Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- Research paper
Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 29, 2022.
The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:
- Present your topic and get the reader interested
- Provide background or summarize existing research
- Position your own approach
- Detail your specific research problem and problem statement
- Give an overview of the paper’s structure
The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.
Table of contents
Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.
The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.
The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.
For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:
A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:
Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.
This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.
In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.
Argumentative paper: Background information
After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.
Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .
Empirical paper: Describing previous research
For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.
This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.
Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.
Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editing
The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.
Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance
In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.
Empirical paper: Relate to the literature
In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:
- What research gap is your work intended to fill?
- What limitations in previous work does it address?
- What contribution to knowledge does it make?
You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.
Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.
The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).
Argumentative paper: Thesis statement
The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.
Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis
The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.
Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.
A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.
- This study set out to answer the following question: What effects does daily use of Instagram have on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls?
- We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls.
If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.
For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:
The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.
In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.
If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.
- This paper will first discuss several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then will go on to …
- This paper first discusses several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then goes on to …
Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.
The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.
The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:
- A hook to catch the reader’s interest
- Relevant background on the topic
- Details of your research problem
and your problem statement
- A thesis statement or research question
- Sometimes an overview of the paper
Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.
This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .
The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .
A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 29). Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved March 2, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-introduction/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, writing strong research questions | criteria & examples, writing a research paper conclusion | step-by-step guide, research paper format | apa, mla, & chicago templates, what is your plagiarism score.
Management Paper Blog Academic Writing Guides And Tips
- Three Research Paper Introduction Examples: Learn How to Initiate and Hook
- Apr 13, 2021
A research paper introduction holds perhaps the most importance for a study to be successful. After a good research paper abstract , it is the introduction that builds the interest in a reader to continue reading the research paper. If the introduction turns out to be dull and drab, then the study would be a failed one.
A good research paper needs a lot of background study, which you often fail to do. To make your work easier, Management Paper is there for you to help you write yours efficiently.
Key Features of a Research Paper Introduction
- It forms the basic part of both the research paper as well as the research proposal .
- Apart from giving a general notion about the research paper topic , it includes important elements such as background, aim, objectives, questions and many more.
- It must contain the questions ‘WHY’: why is the research conducted, why it is important, why this chosen topic and so on is.
- It helps in pointing out the knowledge gaps and fills them up throughout the paper.
- Use precise and clear points.
The Most Commonly Included Elements in The Research Papers
There are different kinds of research papers like essays, reports, dissertations and journals. The introduction which is generally used in case of all other types of research paper except dissertations are similar in nature. Such an introduction is similar to a summary of the topic, defining the problem, stating the aims and objectives that are going to be established through the research.
But in case of dissertation, in a good research paper format the introduction is presented in great detail by dividing the section into the following parts:
- Research background
- Research problem
- Research rationale
- Research aim
- Research objectives
- Research hypothesis
- Research questions
Apart from this, many papers include time plan, scope and limitations of the research too. The experts from the team of Management Paper can help you with your paper writing and also make you understand the various aspects of a research paper.
Some Significant Examples of Research Paper Introduction
Research paper introduction example #1, topic: impact of leadership effectiveness on employees for the company amazon (dissertation).
The history and the various past events related to the topic are being mentioned in this section. Thsi supplies context to the paper and contains both relevant and important studies. Authenticating your information is a must by in-text citations.
The research problem states a specific area of concern, a bothering question, a difficulty which is to be eliminated or a condition that demands improvement. The missing knowledge about the topic is being found out through this and then only you can do further research about the problem.
The rationale answers the question of why the research is being conducted and thus states its importance.
The things that are expected to be achieved at the end of the research are generally mentioned here.
The objectives are the various goals or targets that are to be established and achieved throughout the study.
The research question points out the facts that are to be established through the paper and provides the research with a clear focus and purpose.
This is a specific predictive statement about the possible future outcome of the study which is mostly based upon the relationship between different variables or on a single variable.
