Kidney Disease

How is your kidney health.

graphical abstract kidney international

A-Z Health Guide

Your comprehensive guide to kidney disease and related conditions and topics.

Recently Diagnosed

A diagnosis of kidney disease can be scary. Here is what to expect next so you can make educated decisions about your health.

African Americans & Kidney Disease

Did you know that African Americans are 3 times more likely to experience kidney failure? Because kidney disease often has no symptoms, it can go unnoticed until it is very advanced. But there's good news. Taking steps to live a healthy lifestyle can go a long way towards reducing risk, and early detection and treatment can slow or prevent the progression of kidney disease. Get started here .

Diabetes is a major risk factor for kidney disease. People with diabetes should be tested for kidney disease every year, and control blood sugar and blood pressure. These steps will also help those who already have diabetic kidney disease to stay healthier and avoid complications. Learn more here .

Diet is an important part of living well with kidney disease. As your kidney disease progresses your dietary needs will likely change as well. Click on the appropriate stage below to learn more about diet and kidney disease. Be sure to talk with your healthcare provider about your individual nutrition needs.

About Chronic Kidney Disease

Learn the facts about CKD, the causes and symptoms and how to lower your risk.

How Your Kidneys Work

Discover why the kidneys are so important – and the early warning signs of kidney disease.

Two Simple Tests to Check for Kidney Disease

Kidney disease can be found and treated early to prevent more serious complications. The NKF recommends two simple tests to check for kidney disease.

Find Your Risk for Kidney Failure

Do you have stage 3 or 4 kidney disease? If so, use the risk equation to find out your real risk for kidney failure.

Ask the Doctor

Questions about kidney disease? Risk factors? Signs and symptoms? Are you concerned about yourself, a friend or family member? Ask Dr. Spry.

Your Kidneys and You

Your Kidneys and You is an education program that gives the basics of kidney function, what happens with kidney disease, and how people can protect their health. What do your kidneys do?

KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks

KEEP is a free health screening program offered by the NKF for individuals at increased risk of developing kidney disease. Learn more and find a screening near you.

Rate Your Risk for Kidney Disease

Take our Kidney Risk Check to find out if you're at risk for kidney disease--and what steps you can take to reduce it.

Test Your Kidney I.Q.

Think you know everything about kidneys? Take our interactive quiz and test your kidney I.Q.!

graphical abstract kidney international

Help families facing kidney Your support helps families facing kidney disease at every step of their journey.

journal cover

Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click

Article categories include, but are not limited to, full-length articles, meeting reports, research letters and nephrology rounds, as well as editorials and narrative reviews on recent developments in the literature. While maintaining a rigorous peer-review process, the journal uses innovative technology to provide authors with novel means to share findings and data with readers in a timely manner.

Open Access/Publication Fee KI Reports is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, KI Reports has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge, or APC), which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf—e.g., by their research funder or institution. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses (see ):

Definitions Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

The open access publication fee for Full-length Articles (Original Research, Reviews, and Meeting Reports) is USD 2,100 for ISN members and USD 2,625 for non-ISN members; for Brief Reports (Nephrology Rounds/Case Reports and Research Letters) it is USD 840 for ISN members and USD 1,050 for non-ISN members, excluding taxes. See Elsevier's pricing policy ( ).

Use of inclusive language Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using ‘he or she’, ‘his/her’ instead of ‘he’ or ‘his’, and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g., ‘chairperson’ instead of ‘chairman’ and ‘flight attendant’ instead of ‘stewardess’).

Frequency Published bimonthly.

Peer Review This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review .

Types of Articles

Special Notice Regarding Clinical Trials As defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), a clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. A medical intervention is any intervention used to modify a health outcome and includes, but is not limited to, drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, and process-of-care changes. A trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration. Nonrandomized trials are not exempt from the registration requirement if they meet the above criteria.

Reporting Guidelines KI Reports aims to support authors provide complete, accurate, and transparent reporting of their findings. Authors submitting articles to KI Reports should refer to the E nhancing the QUA lity and T ransparency O f health R esearch(EQUATOR) Network website ( /), which provides a central repository of reporting guidelines and other resources to assist authors. Authors of the following study types are required to upload a copy of the corresponding checklist with their manuscript: Randomized clinical trial for CONSORT Checklist and flow diagram Observational studies for STROBE checklist Systematic reviews and meta-analyses —interventional studies for PRISMA checklist and flow diagram Systematic reviews and meta-analyses —observational studies for MOOSE Checklist and flow diagram Diagnostic and Prognostic marker studies for STARD Checklist and flow diagram While these checklists help improve the quality of reporting and increase reviewers' understanding, we do not use these guidelines as appraisal tools to filter out articles.

Reviews Both systematic and narrative Reviews—comprehensive analyses of specific topics in nephrology. Word range: 3,000–5,000 words, including spaces and abstract but excluding references, tables, and figures. Supplementary material: no limit to number of words, figures, and/or tables. Abstract: 250 words maximum, including spaces. References: no maximum. Figures/tables: 1–3 images or figures required, in color if possible (no additional fees for color). Disclosure statement required. Systematic Reviews are considered Original Articles and do not require pre-approval. Please submit proposals for narrative Reviews only to [email protected] . Send an outline of the proposed narrative Review for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited narrative Review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

Meeting Reports and Mini-Symposia (By Invitation) Word limit: to be determined in consultation with Editors. References: no maximum. Figures/tables: at least 1 image or figure. Disclosure statement required. These authoritative proceedings of specific topics in nephrology are usually solicited by the Editors. Proposals may be submitted; authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

Send proposals to: [email protected] .

Formatting Guidelines: Word limit: 1,200 words maximum, excluding references and tables. Include subheads: “Introduction, Case Presentation, Results, Discussion.” No abstract or methods. 1 table with teaching points required. Figures/tables: 2 tables and 2 figures maximum. Additional tables/figures are encouraged and should be provided in the Supplementary Material. Financial disclosure statement required. Patient consent statement required. Consult the CARE guidelines , with the understanding that certain items may not apply to all reports of cases. Reference limit: 9 references maximum. Additional references are welcome and must be provided in a separate supplemental PDF file, formatted as supplementary references with the prefix “S” (e.g., S1, S2, etc.). Number supplemental references in the order that they appear in the manuscript. Do not repeat references 1–5 within the supplemental references. Include the subhead “Supplementary Material” immediately before the references. Below it, list all of the supplemental items, and the text “Supplemental material can be found on the KI Reports web site (PDF)." Provide supplemental items in the following order (as applicable): supplemental article text, supplemental methods, supplemental tables, supplemental figures, supplemental references. ALL supplemental material should be combined into one single PDF file.

Letters to the Editor In response to published original articles. Word limit: 350 words maximum, including spaces. No abstract required. References: 5 maximum. Additional references must be provided in a separate supplemental PDF file, formatted as supplementary references with the prefix “S” (e.g., S1, S2, etc.). Number supplemental references in the order that they appear in the manuscript. Do not repeat references 1–5 within the supplemental references. Include the subhead “Supplementary Material” immediately before the references. Below it, list all of the supplemental items, and the text “Supplementary material can be found on the KI Reports web site (PDF).” Figures/tables: up to 1. Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication, subject to editing. Letters must contain information critical to a certain area or must be confirmatory of data recently published in KI Reports . A Letter must reference the original source, and a Response to a Letter must reference the Letter in the first few paragraphs, as well as the original source. Letters can use an arbitrary title, but a Response must cite the title of the Letter: e.g., Response to [title of Letter]. All Letters must contain a title page including title, all authors' names and affiliations, and corresponding author contact information. Letters may be edited for clarity by the editorial staff.

Format of Manuscripts Please review the Manuscript Submission Style Checklist .

Language (usage and editing services) Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Use of Word Processing Software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier ). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the ‘spell-check’ and ‘grammar-check’ functions of your word processor.

Title Page Please limit manuscript title to 10 words or less.

Keywords Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, nonstandard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Disclosure/Conflict of Interest For original articles, research letters, regional reports, nephrology rounds, meeting reports, guidelines, and reviews, the submitting author must include a disclosure statement in the body of the manuscript. The statement will describe all of the authors' relationships with companies that may have a financial interest in the information contained in the manuscript. This information should be provided under the heading titled “Disclosure,” which should appear after the Discussion/last section of the manuscript and before the References section. A financial disclosure statement must be provided for each author; if no financial conflict of interest is identified, “none” should be written next to the author's name.

Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). Please also include any funding/grant support for the work described in the submission, whether directed to an author or that individual's institution.

The reference list (starting on a separate page) should contain the references in the order in which they are cited in the text. Only published works (as well as manuscripts already accepted for publication) that are referred to in the text should be listed in the reference list. The reference list must not contain any unpublished observations or personal communications, etc. Kindly cite such sources solely within the text (in parentheses), not in the reference list. Do not list more than 3 authors per reference. Should there be 4 or more, please include only the first 3 followed by "et al."

Use of the Digital Object Identifier The publication's Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B : ). When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Reference Links Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. To allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Data References Please cite underlying or relevant datasets in your text and include said references in your Reference List. Data references should include the following: author name, title, repository, version, persistent identifier, year. Add the word “dataset” in brackets (i.e., [dataset]) immediately before the reference so that it can be properly identified. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Examples Reference to a journal publication: 1. Fan SL, Almond MK, Ball E, Evans K, Cunningham J. Pamidronate therapy as prevention of bone loss following renal transplantation. Kidney Int . 2000;57:684–690.

