. In response, cities are developing standalone resilience plans, like the Greater  Miami area’s Resilient305 strategy, while others incorporate resilience strategies into master plans (e.g. Keene, New Hampshire ) and hazard mitigation plans (e.g .  San Diego County, California, and  Providence, Rhode Island).   New Orleans developed a resilience strategy to implement throughout city operations, resulting in new, resilient design standards for public works, an updated zoning ordinance, and embedding resilience outcomes within the city’s budgeting process.

C2ES breaks down what cities are doing on our City Action on Resilience page, and explores how they are engaging businesses in our Guide to Public-Private Collaboration on City Climate Resilience Planning . We also explore how investing in climate resilience helps cities create the competitive local economies that attract new residents and businesses in The Resilience Factor: A Competitive Edge for Climate-Ready Cities and Factoring in Resilience for City Competitiveness , a scrolling story.

Financing Resilience : The upfront cost of building resilience is a challenge, as is the need to set aside funds often needed for short-term projects. However, governments and businesses are obtaining capital to invest in resilience projects through innovative finance mechanisms like green bonds and climate funds. States that participate in emissions-trading systems also allocate proceeds to resilience projects. In addition, many federal and state insurance offices and private insurers offer lower rates for taking steps to reduce climate risks, providing additional savings later.

C2ES explores a National Green Bank as an emerging opportunity to leverage private capital for resilience investment. We look at innovative ways to finance infrastructure resilience on our Financing Resilience page.

C2ES thanks the Bank of America for its support, which allowed us to develop our Climate Resilience Portal. As a fully independent organization, C2ES is solely responsible for its positions, programs, and publications.

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Increased extreme weather and climate-related impacts are imposing significant costs on society and on companies. While businesses are increasingly taking steps to assess risks and prepare for future climate changes, many companies face internal and external challenges that hinder efforts …

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Implementing TCFD: Strategies for Enhancing Disclosure

Since the Financial Stability Board’s Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) put forward a voluntary reporting framework in 2017, a growing number of companies have been working to improve and align public reporting on climate-related risks and opportunities with …

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Investing in Resilience

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American communities are facing growing and shifting climate risks. The evidence is in the growing costs of disasters which soared to more than $300 billion in 2017, breaking 2005’s record of $219 billion, according to NOAA data. Underlying these headline-making …

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Using Scenarios to Assess and Report Climate-Related Financial Risk

After the publication of recommendations by the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) in June 2017, C2ES issued a September 2017 report, Beyond the Horizon: Corporate Reporting on Climate Change. In that report, C2ES identified areas where more work was …

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Key Insights into Prioritizing Resilience Strategies

Governments and businesses are acting to promote resilience to climate change impacts. However, resilience planning does not occur in a vacuum. Organizations have multiple goals, including satisfying stakeholders, meeting sustainability objectives, addressing traditional pollution issues, and advancing social equity—and they …

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