Research Paper Introduction Example # 2
Topic: implementing online customer support service through chat portal at aldi, research paper introduction example # 3, topic: compare and contrast the policies for the aged people in various countries.
In both the second and the third example, the introduction is written in a single paragraph. In the first line itself you must introduce the topic. Try to avoid embellishments. Write any remarkable event about the topic then. Explain the problem and the purpose of the research. Try to build a reasonable thesis statement. Then with few lines, insert a smooth transition to make a shift from the introduction to the body.
You can check out more examples from the page of Management paper, and can also avail paper writing service from them with ease. We do not compromise with quality and believe in time management.
Save Times & Improve Grades
Just share your ruquirements and get customized solutions on time
- Research Paper Format: Know How to Structure Your Paper
- Learn the Basic Essay Format Through Some Easy Steps
- The Types of Essays: Four Popular Genres
- The Various Angles of Essays Through Cause-and-Effect Essay Examples
- 50 Great Debatable Topics to Make Your Essay A Brilliant One
- The Easiest Way to Draft A Formal Essay
- Research Proposal Outline: Learn to Propose the Plan Properly
- Comparing and Contrasting Through Compare and Contrast Essay Examples
- Everything You Need to Know About A Research Proposal
Starting Your Research Paper: Writing an Introductory Paragraph
- Choosing Your Topic
- Define Keywords
- Planning Your Paper
- Writing an Introductory Paragraph
The Dreaded Introductory Paragraph
Writing the introductory paragraph can be a frustrating and slow process -- but it doesn't have to be. If you planned your paper out, then most of the introductory paragraph is already written. Now you just need a beginning and an end.
Here's an introductory paragraph for a paper I wrote. I started the paper with a factoid, then presented each main point of my paper and then ended with my thesis statement.
- << Previous: Planning Your Paper
- Last Updated: Aug 6, 2021 11:42 AM
- URL: https://libguides.astate.edu/papers
How to Write a Strong Introduction to a Research Paper
by Suzanne Davis | Jun 17, 2021 | Writing Essays and Papers , Writing Process
What makes an introduction powerful?
It’s an important question because an introduction is the first impression readers have of your research paper. A strong introduction tells your readers not only what you will prove or show— it makes them want to read it .
You want to write an introduction that engages your reader, conveys the importance of your topic, and how and what you plan to demonstrate. These elements are what moves your audience, so they feel a desire to finish your research paper.
A powerful introduction says to the reader, “You must read me!”
3 Key Components of Strong Introductions
So what are the key parts a good introduction should have? 1) a compelling hook, 2) important background information and 3) a provable and specific thesis statement. If you put those 3 pieces together you’ll have an effective introduction.
#1 Compelling Hook
A hook is the first 1 or 2 sentences of your paper. It is meant to grab your readers’ attention, so they want to see what comes next. If you want to learn about hooks check out my blog post, “7 Sensational Types of Essay Hooks.” https://www.academicwritingsuccess.com/7-sensational-types-of-essay-hooks/ There you’ll find more details about hooks and how to use them in your essays.
Here are 5 that work well in academic writing.
Powerful Statement /Declaration
With his hook, you begin with a sentence that makes a firm claim. For example, “Every day Facebook invades its users’ privacy.” This sentence forces readers to reflect on whether or not they agree with this statement. To do that they need to read your research paper.
In this case, most people have already formed an opinion about Facebook, and here you’ll either challenge or deepen their perspectives.
This hook is popular because people love to learn facts and statistics. Studies can be very persuasive. We regard studies as evidence or proof and place great value on statistics. When readers see statistics, they want to know more about how it will relate to what you write. However, make sure the facts you use come from a credible source.
When you start your paper or essay with a question, people will want to learn the answer to it. They are naturally curious, so an intriguing question makes them want to continue reading. Make sure this question connects to what you will write about. An off-topic question is confusing.