Reference to a book: 3. Lameire N, Mehta RL, eds. Complications of Dialysis . New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2000.

Reference to a dataset: [dataset] 5. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, et al. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.


Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy . Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see ' Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication ' for more information). KI Reports accepts preprint manuscript submissions directly from medRxiv and bioRxiv through the M2J and B2J direct transfer partner program. This program can save authors time in submitting papers to the journal by transmitting their manuscript files and metadata directly from medRxiv or bioRxiv. This means authors do not have to spend time re-loading manuscript files and re-entering author information during submission. Authors can visit or to submit their preprint and then request transfer to KI Reports .

Each author must have contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content of the submission. The corresponding author should list all authors and their contributions to the work. The corresponding author must confirm that he or she has had full access to the data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. To qualify as a contributing author, one must meet all of the following criteria: Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results, drafted or revised the manuscript, and approved the final version.

Although the editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with KI Reports , its editors, the International Society of Nephrology, or Elsevier.

Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue : Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests, and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

Informed Consent and Patient Details Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions, and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other identifiable information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals ( ). Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal identifying information of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Human and Animal Rights If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans ( ; EU Directive 2010/63/EU), for animal experiments ( ), Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals ( ), and in the case of renal transplant the Declaration of Istanbul (as published in Kidney Int . [2008] 74, 854–859; KI Reports will not consider manuscripts containing data derived from transplants obtained from executed prisoners. If authors wish to submit a manuscript related to this issue such as an editorial or review examining the consequences of such practices, they must contact the Editorial Office to obtain permission prior to submitting the manuscript. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Microarray Data Authors submitting manuscripts containing microarray data must submit the data to the Gene Expression Omnibus ( ), or ArrayExpress ( ) databases and provide the accession number(s) upon submission to the journal. The data must be MIAME-compliant, with all variables completed.

Sample statement(s): The data supporting the findings of this study are openly available in repository (XXXName) at URL/DOI, reference number (if any). The data were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: [list resources and URLs].

Journal Style As the electronic submission will provide the basic material for typesetting, it is important that papers are prepared in the general editorial style of the journal. For information on labeling figures, see the artwork guidelines ( ). Do not make rules thinner than 1 pt (0.36 mm). Use a coarse hatching pattern rather than shading for tints in graphs. Color should be distinct when used as an identifying tool. Use SI units throughout. Spaces, not commas, should be used to separate thousands. Abbreviations should be preceded by the words for which they stand in the first instance of use in the text. Overuse of abbreviations in the text is discouraged. No abbreviations should be used in the title or the abstract. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph; do not include headings. Text should be double spaced with a wide margin. At the first mention of a manufacturer, the town (state if USA) and country should be provided.

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), at least 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black &white pixels) line drawings, at least 1,000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale), at least 500 dpi. EPS: Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. Microsoft Office ONLY if your electronic artwork was originally created using a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) . Please supply ‘as is’ as separate files in the native document format.

Style Points: Add lowercase part labels a, b, c, etc., to figure panels. Do not include parentheses. Set y- and x-axis labels in sentence case. Change day to d, months to mo, mL to ml, dL to dl, L to l, hours to h. Remove commas from thousands. Change letters to Greek symbols where applicable, e.g., use &bgr; instead of English letter “B.” Change P in P value to italicized and capitalized P and insert space on both sides of operator and insert zero before decimal point, e.g., eg, P < 0.01. Use letters, not symbols or numbers, for footnotes. Mask out personal identifiers. Remove register mark.

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS, or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see our artwork guidelines ( ).

Figure Captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs and indicate the type of stain used.

Tables Please submit tables in Microsoft Word format as editable text , not as images. Tables should be placed on separate page(s) in the same file as the main paper at the end of the manuscript. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Please avoid using vertical rules. Place explanatory matter of tables in the footnotes rather than in the titles. PLEASE NOTE: PDF format is NOT accepted.

Supplementary Material Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect ( ). In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions, please visit our artwork instruction pages ( ).

If your manuscript or any significant part of it has been under consideration for publication elsewhere, or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication publication of the same, or very similar, work, the said material must be included and marked appropriately as a supplemental file.

Provide all supplementary material in a single PDF and cite the individual supplementary material elements in the main text (e.g., Supplementary Table S1, Supplementary Figure S1, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary References, etc.). For supplementary tables and figures (unlike in-text tables and figures), the full table title or figure legend should be included in the file containing the table or figure itself. Please use the “S” prefix (e.g., Table S1, Figure S1) to differentiate the material from that of the regular article. All supplementary references should start with the “S” prefix to be differentiated from regular references. In the main article in a Supplementary Material section immediately before the references, state the type of supplementary file [e.g., “Supplementary File (PDF)”] and a brief title for each supplementary material element.

Images should not exceed 640 × 480 pixels, but we would recommend 480 × 360 pixels as the maximum frame size for movies. We would also recommend a frame rate of 15 frames per second. If applicable to the presentation of the supplementary information, use a 256-color palette. Please consider the use of lower specification for all of these points if the supplementary information can still be represented clearly. Our recommended maximum data rate is 150 KB/s.

Further questions about the submission or preparation of supplementary information should be directed to the editorial office.

Submission of Papers If you are ready to submit an article, please visit the Online Submission page .

All text should be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc) and figures as .tif or .jpg files.

Please add your Twitter Handle (“@+twitter user name”) and ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) to your user account in manuscript central. If you don’t have an ORCID, you can sign up for free at .

Format for Revised Manuscripts We ask that two versions of a revised manuscript be uploaded, one with “tracked” changes and one “clean” version with all changes accepted and track changes turned off.

Role of the Funding Source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, then this should be stated.

When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

Funding Body Agreements and Policies Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies that allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit our funding bodies page ( ). After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Manuscript Deposition Service Elsevier's automated manuscript deposition service enables authors to meet the open access or public access policies of all of the participating funders, making it simple and free for researchers to comply.

CrossMark Authors will see the CrossMark logo with their articles upon publication in an issue. CrossMark is a multipublisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark logo Elsevier Inc. is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell you the current status of a document and may also give you additional publication record information about the document.

Preprint references Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). visitor survey

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Karger Publishers

Author Guidelines

About the journal, aims and scope, journal sections, article types, research article.

Research Articles report on primary research. They must describe significant and original observations. Consideration for publication is based on the article’s originality, novelty, and scientific soundness, and the appropriateness of its analysis. Research Articles are reports of original work. Authors are asked to follow the EQUATOR Network for Research Articles. Prior approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or an Ethics Review Committee is required for all investigations involving human subjects.

Research Article (DOCX, 28.97 KB)

Research articles should contain a 250-word structured abstract.

Review Article

Review Articles are considered reviews of research or summary articles. They are state-of-the-art papers covering a current topic by experts in the field. They should give evidence on and provide answers to a well-defined aspect or question in a particular area. Review Articles must include a critical discussion of the reported data and give a clear conclusion with potential impacts on the standard of care.

A downloadable template is available below.

Review Article (DOCX, 23.66 KB)

Review articles should contain a 250-word structured abstract, a 3'500-word body text, and 50 references. Mini reviews should contain 2'000 words and 25 references.

Case Report

Case Report (DOCX, 34.66 KB)

Brief Report

Brief Reports are short and/or rapid announcements of research results. They must contain data derived from cutting-edge research and be of potential interest to a large proportion of the readership. They are independent, concise reports representing a significant contribution to the field. Such communications should represent complete, original studies and should be arranged in the same way as full-length manuscripts with subheadings.

Brief Report (DOCX, 37.06 KB)

Commentaries (DOCX, 25.46 KB)

Commentaries submitted to the Second Opinion section should contain a 2'500-word body text and 40 references.

Editorials provide a viewpoint on specific articles or on general subjects directly relevant to the journal. Editorials are written by an editor or other member of the journal.

A downloadable template is available below. 

Editorial (DOCX, 23.64 KB)

Editorials should contain a 250-word structured abstract, 1'500-word body text, and 25 references. 

Letters may explore subjects related to matters discussed in the journal, providing the author’s perspective on a subject. Letters may discuss a recently published article and may lend support or constructively critique the article in line with the author’s experience. The editors reserve the right to share such letters to the authors of the article concerned prior to publication in order to permit response, ideally in the same issue of the journal. Letters should not include original data.

Letter (DOCX, 24.24 KB)

Letters should contain no abstract, 400-word body text, 5 references, and 1 figure and/or table.

Methods Article

Methods Articles describe methods or protocols used to perform an experiment or carry out a research plan. They should not report research results. Authors may submit a Study Protocol outlining a research and/or statistical analysis plan for proposed, or ongoing, but incomplete, research studies, including but not limited to, clinical trials, population-based studies, clinical outcome studies, and service evaluations. Only study protocols that have received ethical approval will be considered and, where expected by community convention, study protocols must be pre-registered and the trial/study registration number should be provided in the manuscript. Manuscripts reporting study protocols must adhere to the relevant reporting guidelines for their study design, such as the SPIRIT , PRISMA-P or other relevant reporting guidelines as detailed on the Equator Network website . 

Method Article (DOCX, 32.87 KB)

Method Article for Study Protocol (DOCX, 36.97 KB)

Contact Information

Manuela Passera, Managing Editor Tel. +39 035 4213405 Fax +39 035 319331 Email: [email protected]

Editorial and Journal Policies

General conditions.

