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## Quantitative Research Hypothesis Examples

## Descriptive Hypothesis

## Comparative Hypothesis

## Associative Quantitative Hypothesis

## Constructing Hypotheses in Quantitative Research

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## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on December 2, 2022.

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

## Table of contents

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

- An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
- A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

## Step 1. Ask a question

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

## 4. Refine your hypothesis

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

- H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
- H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

## Cite this Scribbr article

McCombes, S. (2022, December 02). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/hypothesis/

## Is this article helpful?

## Shona McCombes

## Quantitative data collection and analysis

- Testing hypotheses
- Quantitative data collection
- Averages and percentiles
- Measures of Spread or Dispersion
- Samples and population
- Statistical tests - parametric
- Statistical tests - non-parametric
- Probability
- Reliability and Validity
- Analysing relationships
- Useful Books

## Testing Hypotheses

Then the process of testing is to ascertain which hypothesis to believe.

## The debate over hypothesis testing

See below for some articles that discuss this:

- Gill, J. (1999) 'The insignificance of null hypothesis testing', Politics Research Quarterly , 52(3), pp. 647-674 .
- Wainer, H. and Robinson, D.H. (2003) 'Shaping up the practice of null hypothesis significance testing', Educational Researcher, 32(7), pp.22-30 .
- Ferguson, C.J. and Heener, M. (2012) ' A vast graveyard of undead theories: publication bias and psychological science's aversion to the null' , Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), pp.555-561 .

## A significance level defines the level when your sample evidence contradicts your null hypothesis so that your can then reject it. It is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is really true.

## Using Confidence Intervals

## The test statistic

This is another commonly used statistic

- Write down your null and alternative hypothesis
- Find the sample statistic (e.g.the mean of your sample)
- Calculate the test statistic Z score (see under Measures of spread or dispersion and Statistical tests - parametric). In this case the sample mean is compared to the population mean (assumed from the null hypothesis) and the standard error (see under Samples and population) is used rather than the standard deviation.
- Compare the test statistic with the critical values (e.g. plus or minus 1.96 for 5% significance)
- Draw a conclusion about the hypotheses - does the calculated z value lies in this critical range i.e. above 1.96 or below -1.96? If it does we can reject the null hypothesis. This would indicate that the results are significant (or an effect has been detected) - which means that if there were no difference in the population then getting a result that you have observed would be highly unlikely therefore you can reject the null hypothesis.

*Wright, D. B. & London, K. (2009) First (and second) steps in statistics . 2nd edn. London: SAGE.

Typically, for a 1-sample t-test it is considered as the number of values in your sample minus 1.

For chi-squared tests with a table of rows and columns the rule is:

(Number of rows minus 1) times (number of columns minus 1)

Any accessible example to illustrate the principle of degrees of freedom using chocolates.

- You have seven chocolates in a box, each being a different type, e.g. truffle, coffee cream, caramel cluster, fudge, strawberry dream, hazelnut whirl, toffee.
- You are being good and intend to eat only one chocolate each day of the week.
- On the first day, you can choose to eat any one of the 7 chocolate types - you have a choice from all 7.
- On the second day, you can choose from the 6 remaining chocolates, on day 3 you can choose from 5 chocolates, and so on.
- On the sixth day you have a choice of the remaining 2 chocolates you haven't ate that week.
- However on the seventh day - you haven't really got any choice of chocolate - it has got to be the one you have left in your box.
- You had 7-1 = 6 days of “chocolate” freedom—in which the chocolate you ate could vary!
- << Previous: Samples and population
- Next: Statistical tests - parametric >>
- Last Updated: Aug 18, 2022 11:23 AM
- URL: https://libguides.tees.ac.uk/quantitative

## The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

## Table of Contents

## What is a Hypothesis?

## Different Types of Hypotheses

## 1. Null hypothesis

## 2. Alternative hypothesis

- Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
- Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

## 3. Simple hypothesis

## 4. Complex hypothesis

## 5. Associative and casual hypothesis

## 6. Empirical hypothesis

## 7. Statistical hypothesis

## Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

- A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
- It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
- It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
- A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
- If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
- A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

## Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

## Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

## 1. Be clear about your research question

## 2. Carry out a recce

## 3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

## 4. Write the first draft

## 5. Proof your hypothesis

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

## 2. What is an example of hypothesis?

## 3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

## 4. What are the types of research?

## 5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

## 6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

## 7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

## 8. What is plural for hypothesis?

## 9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

## 10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

## 11. When to reject null hypothesis?

## You might also like

## AI tools for researchers: Optimize your workflows with these research assistants

## Research Methodology: Everything You need to Know

## How To Write a Research Question

An official website of the United States government

## A Practical Guide to Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research Questions and Hypotheses in Scholarly Articles

## Glafera Janet Matanguihan

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Messiah University, Mechanicsburg, PA, USA.

## INTRODUCTION

## DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIP OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

## CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

## TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

## Research questions in quantitative research

## Hypotheses in quantitative research

## Research questions in qualitative research

## Hypotheses in qualitative research

## FRAMEWORKS FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

a These statements were composed for comparison and illustrative purposes only.

b These statements are direct quotes from Higashihara and Horiuchi. 16

a This statement is a direct quote from Shimoda et al. 17

The other statements were composed for comparison and illustrative purposes only.

## CONSTRUCTING RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES

## EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS FROM PUBLISHED ARTICLES

- EXAMPLE 1. Descriptive research question (quantitative research)
- - Presents research variables to be assessed (distinct phenotypes and subphenotypes)
- “BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 was identified, its clinical and biological heterogeneity has been recognized. Identifying COVID-19 phenotypes might help guide basic, clinical, and translational research efforts.
- RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the clinical spectrum of patients with COVID-19 contain distinct phenotypes and subphenotypes? ” 19
- EXAMPLE 2. Relationship research question (quantitative research)
- - Shows interactions between dependent variable (static postural control) and independent variable (peripheral visual field loss)
- “Background: Integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensations contributes to postural control. People with peripheral visual field loss have serious postural instability. However, the directional specificity of postural stability and sensory reweighting caused by gradual peripheral visual field loss remain unclear.
- Research question: What are the effects of peripheral visual field loss on static postural control ?” 20
- EXAMPLE 3. Comparative research question (quantitative research)
- - Clarifies the difference among groups with an outcome variable (patients enrolled in COMPERA with moderate PH or severe PH in COPD) and another group without the outcome variable (patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH))
- “BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is a poorly investigated clinical condition.
- RESEARCH QUESTION: Which factors determine the outcome of PH in COPD?
- STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics and outcome of patients enrolled in the Comparative, Prospective Registry of Newly Initiated Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension (COMPERA) with moderate or severe PH in COPD as defined during the 6th PH World Symposium who received medical therapy for PH and compared them with patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) .” 21
- EXAMPLE 4. Exploratory research question (qualitative research)
- - Explores areas that have not been fully investigated (perspectives of families and children who receive care in clinic-based child obesity treatment) to have a deeper understanding of the research problem
- “Problem: Interventions for children with obesity lead to only modest improvements in BMI and long-term outcomes, and data are limited on the perspectives of families of children with obesity in clinic-based treatment. This scoping review seeks to answer the question: What is known about the perspectives of families and children who receive care in clinic-based child obesity treatment? This review aims to explore the scope of perspectives reported by families of children with obesity who have received individualized outpatient clinic-based obesity treatment.” 22
- EXAMPLE 5. Relationship research question (quantitative research)
- - Defines interactions between dependent variable (use of ankle strategies) and independent variable (changes in muscle tone)
- “Background: To maintain an upright standing posture against external disturbances, the human body mainly employs two types of postural control strategies: “ankle strategy” and “hip strategy.” While it has been reported that the magnitude of the disturbance alters the use of postural control strategies, it has not been elucidated how the level of muscle tone, one of the crucial parameters of bodily function, determines the use of each strategy. We have previously confirmed using forward dynamics simulations of human musculoskeletal models that an increased muscle tone promotes the use of ankle strategies. The objective of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a hypothesis: an increased muscle tone promotes the use of ankle strategies. Research question: Do changes in the muscle tone affect the use of ankle strategies ?” 23

## EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHESES IN PUBLISHED ARTICLES

- EXAMPLE 1. Working hypothesis (quantitative research)
- - A hypothesis that is initially accepted for further research to produce a feasible theory
- “As fever may have benefit in shortening the duration of viral illness, it is plausible to hypothesize that the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen may be hindering the benefits of a fever response when taken during the early stages of COVID-19 illness .” 24
- “In conclusion, it is plausible to hypothesize that the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen may be hindering the benefits of a fever response . The difference in perceived safety of these agents in COVID-19 illness could be related to the more potent efficacy to reduce fever with ibuprofen compared to acetaminophen. Compelling data on the benefit of fever warrant further research and review to determine when to treat or withhold ibuprofen for early stage fever for COVID-19 and other related viral illnesses .” 24
- EXAMPLE 2. Exploratory hypothesis (qualitative research)
- - Explores particular areas deeper to clarify subjective experience and develop a formal hypothesis potentially testable in a future quantitative approach
- “We hypothesized that when thinking about a past experience of help-seeking, a self distancing prompt would cause increased help-seeking intentions and more favorable help-seeking outcome expectations .” 25
- “Conclusion
- Although a priori hypotheses were not supported, further research is warranted as results indicate the potential for using self-distancing approaches to increasing help-seeking among some people with depressive symptomatology.” 25
- EXAMPLE 3. Hypothesis-generating research to establish a framework for hypothesis testing (qualitative research)
- “We hypothesize that compassionate care is beneficial for patients (better outcomes), healthcare systems and payers (lower costs), and healthcare providers (lower burnout). ” 26
- Compassionomics is the branch of knowledge and scientific study of the effects of compassionate healthcare. Our main hypotheses are that compassionate healthcare is beneficial for (1) patients, by improving clinical outcomes, (2) healthcare systems and payers, by supporting financial sustainability, and (3) HCPs, by lowering burnout and promoting resilience and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to establish a scientific framework for testing the hypotheses above . If these hypotheses are confirmed through rigorous research, compassionomics will belong in the science of evidence-based medicine, with major implications for all healthcare domains.” 26
- EXAMPLE 4. Statistical hypothesis (quantitative research)
- - An assumption is made about the relationship among several population characteristics ( gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD ). Validity is tested by statistical experiment or analysis ( chi-square test, Students t-test, and logistic regression analysis)
- “Our research investigated gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with ADHD in a Japanese clinical sample. Due to unique Japanese cultural ideals and expectations of women's behavior that are in opposition to ADHD symptoms, we hypothesized that women with ADHD experience more difficulties and present more dysfunctions than men . We tested the following hypotheses: first, women with ADHD have more comorbidities than men with ADHD; second, women with ADHD experience more social hardships than men, such as having less full-time employment and being more likely to be divorced.” 27
- “Statistical Analysis
- ( text omitted ) Between-gender comparisons were made using the chi-squared test for categorical variables and Students t-test for continuous variables…( text omitted ). A logistic regression analysis was performed for employment status, marital status, and comorbidity to evaluate the independent effects of gender on these dependent variables.” 27

## EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHESIS AS WRITTEN IN PUBLISHED ARTICLES IN RELATION TO OTHER PARTS