Quotations are very popular. They can be inspiring and thought-provoking. You can use quotations from famous people, experts, characters, or even people mentioned in your paper. For example, if you are writing a case study you could select a quotation from one of the participants in the study. Quotations work well when they connect with the rest of your academic essay or paper. Make sure the relationship between the quotation and your writing is clear.
In this hook, you take 2 different things and state how they are similar or the same. For example, “Facebook is a digital version of prison people want to be in.” This sentence takes 2 different things “Facebook” and “prison” and claims they are alike. The comparison of Facebook being like a digital version of prison is a strong visual. Your readers will want to see how you show a connection between these 2 things.
Both similes and metaphors accomplish the same thing in your hook. The difference is that a simile uses the words “like” and “as” to make the comparison, “Writing a novel is like running a marathon.” A metaphor states one thing is another, “Writing a novel is running a marathon.”
#2 Important Background Information
The next group of sentences in your introduction express the circumstance and/or relevant information about your topic. A lot of times you will see writers describe a problem, an issue or provide historical context.
Include the information people need to know to understand your topic and why it matters. If you are writing about Facebook and privacy, people would want to see what the situation is and why privacy matters. A good question to ask here is, “What is the context?”
Also, start with general information first, and in the following sentences be more specific. Those specific sentences lead to the most important piece of your introduction: your thesis statement.
#3 Provable and Specific Thesis Statement
A thesis statement is a sentence that describes what you will prove or show in your research paper. Think of it as the point of view (POV) or opinion you have about your topic. It also guides how you will organize your essay or paper.
A strong thesis statement is clear and specific and one you can prove. For example, Children should not use digital devices until they are at least 3 years old because it lowers their attention span, limits social interaction, and causes sleep problems.
This thesis statement sets up the organization of your paper. Each of the 3 effects of children using digital devices is part of the body. These sections of the body would go toward proving your thesis statement.
- Body Part A: Digital devices lower a child’s attention span.
- Body Part B: Digital devices limit a child’s social interaction with others.
- Body Part C : Digital devices cause sleep problems.
So how do you create a thesis statement?
- Examine your topic, and briefly research it. I suggest reading any class notes you have and reading some background sources on your topic. What do people say about your topic?
- Ask yourself, “What do I think about this topic?”
- Brainstorm ideas and review them. What are the ideas that you can find research on?
- Write a sentence that connects your topic to what you will show, reveal, or prove about it . (Do not use the first person “I think” or “I feel” in your thesis statement).
- Evaluate your thesis statement. Is it specific? Can you prove it with evidence?
Write A Strong Introduction
There are different ways you can approach writing an introduction. You could write the body of your paper first and then write the introduction. You could write the thesis statement first and then write the hook and background information.
I like to write a thesis statement first, write the body of my paper, and then the conclusion. Afterward, I go back and write the rest of my introduction.
Some people like to begin with a hook and write a strong introduction before anything else. Write the way that suits you best. As long as you include a compelling hook, important background information, and a provable and specific thesis statement, you’ll have an impressive introduction.
Want help finding the perfect research paper topic?
Sign-up below and get the free quick guide, Nail Your Research Paper Topic!
Tutorpreneur Hero Award
SSL Certificate Seal
Please log in again. The login page will open in a new tab. After logging in you can close it and return to this page.
Writing an Introduction for a Scientific Paper
Dr. michelle harris, dr. janet batzli, biocore.
This section provides guidelines on how to construct a solid introduction to a scientific paper including background information, study question , biological rationale, hypothesis , and general approach . If the Introduction is done well, there should be no question in the reader’s mind why and on what basis you have posed a specific hypothesis.
Broad Question : based on an initial observation (e.g., “I see a lot of guppies close to the shore. Do guppies like living in shallow water?”). This observation of the natural world may inspire you to investigate background literature or your observation could be based on previous research by others or your own pilot study. Broad questions are not always included in your written text, but are essential for establishing the direction of your research.