All submitted manuscripts must contain a statements section after the main body of the text, but before the reference list. 

Statement of Ethics

Published research must comply with internationally-accepted standards for research practice and reporting. Manuscripts may be rejected if the editors believe that the research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework, and concerns raised after publication may lead to a correction, retraction, or expression of concern in line with COPE guidelines .

Studies involving human subjects (including research on identifiable human material and data) must have been performed with the approval of an appropriate ethics committee and with appropriate participants’ informed consent in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration .

In the manuscript, authors should specify the name of the ethics committee or other relevant authority who approved the study protocol and provide the reference number where appropriate. If ethics approval was not required, or if the study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee who made that decision). 

For all research involving human subjects, written informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent/legal guardian  where appropriate  ) and a statement detailing this should appear in the manuscript. For studies involving vulnerable participants or participants at risk of potential coercion, detailed information regarding the steps taken to ensure informed consent must be provided. If consent was not obtained, please specify why and whether this was approved by the ethics committee. 

Further Conditions

Before being forwarded to the Associate Editors and reviewers, the presentation of the paper (organization of the results, quality of the figures, overall writing quality, etc.) is assessed and summarized in a Presentation Report that is fair, professional and standardized. The Presentation Report follows the manuscript throughout the peer review and supports editors, reviewers, and authors in the review process. The Editors and Associate Editors carefully analyse the comments of the reviewers in order to provide the authors with constructive and realistic requests that should be feasible within the 12 weeks of revision time. The requests made to the authors by the editors are aimed to improve the robustness and significance of the data presented in the manuscript, while curtailing excessive demands in term of effort, time and cost.

Peer Review

Peer Review Policy

All Karger journals employ a rigorous peer-review process to confirm the validity and ensure scientific accuracy of published articles. Independent researchers with relevant expertise assess submitted manuscripts to help journal editors determine whether a manuscript should be published in their journal.

Peer Review Type

Nephron uses a single-blind peer review system where reviewers know the names of the authors, but the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript.

Peer Review Process

The Editor-in-Chief and the international Editorial Board ensure a thorough and fair peer-review process with the highest scientific publishing standards. The editorial office performs preliminary checks on submitted manuscripts to ensure compliance with submission guidelines, editorial policies and ethical standards. After completion of internal checks, each submission is assessed by the Editor-in-Chief (and/or Managing Editor) who decides whether to proceed with peer review and may assign a suitable handling Editor (Associate Editor, Editorial Board Member or Guest Editor). Handling Editors guide the peer-review process for manuscripts within their areas of expertise with the help of reviewers who are well qualified and up-to-date on the subject matter and/or methodology. All articles, except for Editorials and some Correspondence articles, are externally peer reviewed, typically by at least two individuals with expertise in the manuscript content area and/or research methods, before a final decision is made about acceptance for publication. If an Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee submits a manuscript, it is assigned to an independent Editor who will handle the peer review, and details of the review process, beyond the anonymized review and decision, are not accessible to the Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee. All Editors, reviewers and authors shall adhere to Karger’s editorial policies and best practices in line with COPE Core Practices to maintain high standards of peer-review. 

Peer Reviewers

Authors may suggest reviewers, who must have a recent publication record in the area of the submission, must not have published with the authors in recent years, and must not be from the same institution as the authors. Whether or not to consider these reviewers is at the Editor's discretion, and in line with Karger’s Editorial policy. Where possible, institutional email addresses or information which will facilitate verifying the identity of the reviewer should be provided.

Appeals and Complaints

Any appeal on a decision or complaint during peer-review, or post-publication, must be submitted in writing to the corresponding Karger’s editorial office (see “Journal Contact”). All cases will be handled in line with COPE guidelines .


Availability of materials

The Methods section of the article must contain sufficient information to allow a reader to replicate the study. Karger encourages authors to use as an open access repository for their detailed methodology. For protocols registered in , please cite this record in your methods section and include the record DOI in the references. Karger supports the inclusion of Research Resource Identifiers in the methods section, for further information please see the Resource Identification Portal . Supplier and catalogue numbers should be included for any chemical and reagents.

Image presentation

Where authors include a representative image of an experimental group or outcome it is expected that no image enhancements or adjustments are applied to that image. Where necessary for clarity of interpretation, for example, image cropping or brightness adjustment, this should be applied to the whole image, be detailed in the Methods section of the article and the original images must be uploaded as supplementary material.

Karger recommends following The SAMPL Guidelines  when reporting statistical analyses. Sample size must be reported for each study in the methods section tables and Figure legends. Where statistical testing for the significance of an effect is carried out, a dedicated section for statistical methodology must be included in the Methods. This section should provide sufficient information that would allow, with access to the full data set, reproduction of the article's results. The choice of statistical tests and any post-hoc tests must be justified in this section. The threshold for significance, alpha, should be defined here as well as how multiple comparisons are adjusted for, where applicable. When reporting the results of statistical tests it is not sufficient to only report the p-value. For example, for a Student’s t-test, it is necessary to report the degrees of freedom, t-statistic as well as the exact p-value.

Materials Design Analysis Reporting Framework

Karger Publishers endorses the Materials Design Analysis Reporting (MDAR) Framework for minimum reporting standards in the life sciences and encourages authors to consider all aspects of the  MDAR Framework relevant to their study when submitting a manuscript. Authors are encouraged to submit a completed MDAR Checklist with their manuscripts.

Article Preparation

The preferred word processing program for manuscripts is Microsoft Word. Page and line numbering should be activated, and the level of subheadings should be indicated clearly. 

Footnotes should be avoided. When essential, they should be numbered consecutively and appear at the foot of the appropriate page.

Abbreviations (with the exception of those clearly well established in the field) should be explained when they are first used both in the abstract and in the main text.

Units of measurement should be expressed in SI units wherever possible.

Generic names of drugs (first letter: lowercase) should be used whenever possible. Registered trade names (first letter: uppercase) should be marked with the superscript registration symbol ® or ™ when they are first mentioned.

The manuscript text, tables and illustrations must be submitted in separate files.

For further technical specifications, including those regarding tables, figures, and illustrations, please refer to the Karger website .

Further Formatting Instructions

Graphical Abstract Template (PPTX, 62.99 KB)

Graphical Abstract

Upon editorial request, a graphical abstract may be submitted together with the manuscript. It will also be peer-reviewed for online publication next to the abstract text. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure its quality, resolution and accuracy. The image file may consist of only one single panel and should fit the white area in the following template. The image must be in jpg format, 1200 pixels square at 300 dpi, and with the font Arial at 9–12 points for any text it may contain within the image.

Manuscript Arrangement

The first page should contain a short and concise title plus a running head of no more than 80 characters. Abbreviations should be avoided.

Below the title, list all the authors’ names as outlined in the article sample, which can be downloaded under Article Types. Each listed author must have an affiliation, which comprises the department, university, or organization and its location, city, state/province (if applicable), and country.

Place the full postal address of the corresponding author at the bottom of the first page, including at least one telephone number and e-mail address.

Keywords relevant to the article should be listed below the corresponding author information.

Online Supplementary Material

In-text citation.

References in the text should be identified using Arabic numerals [in square brackets]. 

The reference list should not be alphabetized, but the references should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be labelled as ‘unpublished’ and may not be included in the reference list. Other pre-published or related materials with a DOI, e.g. preprint manuscripts, datasets, and code, may be included.

Further information and examples can be found in the downloadable article samples in Article Types. If you are using reference management software, we recommend using the Vancouver Referencing Style.

Reference Management Software

Author services.

Karger Publishers offer a range of services to assist authors with the preparation of their manuscript, including discounts for language editing services offered by third parties.

More information is available on the Author Resources section of the Karger homepage.

When submitting a manuscript, authors can add their ORCID number to their Karger account to ensure that their paper is accredited to them correctly.

Cost of Publication

Page charges/article processing charges, illustration charges, author's choice, journal policies, copyediting and proofs.

An e-mail containing a link to download the PDF proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. The authors should check the PDF document and respond to any questions that have been raised during proofreading within 48 hours.

Alterations made to proofs, other than the correction of errors introduced by the Publisher, are charged to the authors and may require editorial approval.

Please note that the revised proofs are not sent to the authors prior to typesetting and online publication unless there are exceptional circumstances. The article layout will be created according to the Karger standard.

Online First Publication

Licenses and copyright, archiving and self-archiving.

All articles are archived in Portico. Articles may also be archived in PubMed Central if the journal is indexed there. Karger supports Green Open Access and permits authors to archive their Author's Accepted Manuscript (AAM, i.e., accepted manuscripts after peer review but before production; also referred to as a postprint) on their personal home page or institution’s repository, provided that these are not used for commercial purposes, are linked to the publisher’s version, and acknowledge the publisher’s copyright. Preprints may be shared without restriction. 

In addition, authors may post their accepted manuscripts in public Open Access repositories and scientific networks no earlier than 12 months following publication of the final version of their article. The posted manuscripts must:

1. Be used for noncommercial purposes only

2. Be linked to the final version on and include the following statement:

"This is the peer-reviewed but unedited manuscript version of the following article: [insert full citation, e.g., Cytogenet Genome Res 2014;142:227–238 (DOI: 10.1159/000361001)]. The final, published version is available at[insert DOI number]."