- EXAMPLE 1. Background, hypotheses, and aims are provided
- “Pregnant women need skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth, but that skilled care is often delayed in some countries …( text omitted ). The focused antenatal care (FANC) model of WHO recommends that nurses provide information or counseling to all pregnant women …( text omitted ). Job aids are visual support materials that provide the right kind of information using graphics and words in a simple and yet effective manner. When nurses are not highly trained or have many work details to attend to, these job aids can serve as a content reminder for the nurses and can be used for educating their patients (Jennings, Yebadokpo, Affo, & Agbogbe, 2010) ( text omitted ). Importantly, additional evidence is needed to confirm how job aids can further improve the quality of ANC counseling by health workers in maternal care …( text omitted )” 28
- “ This has led us to hypothesize that the quality of ANC counseling would be better if supported by job aids. Consequently, a better quality of ANC counseling is expected to produce higher levels of awareness concerning the danger signs of pregnancy and a more favorable impression of the caring behavior of nurses .” 28
- “This study aimed to examine the differences in the responses of pregnant women to a job aid-supported intervention during ANC visit in terms of 1) their understanding of the danger signs of pregnancy and 2) their impression of the caring behaviors of nurses to pregnant women in rural Tanzania.” 28
- EXAMPLE 2. Background, hypotheses, and aims are provided
- “We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate and compare changes in salivary cortisol and oxytocin levels of first-time pregnant women between experimental and control groups. The women in the experimental group touched and held an infant for 30 min (experimental intervention protocol), whereas those in the control group watched a DVD movie of an infant (control intervention protocol). The primary outcome was salivary cortisol level and the secondary outcome was salivary oxytocin level.” 29
- “ We hypothesize that at 30 min after touching and holding an infant, the salivary cortisol level will significantly decrease and the salivary oxytocin level will increase in the experimental group compared with the control group .” 29
- EXAMPLE 3. Background, aim, and hypothesis are provided
- “In countries where the maternal mortality ratio remains high, antenatal education to increase Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BPCR) is considered one of the top priorities [1]. BPCR includes birth plans during the antenatal period, such as the birthplace, birth attendant, transportation, health facility for complications, expenses, and birth materials, as well as family coordination to achieve such birth plans. In Tanzania, although increasing, only about half of all pregnant women attend an antenatal clinic more than four times [4]. Moreover, the information provided during antenatal care (ANC) is insufficient. In the resource-poor settings, antenatal group education is a potential approach because of the limited time for individual counseling at antenatal clinics.” 30
- “This study aimed to evaluate an antenatal group education program among pregnant women and their families with respect to birth-preparedness and maternal and infant outcomes in rural villages of Tanzania.” 30
- “ The study hypothesis was if Tanzanian pregnant women and their families received a family-oriented antenatal group education, they would (1) have a higher level of BPCR, (2) attend antenatal clinic four or more times, (3) give birth in a health facility, (4) have less complications of women at birth, and (5) have less complications and deaths of infants than those who did not receive the education .” 30

Disclosure: The authors have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

- Conceptualization: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
- Methodology: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
- Writing - original draft: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.
- Writing - review & editing: Barroga E, Matanguihan GJ.

## Introduction to Quantitative Methods in R

In this chaper we’ll start to use the central limit theorem to its full potential.

## 9.1 Building Hypotheses

H0: The defendent is innocent.

H1: The defendent committed the crime.

## 9.1.1 An Example

What might that look like in a social science context?

H0: CLassical music has no effect on student grades.

And what we want to test with our hypothesis is that classical music does have an effect.

H1: Classical music improves student grades.

## 9.2 Rock The Hypothesis

The data from their test is avaliable in R with the pscl package and the dataset RockTheVote.

n is the number of registered voters between the ages of 18 and 19 in each tv market.

So what do we need to do to test the hypothesis that these tv commercials increased voting rates?

## 9.2.1 Statistical Significance

34.1 percent of the data falls within 1 standard deviation above and below the mean. That’s on both sides, so a total of 68.2 percent of the data falls between 1 standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean. 13.6 percent of the data is between 1 and 2 standard deviations. In total, we expect 95.4 percent of the data to be within two standard deviations, either above or below the mean. - The Professor, one chapter earlier

s1 and s2 are the standard deviations for the treatment and control group.

And n1 and n2 are the number of observations or the sample size of both groups.

That wasn’t so bad. Then we just throw it all together!

df stands for degrees of freedom, which is the number of independent data values in our sample.

Let’s see whether personal finances drove people to vote for Bush’s relection.

the vote variable has three levels.

## 9.4 Populations and samples

## 9.5 The problem with .05

## 9.6 One more problem

Let’s go back to how we calculated P values.

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

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A good example of this is “mixing red and blue forms purple.” In this hypothesis, mixing red and blue is the independent variable as you're

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Is there a relationship between eating breakfast as a child and height? Is there a relationship between driving and dementia? Is there a relationship between