Background Information : key issues, concepts, terminology, and definitions needed to understand the biological rationale for the experiment. It often includes a summary of findings from previous, relevant studies. Remember to cite references, be concise, and only include relevant information given your audience and your experimental design. Concisely summarized background information leads to the identification of specific scientific knowledge gaps that still exist. (e.g., “No studies to date have examined whether guppies do indeed spend more time in shallow water.”)
Testable Question : these questions are much more focused than the initial broad question, are specific to the knowledge gap identified, and can be addressed with data. (e.g., “Do guppies spend different amounts of time in water <1 meter deep as compared to their time in water that is >1 meter deep?”)
Biological Rationale : describes the purpose of your experiment distilling what is known and what is not known that defines the knowledge gap that you are addressing. The “BR” provides the logic for your hypothesis and experimental approach, describing the biological mechanism and assumptions that explain why your hypothesis should be true.
The biological rationale is based on your interpretation of the scientific literature, your personal observations, and the underlying assumptions you are making about how you think the system works. If you have written your biological rationale, your reader should see your hypothesis in your introduction section and say to themselves, “Of course, this hypothesis seems very logical based on the rationale presented.”
- A thorough rationale defines your assumptions about the system that have not been revealed in scientific literature or from previous systematic observation. These assumptions drive the direction of your specific hypothesis or general predictions.
- Defining the rationale is probably the most critical task for a writer, as it tells your reader why your research is biologically meaningful. It may help to think about the rationale as an answer to the questions— how is this investigation related to what we know, what assumptions am I making about what we don’t yet know, AND how will this experiment add to our knowledge? *There may or may not be broader implications for your study; be careful not to overstate these (see note on social justifications below).
- Expect to spend time and mental effort on this. You may have to do considerable digging into the scientific literature to define how your experiment fits into what is already known and why it is relevant to pursue.
- Be open to the possibility that as you work with and think about your data, you may develop a deeper, more accurate understanding of the experimental system. You may find the original rationale needs to be revised to reflect your new, more sophisticated understanding.
- As you progress through Biocore and upper level biology courses, your rationale should become more focused and matched with the level of study e ., cellular, biochemical, or physiological mechanisms that underlie the rationale. Achieving this type of understanding takes effort, but it will lead to better communication of your science.
***Special note on avoiding social justifications: You should not overemphasize the relevance of your experiment and the possible connections to large-scale processes. Be realistic and logical —do not overgeneralize or state grand implications that are not sensible given the structure of your experimental system. Not all science is easily applied to improving the human condition. Performing an investigation just for the sake of adding to our scientific knowledge (“pure or basic science”) is just as important as applied science. In fact, basic science often provides the foundation for applied studies.
Hypothesis / Predictions : specific prediction(s) that you will test during your experiment. For manipulative experiments, the hypothesis should include the independent variable (what you manipulate), the dependent variable(s) (what you measure), the organism or system , the direction of your results, and comparison to be made.
If you are doing a systematic observation , your hypothesis presents a variable or set of variables that you predict are important for helping you characterize the system as a whole, or predict differences between components/areas of the system that help you explain how the system functions or changes over time.
Experimental Approach : Briefly gives the reader a general sense of the experiment, the type of data it will yield, and the kind of conclusions you expect to obtain from the data. Do not confuse the experimental approach with the experimental protocol . The experimental protocol consists of the detailed step-by-step procedures and techniques used during the experiment that are to be reported in the Methods and Materials section.
Some Final Tips on Writing an Introduction
- As you progress through the Biocore sequence, for instance, from organismal level of Biocore 301/302 to the cellular level in Biocore 303/304, we expect the contents of your “Introduction” paragraphs to reflect the level of your coursework and previous writing experience. For example, in Biocore 304 (Cell Biology Lab) biological rationale should draw upon assumptions we are making about cellular and biochemical processes.