It is the authors’ responsibility to fulfill these requirements. For papers published online first with a DOI number only, full citation details must be added as soon as the paper is published in its final version. This is important to ensure that citations can be credited to the article. To facilitate compliance with Coalition S/Plan S Open Access mandates, Karger permits authors, independently and without Karger`s action, to upload a copy of their Author Accepted Manuscripts (AAM), applying a CC BY license, to a repository designated by their Plan S funders. However, when an article is published as Open Access, the Version of Record should be archived instead of the AAM. The AAM may be made freely available in the archive upon the official, final publication of the article (Version of Record or VOR, i.e. the post-production, final article version). Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central (PMC) due to NIH funding requirements or that have been published Open Access under Author’s Choice™ will be submitted by Karger on the authors’ behalf, as outlined under Funding Organizations. Articles published as Open Access under Author’s Choice may be shared freely on any repository or website. Re-posted Open Access articles must follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license. To ensure citations are credited to the Version of Record, Karger encourages authors to link to the published article on and include the following statement: "The Version of Record of this article is available at[insert DOI number](e.g. " Karger policies on Open Access, licensing and self-archiving can also be found at Sherpa Romeo .

Funding Organizations

NIH-Funded Research The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates that AAMs must be archived in its digital database PubMed Central (PMC) within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger Publishers submits the accepted, unedited version of NIH-funded manuscripts to PMC upon publication, where it is made available after a 12-month embargo period. Where the authors have chosen to make their paper freely available under Karger’s Author’s Choice™ service, this embargo does not apply.

Karger approves authors, independently and without Karger`s action, to make their AAMs openly available in PMC or another repository under a CC BY license upon publication of the Version of Record (VOR, i.e post-production, final article version). However, when an article is published as Open Access, the Version of Record should be archived instead of the AAM. Some Coalition S funders, such as Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and FWF, designate PMC as the repository in which to make the Author’s Accepted Manuscript (AAM) openly available. For papers made Open Access via Author's Choice, Karger will deposit the article in PMC on the author’s behalf with a CC BY license. Authors should refer to their funders’ policies for details. Authors should check their funders’ requirements about how to declare their funding and any associated mandates within their manuscript.

Other Funding Sources

Karger Publishers also complies with other funders’ requirements for submission to PMC. In some cases, doing so requires that authors select Author’s Choice™, which is generally reimbursed by the funder or is a permissible cost in the grant. Authors should include information on their grants in the Funding Sources section of their papers.

More information on funding sources can be found on the Karger website . 

Errata and Retractions

Karger is committed to maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the scientific record. Retractions will be issued where required in accordance with COPE guidelines . Errors in an article that affect the content of the article, such as figures or results, or the article metadata, such as the author list, will be corrected through the publication of an Erratum. Please note that the corrections of other errors introduced by authors and missed during the final manuscript proofing stage may be declined. Authors should contact us or use the Error Report form to report errors in their articles. Please state journal name, volume, issue and page numbers, the DOI number if the article has not yet been printed, as well as article title and the nature of the error.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Nephron submission and peer review system by the manuscript’s corresponding author. The corresponding (submitting) author will automatically be the contact person for the manuscript throughout the publication process. 

The corresponding (submitting) author is solely responsible for managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors and acts on behalf of all listed authors. This ensures that all correspondence reaches a unique contact and thereby secures swift communication in particular throughout the submission, peer review and production process. Articles can be published with more than one corresponding author (usually limited to three), but only one (the submitting author) can be accommodated during the submission, peer review and production process.

The corresponding (submitting) author’s specific responsibilities include:

Please note that the author names entered into the manuscript submission and peer review system should be identical to the information presented on the title page of the manuscript, including the sequence of authorship. The author names submitted should reflect the official publication names. It is the corresponding (submitting) author’s responsibility to ensure the accuracy of all content in the proof, including the names of co-authors, addresses and affiliations. Before submission, please read the Guidelines for Authors for specific requirements for manuscript preparation. A brief cover letter outlining how your study contributes to the current scientific literature and how it fits the aims and scope of the Journal should be provided. If your submission is part of a special issue of the journal, please refer to the specific name of the special issue in your cover letter and specify who invited the submission where appropriate.

Submission Declaration

Submission Declaration (PDF, 65.62 KB)


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KI Reports in 2019: Further Expanding Access to Research in Nephrology

The Open Access publication model continues to grow with increased support from the scientific community and funding agencies, including, most recently, the European Commission and the European Research Council. Nephrology is no exception to this trend, which is reflected in the rapid growth in the number of submissions to Kidney International Reports (KI Reports) since our launch in 2016. As we move toward the goal of being the primary Open Access journal for clinical and translational research related to kidney disease, we recognize our responsibility to identify and publish important research, and to ensure its access for clinicians across the globe so they may improve the care of patients with kidney disease.

In 2019, we are introducing several exciting changes for the benefit of both authors and readers. The foremost of these is to change our frequency from 6 times per year to monthly. This increase should further shorten our time to final publication while creating more readable issue sizes. In addition, graphical abstracts ( Figure 1 ), 1 which are now being included with some original investigations, are providing visually appealing summaries that make study findings more accessible to our busy readers. We are also increasing the number of accompanying expert commentaries in each issue, which will give readers both context and key insights into the implications of important original research. Finally, our strong relationship with Kidney International continues, as selected authors whose rejected papers have been reviewed by Kidney International are given opportunities for an expedited review process should they agree to transfer their manuscripts to us—an option that an increasing number of authors are choosing to do.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is gr1.jpg

Graphical abstract from Evans RDR, Cargill T, Goodchild G, et al. Clinical manifestations and long-term outcomes of IgG4-related kidney and retroperitoneal involvement in a United Kingdom IgG4-related disease cohort [e-pub ahead of print]. Kidney Int Rep . Available at: . Accessed November 28, 2018. 1

To be effective, Open Access publications need to ensure ease of access to research findings. In addition to being indexed in Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, KI Reports has been indexed in PubMed Central since late 2017. All of our issues are currently available on PubMed. Because of the increased use of smartphones and tablets, our accessibility is being further improved with the KI Journals app, which can be downloaded via apps stores for both IOS and Android devices. This easy-to-use feature provides instant access to articles published in both Kidney International and KI Reports.

The editors thank you for the success of KI Reports , as demonstrated by the fact that readers have viewed and downloaded our articles more than 600,000 times to date from the KI Reports and Science Direct web sites since we began publication. This rapid surge in readership across the globe underscores the quality of work being published and the value of our Open Access format. Our growth and evolution are also driven by the continuous support from our Editorial Board members, authors, and peer reviewers. We continue to invite feedback by e-mail at [email protected] .

We look forward to continuing to serve the nephrology community with the variety of content that lends relevance to everyone from hospital clinicians to researchers to health care providers on the frontlines in both developed and developing nations.

graphical abstract kidney international

Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association

New Content Item

Submission guidelines

Instructions for authors, types of papers, editorial procedure, manuscript submission, supplementary information (si), research data policy and data availability statements, after acceptance.

Open Choice

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

Authorship principles, competing interests, research involving human participants, their data or biological material, informed consent, editing services, open access publishing.

Pediatric Nephrology considers original manuscripts dealing with the clinical investigation of relevance to the broad field of pediatric nephrology. The Journal is a clinical journal and does not consider pure basic science papers. The Journal does not consider manuscripts based on surveys, or summaries of conference proceedings, or those of only regional interest.

Brief reports are considered, but we do not publish novel mutations of well-characterized genes without a novel phenotype.

The Journal also reviews important new developments or controversial issues in the field through invited contributions from recognized authorities, as well as publishing Educational Reviews with self-assessment questions that are of broader scope than traditional reviews.

We encourage authors to follow standardized checklists for reporting specific study types, and to submit these checklists with their manuscripts. A listing of these can be found under ‘Standards of reporting’ below .

Page numbers are required in all manuscripts for ease of reference and review, and all manuscripts should be submitted in an editable format.

All manuscripts are subject to peer review.

• Rapid Communications of high scientific importance are accepted for accelerated review and publication. Clear concise reporting is highly desirable. A manuscript not accepted as a rapid communication may be considered for publication as an original article.

• Original Articles should contain no more than 8 printed Journal pages (one Journal page is equivalent to 3 double-spaced, printed pages, Arial 12 font); no more than 12 authors (unless it is a multi-center study, then all author affiliations will be available in a footnote); no more than 50 references; and no more than 8 tables and figures combined.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be up to 250 words and structured as follows: •Background, •Methods, •Results, •Conclusions.

Inclusion of a Graphical Abstract is expected for all Original Articles (see below).

• Brief Reports of no more than 1,500 words pertaining to clinical topics will be considered for publication. These submissions should have no more than 6 authors and should be organized and prepared in the same manner as a full-length manuscript. A Brief Report should cite no more than 15 references and contain no more than one figure or table.

Abstracts for Brief Reports should be up to 250 words and structured:

- For short study reports, abstracts should be styled as for an Original Article, i.e. •Background, •Methods, •Results, •Conclusions.

- For case reports, abstracts should be structured as follows: •Background, •Case–Diagnosis/Treatment, •Conclusions.

A Graphical Abstract may be included for short study reports, but not for case reports (see below).

• Editorial Commentaries provide information and discussion on new findings and current questions. Editorial commentaries generally consist of 3–5 printed pages including figures and a list of approximately 20 key references. An abstract is not required.

• Reviews provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art knowledge in a defined area and emphasize new questions, conceptions and future research directions.

Subheadings in the text are encouraged. Reviews are generally limited to 8 printed pages, including figures, tables and references (one Journal page is equivalent to 3 double-spaced, printed pages, Arial 12 font). References should not normally exceed 75. Abstracts may be up to 250 words but do not need to be structured.

• Educational Reviews are of broader scope than traditional reviews.

They should be 8 printed pages long, including figures, tables and references (one Journal page is equivalent to 3 double-spaced, printed pages, Arial 12 font). Subheadings in the text are encouraged. References should not normally exceed 75.

Educational reviews should also contain a list of 3–5 Key Summary Points at the end, followed by 3–5 Multiple Choice Questions with Answers. Abstracts may be up to 250 words but do not need to be structured.

• Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses should be no more than 8 printed journal pages long (one Journal page is equivalent to 3 double-spaced, printed pages, Arial 12 font), feature no more than 12 authors, no more than 75 references and no more than 8 tables and figures combined.

We require each Systematic Review/Meta-analysis to be registered through PROSPERO(?). PRISMA guidelines should be followed when writing, and a completed PRISMA checklist should be included in the submission:

The abstract for a Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis should follow PRISMA guidance and include the following sections as applicable: •Background, •Objectives, •Data sources, •Study eligibility criteria, •Participants and interventions, •Study appraisal and synthesis methods, •Results, •Limitations, •Conclusions and implications of key findings, •Systematic review registration number. There is no abstract word limit.

Other required parts of a Systematic Review/Meta-analysis can be included as supplementary material to be published online, such as long reference lists, evidence tables, supporting data, etc.

Graphical Abstracts may be included for a Systematic Review/Meta-analysis but are not a requirement.

• Letters to the Editor must be as brief as possible and not more than one printed page. They should begin with the reason for writing and should refer to a manuscript previously published in Pediatric Nephrology . A letter to the editor should have a message that is different than the published manuscript and should have either new data or address an area of controversy. At most it should have 2 authors and 3 references. It should not contain a figure or table.

• A Clinical Quiz consists of two parts – the Questions section and the Answers section. Each section should be a separate document, and both documents should be submitted as part of a single submission. A Clinical Quiz should be limited to 3–4 printed pages total.

When submitting your quiz, please use one single submission, but upload your quiz as separate Question and Answer documents. There is no need of an abstract for either part of a clinical quiz.

Please include a list of keywords for each article – in the Question article keywords should summarise the case phenotype, but in the Answer article they can include the diagnosis.

The answers should begin with responses to each question, including the questions as numbered headings, followed by a discussion.

References should be listed in order of appearance in the text, and should not normally exceed 30.

• Management Dilemmas deal with difficult to treat clinical scenarios, and should include a brief case presentation followed by an in-depth discussion of its management (including relevant investigations and treatment). All management decisions must be supported by relevant studies, and the literature presented to support or refute different practices.

Management Dilemmas should be 4–6 printed pages long, including figures, tables and references (one Journal page is equivalent to 3 double-spaced, printed pages, Arial 12 font). Subheadings in the text are encouraged. References should not normally exceed 75.

• Pro/Con Debate articles deal with controversial subjects in pediatric nephrology. There are usually two linked articles – one making the case for and the other against the topic of debate.

Debate articles are invited by the Editors or Associate Editors. They should have an abstract. The manuscript should be approximately 2,500 words long and have no more than 50 references. It may be of benefit for the authors to discuss the content with each other. The articles will be published together. As far as possible, the same reviewers will be approached for both papers.

Electronic submission substantially reduces editorial processing and shortens reviewing and overall publication times. All manuscripts are subject to copy editing.

Assistance is available from the Pediatric Nephrology editorial offices:

• Giovanni Montini, MD., Editor

Joseph Laycock, PhD, Managing Editor

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - University of Milan

Pediatric Nephrology and Dialysis Unit

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health

Via Commenda

20122 Milano

e-mail: [email protected]

Tel +44-20-7905-2695

Fax +44-20-7905-2133

• Joseph Flynn, MD, Editor

Bob Thompson, PhD, Managing Editor

Department of Pediatrics

University of Washington

Seattle, Washington, USA

Email: [email protected]

Pediatric Nephrology is a signatory journal to the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.

International Committee for Medical Journal Editors

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

How to Submit

Manuscripts should preferably be submitted in the original file format. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” on the right to open an e-mail to the editor and attach the files.

Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files might cause unnecessary delays in the review and production process.

Graphical Abstract

The graphical abstract is an image which will appear with the article on the Journal’s website. Authors are expected to include a graphical abstract at the time of submission of Original Articles. The graphical abstract should visually summarize the main findings and aim to attract readers' attention to the article. If not included with the first submission, it will be requested during the revisions process.

Please use the Journal template to create your graphical abstract. The template includes instructions, a library of graphical elements and example abstracts. It should be uploaded as a PowerPoint file.

Template for Graphical abstract (Download pptx, 662 kB)


Patient-centred language is encouraged, and manuscripts should be written in line with recent KDIGO nomenclature guidelines.

The following link gives a simple guide for how to implement these guidelines, including a glossary of preferred terms: Nomenclature Guidance

- Where reasonable, please replace ‘renal’ with ‘kidney’ in commonly used phrases, i.e. ‘kidney transplantation’, ‘kidney biopsy’, ‘kidney replacement therapy’.

- Please replace ‘end-stage kidney disease’ / ‘ESKD’, with ‘kidney failure’ or ‘CKD stage 5’ as appropriate.

- Where possible, acute kidney injury (AKI) should be classified according to the KDIGO AKI classification, but pRIFLE and AKIN definitions are also acceptable.

Reporting health disparities

We welcome reports investigating health disparities, and encourage authors to use up to date and acceptable terminology when describing race and ethnicity. Reporting of health disparities should recognise and take account of all potential sources, including genetic and environmental factors, socioeconomic status and structural inequalities and racism.

Pediatric Nephrology accepts the submission of manuscripts that have been posted on a nonprofit preprint server. Authors are required to disclose any preprint posting at the time of manuscript submission.

Please make sure your title page contains the following information.

The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.

For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.

Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT , do not currently satisfy our authorship criteria . Notably an attribution of authorship carries with it accountability for the work, which cannot be effectively applied to LLMs. Use of an LLM should be properly documented in the Methods section (and if a Methods section is not available, in a suitable alternative part) of the manuscript.

Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

For life science journals only (when applicable)

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:

1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].

2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].

3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.

The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively.

If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “”).

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738.

Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med.

South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Accessed 26 June 2007

Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

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Research Data Policy Frequently Asked Questions

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Data availability statements

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Fundamental errors

Authors have an obligation to correct mistakes once they discover a significant error or inaccuracy in their published article. The author(s) is/are requested to contact the journal and explain in what sense the error is impacting the article. A decision on how to correct the literature will depend on the nature of the error. This may be a correction or retraction. The retraction note should provide transparency which parts of the article are impacted by the error.

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These guidelines describe authorship principles and good authorship practices to which prospective authors should adhere to.

Authorship clarified

The Journal and Publisher assume all authors agreed with the content and that all gave explicit consent to submit and that they obtained consent from the responsible authorities at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.

The Publisher does not prescribe the kinds of contributions that warrant authorship. It is recommended that authors adhere to the guidelines for authorship that are applicable in their specific research field. In absence of specific guidelines it is recommended to adhere to the following guidelines*:

All authors whose names appear on the submission

1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;

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3) approved the version to be published; and

4) agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

* Based on/adapted from:

ICMJE, Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors,

Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication, McNutt at all, PNAS February 27, 2018

Disclosures and declarations

All authors are requested to include information regarding sources of funding, financial or non-financial interests, study-specific approval by the appropriate ethics committee for research involving humans and/or animals, informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals (as appropriate).

The decision whether such information should be included is not only dependent on the scope of the journal, but also the scope of the article. Work submitted for publication may have implications for public health or general welfare and in those cases it is the responsibility of all authors to include the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

Data transparency

All authors are requested to make sure that all data and materials as well as software application or custom code support their published claims and comply with field standards. Please note that journals may have individual policies on (sharing) research data in concordance with disciplinary norms and expectations.

Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is assigned as Corresponding Author and acts on behalf of all co-authors and ensures that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately addressed.

The Corresponding Author is responsible for the following requirements:

* The requirement of managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors during submission and proofing may be delegated to a Contact or Submitting Author. In this case please make sure the Corresponding Author is clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Author contributions

In absence of specific instructions and in research fields where it is possible to describe discrete efforts, the Publisher recommends authors to include contribution statements in the work that specifies the contribution of every author in order to promote transparency. These contributions should be listed at the separate title page.

Examples of such statement(s) are shown below:

• Free text:

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by [full name], [full name] and [full name]. The first draft of the manuscript was written by [full name] and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Example: CRediT taxonomy:

• Conceptualization: [full name], …; Methodology: [full name], …; Formal analysis and investigation: [full name], …; Writing - original draft preparation: [full name, …]; Writing - review and editing: [full name], …; Funding acquisition: [full name], …; Resources: [full name], …; Supervision: [full name],….

For review articles where discrete statements are less applicable a statement should be included who had the idea for the article, who performed the literature search and data analysis, and who drafted and/or critically revised the work.