- Be Concise yet Specific: Remember to be concise and only include relevant information given your audience and your experimental design. As you write, keep asking, “Is this necessary information or is this irrelevant detail?” For example, if you are writing a paper claiming that a certain compound is a competitive inhibitor to the enzyme alkaline phosphatase and acts by binding to the active site, you need to explain (briefly) Michaelis-Menton kinetics and the meaning and significance of Km and Vmax. This explanation is not necessary if you are reporting the dependence of enzyme activity on pH because you do not need to measure Km and Vmax to get an estimate of enzyme activity.
- Another example: if you are writing a paper reporting an increase in Daphnia magna heart rate upon exposure to caffeine you need not describe the reproductive cycle of magna unless it is germane to your results and discussion. Be specific and concrete, especially when making introductory or summary statements.
Where Do You Discuss Pilot Studies? Many times it is important to do pilot studies to help you get familiar with your experimental system or to improve your experimental design. If your pilot study influences your biological rationale or hypothesis, you need to describe it in your Introduction. If your pilot study simply informs the logistics or techniques, but does not influence your rationale, then the description of your pilot study belongs in the Materials and Methods section.
How will introductions be evaluated? The following is part of the rubric we will be using to evaluate your papers.
Organizing Academic Research Papers: Purpose of Guide
Purpose of guide.
- Design Flaws to Avoid
- Glossary of Research Terms
- Narrowing a Topic Idea
- Broadening a Topic Idea
- Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
- Academic Writing Style
- Choosing a Title
- Making an Outline
- Paragraph Development
- Executive Summary
- Background Information
- The Research Problem/Question
- Theoretical Framework
- Citation Tracking
- Content Alert Services
- Evaluating Sources
- Primary Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Tertiary Sources
- What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
- Qualitative Methods
- Quantitative Methods
- Using Non-Textual Elements
- Limitations of the Study
- Common Grammar Mistakes
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Footnotes or Endnotes?
- Further Readings
- Annotated Bibliography
- Dealing with Nervousness
- Using Visual Aids
- Grading Someone Else's Paper
- How to Manage Group Projects
- Multiple Book Review Essay
- Reviewing Collected Essays
- About Informed Consent
- Writing Field Notes
- Writing a Policy Memo
- Writing a Research Proposal
This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality academic research paper. Also included are recommendations regarding how to manage specific course assignments. Note that, if you have specific questions about how to write a research paper, you should always seek advice from your professor before you begin. Specific requirements stated by your professor will always supersede instructions provided in these general guidelines.
Thanks to Dr. Robert V. Labaree of the Von KleinSmid Center Library for International and Public Affairs, University of Southern California Libraries , for sharing the content of this guide.
Jandrisevits Learning Center (JLC)
The JLC is SHU’s central academic support service and is open to all SHU students. Our mission is to provide academic support to strengthen student learning and empower every student to develop as self-directed learners. JLC tutors see each student as a holistic learner, paying attention to the importance of cognition as well as to the emotional aspects of learning.
Academic Support Services include 1-on-1 tutoring with Professional and Peer tutors; group study sessions for particular courses by Classroom Learning Assistants (CLAs); monthly workshops on specific academic and life skills; specialized Learning Labs in math, critical reading and writing, accounting, and math; and online writing support (OWL).