For articles that are based primarily on the student’s dissertation or thesis , it is recommended that the student is usually listed as principal author:

A Graduate Student’s Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order, APA Science Student Council 2006


The primary affiliation for each author should be the institution where the majority of their work was done. If an author has subsequently moved, the current address may additionally be stated. Addresses will not be updated or changed after publication of the article.

Changes to authorship

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship by adding or deleting authors, and/or changes in Corresponding Author, and/or changes in the sequence of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.

Please make sure that the names of all authors are present and correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current.

Adding and/or deleting authors at revision stage are generally not permitted, but in some cases it may be warranted. Reasons for these changes in authorship should be explained. Approval of the change during revision is at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that journals may have individual policies on adding and/or deleting authors during revision stage.

Author identification

Authors are recommended to use their ORCID ID when submitting an article for consideration or acquire an ORCID ID via the submission process.

Deceased or incapacitated authors

For cases in which a co-author dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and the co-authors feel it is appropriate to include the author, co-authors should obtain approval from a (legal) representative which could be a direct relative.

Authorship issues or disputes

In the case of an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication, the Journal will not be in a position to investigate or adjudicate. Authors will be asked to resolve the dispute themselves. If they are unable the Journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or in case of a published paper raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.


Authors should treat all communication with the Journal as confidential which includes correspondence with direct representatives from the Journal such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers’ reports unless explicit consent has been received to share information.

Authors are requested to disclose interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Interests within the last 3 years of beginning the work (conducting the research and preparing the work for submission) should be reported. Interests outside the 3-year time frame must be disclosed if they could reasonably be perceived as influencing the submitted work. Disclosure of interests provides a complete and transparent process and helps readers form their own judgments of potential bias. This is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation received for consultancy work is inappropriate.

Editorial Board Members and Editors are required to declare any competing interests and may be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists. In addition, they should exclude themselves from handling manuscripts in cases where there is a competing interest. This may include – but is not limited to – having previously published with one or more of the authors, and sharing the same institution as one or more of the authors. Where an Editor or Editorial Board Member is on the author list they must declare this in the competing interests section on the submitted manuscript. If they are an author or have any other competing interest regarding a specific manuscript, another Editor or member of the Editorial Board will be assigned to assume responsibility for overseeing peer review. These submissions are subject to the exact same review process as any other manuscript. Editorial Board Members are welcome to submit papers to the journal. These submissions are not given any priority over other manuscripts, and Editorial Board Member status has no bearing on editorial consideration.

Interests that should be considered and disclosed but are not limited to the following:

Funding: Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number) and/or research support (including salaries, equipment, supplies, reimbursement for attending symposia, and other expenses) by organizations that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript.

Employment: Recent (while engaged in the research project), present or anticipated employment by any organization that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript. This includes multiple affiliations (if applicable).

Financial interests: Stocks or shares in companies (including holdings of spouse and/or children) that may gain or lose financially through publication of this manuscript; consultation fees or other forms of remuneration from organizations that may gain or lose financially; patents or patent applications whose value may be affected by publication of this manuscript.

It is difficult to specify a threshold at which a financial interest becomes significant, any such figure is necessarily arbitrary, so one possible practical guideline is the following: "Any undeclared financial interest that could embarrass the author were it to become publicly known after the work was published."

Non-financial interests: In addition, authors are requested to disclose interests that go beyond financial interests that could impart bias on the work submitted for publication such as professional interests, personal relationships or personal beliefs (amongst others). Examples include, but are not limited to: position on editorial board, advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships; writing and/or consulting for educational purposes; expert witness; mentoring relations; and so forth.

Primary research articles require a disclosure statement. Review articles present an expert synthesis of evidence and may be treated as an authoritative work on a subject. Review articles therefore require a disclosure statement.Other article types such as editorials, book reviews, comments (amongst others) may, dependent on their content, require a disclosure statement. If you are unclear whether your article type requires a disclosure statement, please contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Please note that, in addition to the above requirements, funding information (given that funding is a potential competing interest (as mentioned above)) needs to be disclosed upon submission of the manuscript in the peer review system. This information will automatically be added to the Record of CrossMark, however it is not added to the manuscript itself. Under ‘summary of requirements’ (see below) funding information should be included in the ‘ Declarations ’ section.

Summary of requirements

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Funding’ and/or ‘Competing interests’. Other declarations include Ethics approval, Consent, Data, Material and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.

Please see the various examples of wording below and revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

When all authors have the same (or no) conflicts and/or funding it is sufficient to use one blanket statement.

Examples of statements to be used when funding has been received:

Examples of statements to be used when there is no funding:

Examples of statements to be used when there are interests to declare:

Non-financial interests: Author C is an unpaid member of committee Z.

Non-financial interests: Author A is on the board of directors of Y and receives no compensation as member of the board of directors.

Non-financial interests: none.

Non-financial interests: Author D has served on advisory boards for Company M, Company N and Company O.

Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:

Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section.

Ethics approval

When reporting a study that involved human participants, their data or biological material, authors should include a statement that confirms that the study was approved (or granted exemption) by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) and certify that the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that an independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the reasons for the exemption).

Retrospective ethics approval

If a study has not been granted ethics committee approval prior to commencing, retrospective ethics approval usually cannot be obtained and it may not be possible to consider the manuscript for peer review. The decision on whether to proceed to peer review in such cases is at the Editor's discretion.

Ethics approval for retrospective studies

Although retrospective studies are conducted on already available data or biological material (for which formal consent may not be needed or is difficult to obtain) ethics approval may be required dependent on the law and the national ethical guidelines of a country. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their country.

Ethics approval for case studies

Case reports require ethics approval. Most institutions will have specific policies on this subject. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their institution and seek ethics approval where needed. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable) See also section on Informed Consent .

If human cells are used, authors must declare in the manuscript: what cell lines were used by describing the source of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following need to be given in the manuscript: name of company (that provided the cells), cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells.

It is recommended that authors check the NCBI database for misidentification and contamination of human cell lines. This step will alert authors to possible problems with the cell line and may save considerable time and effort.

Further information is available from the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC).

Authors should include a statement that confirms that an institutional or independent ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID)

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) are persistent unique identifiers (effectively similar to a DOI) for research resources. This journal encourages authors to adopt RRIDs when reporting key biological resources (antibodies, cell lines, model organisms and tools) in their manuscripts.

Organism: Filip1 tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi RRID:MMRRC_055641-UCD

Cell Line: RST307 cell line RRID:CVCL_C321

Antibody: Luciferase antibody DSHB Cat# LUC-3, RRID:AB_2722109

Plasmid: mRuby3 plasmid RRID:Addgene_104005

Software: ImageJ Version 1.2.4 RRID:SCR_003070

RRIDs are provided by the Resource Identification Portal . Many commonly used research resources already have designated RRIDs. The portal also provides authors links so that they can quickly register a new resource and obtain an RRID.

Clinical Trial Registration

The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes". The WHO defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related outcome is generally defined as a change in the health of a person or population as a result of an intervention.

To ensure the integrity of the reporting of patient-centered trials, authors must register prospective clinical trials (phase II to IV trials) in suitable publicly available repositories. For example or any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform .

The trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

For clinical trials that have not been registered prospectively, authors are encouraged to register retrospectively to ensure the complete publication of all results. The trial registration number (TRN), date of registration and the words 'retrospectively registered’ should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Standards of reporting

Springer Nature advocates complete and transparent reporting of biomedical and biological research and research with biological applications. Authors are recommended to adhere to the minimum reporting guidelines hosted by the EQUATOR Network when preparing their manuscript.

Exact requirements may vary depending on the journal; please refer to the journal’s Instructions for Authors.

Checklists are available for a number of study designs, including:

Randomised trials (CONSORT) and Study protocols (SPIRIT)

Observational studies (STROBE)

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and protocols (Prisma-P)

Diagnostic/prognostic studies (STARD) and (TRIPOD)

Case reports (CARE)

Clinical practice guidelines (AGREE) and (RIGHT)

Qualitative research (SRQR) and (COREQ)

Animal pre-clinical studies (ARRIVE)

Quality improvement studies (SQUIRE)

Economic evaluations (CHEERS)

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Ethics approval’.

Examples of statements to be used when ethics approval has been obtained:

• All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of A (No. ...).

• This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University B (Date.../No. ...).

• Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of University C. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

• The questionnaire and methodology for this study was approved by the Human Research Ethics committee of the University of D (Ethics approval number: ...).

Examples of statements to be used for a retrospective study:

• Ethical approval was waived by the local Ethics Committee of University A in view of the retrospective nature of the study and all the procedures being performed were part of the routine care.

• This research study was conducted retrospectively from data obtained for clinical purposes. We consulted extensively with the IRB of XYZ who determined that our study did not need ethical approval. An IRB official waiver of ethical approval was granted from the IRB of XYZ.

• This retrospective chart review study involving human participants was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Human Investigation Committee (IRB) of University B approved this study.

Examples of statements to be used when no ethical approval is required/exemption granted:

• This is an observational study. The XYZ Research Ethics Committee has confirmed that no ethical approval is required.

• The data reproduced from Article X utilized human tissue that was procured via our Biobank AB, which provides de-identified samples. This study was reviewed and deemed exempt by our XYZ Institutional Review Board. The BioBank protocols are in accordance with the ethical standards of our institution and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

All individuals have individual rights that are not to be infringed. Individual participants in studies have, for example, the right to decide what happens to the (identifiable) personal data gathered, to what they have said during a study or an interview, as well as to any photograph that was taken. This is especially true concerning images of vulnerable people (e.g. minors, patients, refugees, etc) or the use of images in sensitive contexts. In many instances authors will need to secure written consent before including images.

Identifying details (names, dates of birth, identity numbers, biometrical characteristics (such as facial features, fingerprint, writing style, voice pattern, DNA or other distinguishing characteristic) and other information) of the participants that were studied should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and genetic profiles unless the information is essential for scholarly purposes and the participant (or parent/guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable or legal representative) gave written informed consent for publication. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve in some cases. Detailed descriptions of individual participants, whether of their whole bodies or of body sections, may lead to disclosure of their identity. Under certain circumstances consent is not required as long as information is anonymized and the submission does not include images that may identify the person.

Informed consent for publication should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic profiles, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort meaning.

Exceptions where it is not necessary to obtain consent:

• Images such as x rays, laparoscopic images, ultrasound images, brain scans, pathology slides unless there is a concern about identifying information in which case, authors should ensure that consent is obtained.

• Reuse of images: If images are being reused from prior publications, the Publisher will assume that the prior publication obtained the relevant information regarding consent. Authors should provide the appropriate attribution for republished images.

Consent and already available data and/or biologic material

Regardless of whether material is collected from living or dead patients, they (family or guardian if the deceased has not made a pre-mortem decision) must have given prior written consent. The aspect of confidentiality as well as any wishes from the deceased should be respected.

Data protection, confidentiality and privacy

When biological material is donated for or data is generated as part of a research project authors should ensure, as part of the informed consent procedure, that the participants are made aware what kind of (personal) data will be processed, how it will be used and for what purpose. In case of data acquired via a biobank/biorepository, it is possible they apply a broad consent which allows research participants to consent to a broad range of uses of their data and samples which is regarded by research ethics committees as specific enough to be considered “informed”. However, authors should always check the specific biobank/biorepository policies or any other type of data provider policies (in case of non-bio research) to be sure that this is the case.

Consent to Participate

For all research involving human subjects, freely-given, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript. In the case of articles describing human transplantation studies, authors must include a statement declaring that no organs/tissues were obtained from prisoners and must also name the institution(s)/clinic(s)/department(s) via which organs/tissues were obtained. For manuscripts reporting studies involving vulnerable groups where there is the potential for coercion or where consent may not have been fully informed, extra care will be taken by the editor and may be referred to the Springer Nature Research Integrity Group.

Consent to Publish

Individuals may consent to participate in a study, but object to having their data published in a journal article. Authors should make sure to also seek consent from individuals to publish their data prior to submitting their paper to a journal. This is in particular applicable to case studies. A consent to publish form can be found

here. (Download docx, 36 kB)

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Consent to participate’ and/or ‘Consent to publish’. Other declarations include Funding, Competing interests, Ethics approval, Consent, Data and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.

Sample statements for "Consent to participate" :

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Informed consent was obtained from legal guardians.

Written informed consent was obtained from the parents.

Verbal informed consent was obtained prior to the interview.

Sample statements for “Consent to publish” :

The authors affirm that human research participants provided informed consent for publication of the images in Figure(s) 1a, 1b and 1c.

The participant has consented to the submission of the case report to the journal.

Patients signed informed consent regarding publishing their data and photographs.

Sample statements if identifying information about participants is available in the article:

Additional informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for whom identifying information is included in this article.

Images will be removed from publication if authors have not obtained informed consent or the paper may be removed and replaced with a notice explaining the reason for removal.

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内容が適切に組み立てられ、質の高い英語で書かれた論文を投稿すれば、編集者や査読者が論文を理解し、公正に評価するための最善の機会となります。多くの研究者は、個別のサポートを受けることで、研究結果を可能な限り最高の形で発表できると思っています。Springer Nature Author Servicesのエキスパートが、 英文の編集、建設的な提言、論文の書式、図の調整、翻訳 など、論文の作成をサポートいたします。


原稿の評価に、無料 の文法チェック ツールもご利用いただけます。


Korean (한국어)

게재를 위해 원고를 개선하려면 어떻게 해야 할까요?

여러분의 작품을 체계적인 원고로 발표하는 것은 편집자와 심사자가 여러분의 연구를 이해하고 공정하게 평가할 수 있는 최선의 기회를 제공합니다. 많은 연구자들은 어느 정도 독립적인 지원을 받는 것이 가능한 한 최선의 방법으로 자신의 결과를 발표하는 데 도움이 된다고 합니다. Springer Nature Author Services 전문가들은 영어 편집, 발전적인 논평, 원고 서식 지정, 그림 준비, 번역 등과 같은 원고 준비를 도와드릴 수 있습니다.

지금 시작하면 15% 할인됩니다.

또한 당사의 무료 문법 검사 도구를 사용하여 여러분의 연구를 평가할 수 있습니다.

이러한 도구 또는 기타 서비스를 사용하는 것은 게재를 위한 필수 요구사항이 아니며, 편집자가 해당 논문을 수락하거나 피어 리뷰에 해당 논문을 선택한다는 것을 암시하거나 보장하지는 않습니다.

To find out more about publishing your work Open Access in Pediatric Nephrology , including information on fees, funding and licenses, visit our Open access publishing page .

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Research and Publication Ethics


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Submission Checklist

Manuscript Submission Overview

Types of publications.

IJMS has no restrictions on the length of manuscripts, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. Full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. IJMS requires that authors publish all experimental controls and make full datasets available where possible (see the guidelines on Supplementary Materials and references to unpublished data).

Manuscripts submitted to IJMS should neither be published previously nor be under consideration for publication in another journal. The main article types are as follows:

Submission Process

Manuscripts for IJMS should be submitted online at . The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list (read the criteria to qualify for authorship ) and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript, register and log in to the submission website . Once you have registered, click here to go to the submission form for IJMS . All co-authors can see the manuscript details in the submission system, if they register and log in using the e-mail address provided during manuscript submission.

Accepted File Formats

Authors are encouraged to use the Microsoft Word template or LaTeX template to prepare their manuscript. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. The total amount of data for all files must not exceed 120 MB. If this is a problem, please contact the Editorial Office [email protected] . Accepted file formats are:

Disclaimer: Usage of these templates is exclusively intended for submission to the journal for peer-review, and strictly limited to this purpose and it cannot be used for posting online on preprint servers or other websites.

Free Format Submission

IJMS now accepts free format submission:

Cover Letter

A cover letter must be included with each manuscript submission. It should be concise and explain why the content of the paper is significant, placing the findings in the context of existing work. It should explain why the manuscript fits the scope of the journal.

Any prior submissions of the manuscript to MDPI journals must be acknowledged. If this is the case, it is strongly recommended that the previous manuscript ID is provided in the submission system, which will ease your current submission process. The names of proposed and excluded reviewers should be provided in the submission system, not in the cover letter.

All cover letters are required to include the statements:

Author Biography

Authors are encouraged to add a biography (maximum 150 words) to the submission and post it to SciProfiles . This should be a single paragraph and should contain the following points:

Note for Authors Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)

This journal automatically deposits papers to PubMed Central after publication of an issue. Authors do not need to separately submit their papers through the NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS, ).

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Manuscript Preparation

General considerations.

A graphical abstract (GA) is an image that appears alongside the text abstract in the Table of Contents. In addition to summarizing the content, it should represent the topic of the article in an attention-grabbing way. Moreover, it should not be exactly the same as the Figure in the paper or just a simple superposition of several subfigures. Note that the GA must be original and unpublished artwork. Any postage stamps, currency from any country, or trademarked items should not be included in it.

The GA should be a high-quality illustration or diagram in any of the following formats: PNG, JPEG, TIFF, or SVG. Written text in a GA should be clear and easy to read, using one of the following fonts: Times, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Ubuntu or Calibri.

The minimum required size for the GA is 560 × 1100 pixels (height × width). The size should be of high quality in order to reproduce well.

Front Matter

These sections should appear in all manuscript types

Research Manuscript Sections

Back Matter

In the text, reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example [1], [1–3] or [1,3]. For embedded citations in the text with pagination, use both parentheses and brackets to indicate the reference number and page numbers; for example [5] (p. 10). or [6] (pp. 101–105).

The reference list should include the full title, as recommended by the ACS style guide. Style files for Endnote and Zotero are available.

References should be described as follows, depending on the type of work:

Preparing Figures, Schemes and Tables

Original Images for Blots and Gels Requirements

For the main text, please ensure that:

In order to ensure the integrity and scientific validity of blots (including, but not limited to, Western blots) and the reporting of gel data, original, uncropped and unadjusted images should be uploaded as Supporting Information files at the time of initial submission.

A single PDF file or a zip folder including all the original images reported in the main figure and supplemental figures should be prepared. Authors should annotate each original image, corresponding to the figure in the main article or supplementary materials, and label each lane or loading order. All experimental samples and controls used for one comparative analysis should be run on the same blot/gel image. For quantitative analyses, please provide the blots/gels for each independent biological replicate used in the analysis.

Supplementary Materials, Data Deposit and Software Source Code

MDPI Research Data Policies

MDPI is committed to supporting open scientific exchange and enabling our authors to achieve best practices in sharing and archiving research data. We encourage all authors of articles published in MDPI journals to share their research data. Individual journal guidelines can be found at the journal ‘Instructions for Authors’ page. Data sharing policies concern the minimal dataset that supports the central findings of a published study. Generated data should be publicly available and cited in accordance with journal guidelines.