- Printable Tutorial - JLC Online Writing Lab
More resources from SHU
- Navigating the Research Process by Reference Librarians Last Updated Jun 2, 2022 136 views this year
- Zotero by Jeffrey Orrico Last Updated Mar 22, 2021 442 views this year
- First Year Seminar (FYS) Research & Writing Guide by Reference Librarians Last Updated Oct 13, 2022 144 views this year
- BU121 - Introduction to Business by Libby Knapik Last Updated Sep 8, 2021 16 views this year
- Company and Industry Research by Libby Knapik Last Updated Oct 17, 2022 59 views this year
- Patents and Trademarks by Libby Knapik Last Updated Apr 25, 2022 164 views this year
- Next: Types of Research Designs >>
- Last Updated: Dec 8, 2022 2:24 PM
- URL: https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803
- Library Catalog
- Databases A-Z
- Publication Finder
- Course Reserves
- Citation Linker
- Digital Commons
- Ask a Librarian
- Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
- Research Guides
- Databases by Subject
- Citation Help
Using the Library
- Reserve a Group Study Room
- Renew Books
- Honors Study Rooms
- Off-Campus Access
- Library Policies
- Library Technology
- Grad Students
- Online Students
- COVID-19 Updates
- Staff Directory
- News & Announcements
- Library Newsletter
- Interlibrary Loan
- Staff Site Login
FIND US ON
- Langson Library
- Science Library
- Grunigen Medical Library
- Law Library
- Connect From Off-Campus
- Gateway Study Center
- University of California Irvine
- Research Guides
- I Want To Learn About
- Writing a Scientific Paper
- Writing a lab report
Writing a Scientific Paper: Writing a lab report
- LITERATURE CITED
- Bibliography of guides to scientific writing and presenting
- Peer Review
- Lab Report Writing Guides on the Web
Index to the Writing a Scientific Paper Subject Guide . This guide contains both UCI Libraries' restricted resources* as well as publicly accessible ones.
Bibliography of guides
The Scientific Paper
Dear Novice Writer,
When I was in your shoes and preparing my first paper, I consulted a book on how to write. I found there a sentence encouraging the reader to do the following:
" After standing in boiling water for an hour, examine the contents of the flask."
I had a pretty good idea what was wrong with the sentence but, at the time I couldn't figure out how to revise it, and the author didn't tell me.
From: How to write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper (2nd ed.) Bjorn Gustavii.
No one knows how to write a scientific paper without practice and help. Many science students practice this skill when they are asked to write lab reports. This guide will describe some best practices for scientific writing and give you some additional sources to explore.
If you have read scientific papers, you will have noticed that a standard format is frequently used. This format allows a researcher to present information clearly and concisely. Scientists communicate new ideas by publishing their research in a specialized format called the journal article .
This form usually includes 6 parts:
1) abstract (a summary of the article)
2) introduction (a brief review of why they chose this experiment)
3) materials and methods (what organisms and equipment were used)
4) results (what was found)
5) discussion (what it means)
6) references (the list of journal articles and books that the scientist referred to in the paper).
Guides from other Universities and Professional Societies
- George Mason University Guide
- Bates College Guide
- Writing Resources on the World Wide Web
- University of Toronto Engineering Communication Centre Online Writing Handbook
- North Carolina State University Guide to Writing Lab Reports (LABWRITE)
- Next: TITLE >>
- Last Updated: Sep 9, 2022 11:28 AM
Off-campus? Please use the Software VPN and choose the group UCIFull to access licensed content. For more information, please Click here
Software VPN is not available for guests, so they may not have access to some content when connecting from off-campus.
Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide · Present your topic and get the reader interested · Provide background or summarize
What should you include in an introduction for a research paper? · An overview of the topic. Start with a general overview of your topic. · Prior
Try to avoid embellishments. Write any remarkable event about the topic then. Explain the problem and the purpose of the research. Try to build
Here's your chance to introduce your topic and grab your reader's attention. NEVER start your paper saying, "In this paper, I will" or "This
Learn the basics about how to write your introduction in 3 easy step. Intended for a middle school audience.-- Created using PowToon -- Free
"A strong introduction to a research paper should probably be written last. The introduction needs to include: 1) what the topic is focused on, 2) how the
How to Write a Strong Introduction to a Research Paper · Powerful Statement /Declaration. With his hook, you begin with a sentence that makes a
Background Information: key issues, concepts, terminology, and definitions needed to understand the biological rationale for the experiment. It
Structure and Writing Style · Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest. · Establish context by providing a brief and
It is important to cite sources in the introduction section of your paper as evidence of the claims you are making. There are ways of citing