MDPI data policies are informed by TOP Guidelines and FAIR Principles .

Where ethical, legal or privacy issues are present, data should not be shared. The authors should make any limitations clear in the Data Availability Statement upon submission. Authors should ensure that data shared are in accordance with consent provided by participants on the use of confidential data.

Data Availability Statements provide details regarding where data supporting reported results can be found, including links to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study.

Below are suggested Data Availability Statements:

Data citation:

Computer Code and Software

For work where novel computer code was developed, authors should release the code either by depositing in a recognized, public repository such as GitHub or uploading as supplementary information to the publication. The name, version, corporation and location information for all software used should be clearly indicated. Please include all the parameters used to run software/programs analyses.

Supplementary Material

Additional data and files can be uploaded as "Supplementary Files" during the manuscript submission process. The supplementary files will also be available to the referees as part of the peer-review process. Any file format is acceptable; however, we recommend that common, non-proprietary formats are used where possible. For more information on supplementary materials, please refer to .

References in Supplementary Files

Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the reference list of the main text.

Unpublished Data

Restrictions on data availability should be noted during submission and in the manuscript. "Data not shown" should be avoided: authors are encouraged to publish all observations related to the submitted manuscript as Supplementary Material. "Unpublished data" intended for publication in a manuscript that is either planned, "in preparation" or "submitted" but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text and a reference should be added in the References section. "Personal Communication" should also be cited in the text and reference added in the References section. (see also the MDPI reference list and citations style guide).

Remote Hosting and Large Data Sets

Data may be deposited with specialized service providers or institutional/subject repositories, preferably those that use the DataCite mechanism. Large data sets and files greater than 60 MB must be deposited in this way. For a list of other repositories specialized in scientific and experimental data, please consult or . The data repository name, link to the data set (URL) and accession number, doi or handle number of the data set must be provided in the paper. The journal Data also accepts submissions of data set papers.

Deposition of Sequences and Expression Data

New sequence information must be deposited to the appropriate database prior to submission of the manuscript. Accession numbers provided by the database should be included in the submitted manuscript. Manuscripts will not be published until the accession number is provided.

All sequence names and the accession numbers provided by the databases must be provided in the Materials and Methods section of the article.

Deposition of Proteomics Data

Methods used to generate the proteomics data should be described in detail and we encourage authors to adhere to the " Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment ". All generated mass spectrometry raw data must be deposited in the appropriate public database such as ProteomeXchange , PRIDE or jPOST . At the time of submission, please include all relevant information in the materials and methods section, such as repository where the data was submitted and link, data set identifier, username and password needed to access the data.

Research Ethics

Research involving human subjects.

When reporting on research that involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, authors must declare that the investigations were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975 ( ), revised in 2013. According to point 23 of this declaration, an approval from the local institutional review board (IRB) or other appropriate ethics committee must be obtained before undertaking the research to confirm the study meets national and international guidelines. As a minimum, a statement including the project identification code, date of approval, and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board must be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ of the article.

Example of an ethical statement: "All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code)."

For non-interventional studies (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, social media research), all participants must be fully informed if the anonymity is assured, why the research is being conducted, how their data will be used and if there are any risks associated. As with all research involving humans, ethical approval from an appropriate ethics committee must be obtained prior to conducting the study. If ethical approval is not required, authors must either provide an exemption from the ethics committee or are encouraged to cite the local or national legislation that indicates ethics approval is not required for this type of study. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee which provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation regarding why ethical approval was not required.

A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research (for example, photographs of participants’ faces that show a particular symptom). Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in any images. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent for publication from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an MDPI journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions. A template permission form is available to download. A blank version of the form used to obtain permission (without the patient names or signature) must be uploaded with your submission. Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

You may refer to our sample form and provide an appropriate form after consulting with your affiliated institution. For the purposes of publishing in MDPI journals, a consent, permission, or release form should include unlimited permission for publication in all formats (including print, electronic, and online), in sublicensed and reprinted versions (including translations and derived works), and in other works and products under open access license. To respect patients’ and any other individual’s privacy, please do not send signed forms. The journal reserves the right to ask authors to provide signed forms if necessary.

If the study reports research involving vulnerable groups, an additional check may be performed. The submitted manuscript will be scrutinized by the editorial office and upon request, documentary evidence (blank consent forms and any related discussion documents from the ethics board) must be supplied. Additionally, when studies describe groups by race, ethnicity, gender, disability, disease, etc., explanation regarding why such categorization was needed must be clearly stated in the article.

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

The editors will require that the benefits potentially derived from any research causing harm to animals are significant in relation to any cost endured by animals, and that procedures followed are unlikely to cause offense to the majority of readers. Authors should particularly ensure that their research complies with the commonly-accepted '3Rs [1]':

Authors must include details on housing, husbandry and pain management in their manuscript.

For further guidance authors should refer to the Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures [2], American Association for Laboratory Animal Science [3] or European Animal Research Association [4].

If national legislation requires it, studies involving vertebrates or higher invertebrates must only be carried out after obtaining approval from the appropriate ethics committee. As a minimum, the project identification code, date of approval and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’. Research procedures must be carried out in accordance with national and institutional regulations. Statements on animal welfare should confirm that the study complied with all relevant legislation. Clinical studies involving animals and interventions outside of routine care require ethics committee oversight as per the American Veterinary Medical Association. If the study involved client-owned animals, informed client consent must be obtained and certified in the manuscript report of the research. Owners must be fully informed if there are any risks associated with the procedures and that the research will be published. If available, a high standard of veterinary care must be provided. Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript.

If ethical approval is not required by national laws, authors must provide an exemption from the ethics committee, if one is available. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee that provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation on why the ethical approval was not required.

If no animal ethics committee is available to review applications, authors should be aware that the ethics of their research will be evaluated by reviewers and editors. Authors should provide a statement justifying the work from an ethical perspective, using the same utilitarian framework that is used by ethics committees. Authors may be asked to provide this even if they have received ethical approval.

MDPI endorses the ARRIVE guidelines ( ) for reporting experiments using live animals. Authors and reviewers must use the ARRIVE guidelines as a checklist, which can be found at . Editors reserve the right to ask for the checklist and to reject submissions that do not adhere to these guidelines, to reject submissions based on ethical or animal welfare concerns or if the procedure described does not appear to be justified by the value of the work presented.

Research Involving Cell Lines

Methods sections for submissions reporting on research with cell lines should state the origin of any cell lines. For established cell lines the provenance should be stated and references must also be given to either a published paper or to a commercial source. If previously unpublished de novo cell lines were used, including those gifted from another laboratory, details of institutional review board or ethics committee approval must be given, and confirmation of written informed consent must be provided if the line is of human origin.

An example of Ethical Statements:

The HCT116 cell line was obtained from XXXX. The MLH1 + cell line was provided by XXXXX, Ltd. The DLD-1 cell line was obtained from Dr. XXXX. The DR-GFP and SA-GFP reporter plasmids were obtained from Dr. XXX and the Rad51K133A expression vector was obtained from Dr. XXXX.

Research Involving Plants

Experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) including collection of plant material, must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines. We recommend that authors comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora .

For each submitted manuscript supporting genetic information and origin must be provided. For research manuscripts involving rare and non-model plants (other than, e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Oryza sativa , or many other typical model plants), voucher specimens must be deposited in an accessible herbarium or museum. Vouchers may be requested for review by future investigators to verify the identity of the material used in the study (especially if taxonomic rearrangements occur in the future). They should include details of the populations sampled on the site of collection (GPS coordinates), date of collection, and document the part(s) used in the study where appropriate. For rare, threatened or endangered species this can be waived but it is necessary for the author to describe this in the cover letter.

Editors reserve the rights to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

Torenia fournieri plants were used in this study. White-flowered Crown White (CrW) and violet-flowered Crown Violet (CrV) cultivars selected from ‘Crown Mix’ (XXX Company, City, Country) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX (XXX Institute, City, Country).

Arabidopis mutant lines (SALKxxxx, SAILxxxx,…) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX , institute, city, country).

Clinical Trials Registration


MDPI follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines which require and recommend registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication.

Purely observational studies do not require registration. A clinical trial not only refers to studies that take place in a hospital or involve pharmaceuticals, but also refer to all studies which involve participant randomization and group classification in the context of the intervention under assessment.

Authors are strongly encouraged to pre-register clinical trials with an international clinical trials register and cite a reference to the registration in the Methods section. Suitable databases include , the EU Clinical Trials Register and those listed by the World Health Organisation International Clinical Trials Registry Platform .

Approval to conduct a study from an independent local, regional, or national review body is not equivalent to prospective clinical trial registration. MDPI reserves the right to decline any paper without trial registration for further peer-review. However, if the study protocol has been published before the enrolment, the registration can be waived with correct citation of the published protocol.

CONSORT Statement

MDPI requires a completed CONSORT 2010 checklist and flow diagram as a condition of submission when reporting the results of a randomized trial. Templates for these can be found here or on the CONSORT website ( ) which also describes several CONSORT checklist extensions for different designs and types of data beyond two group parallel trials. At minimum, your article should report the content addressed by each item of the checklist.

Sex and Gender in Research

We encourage our authors to follow the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines’ and to include sex and gender considerations where relevant. Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) carefully in order to avoid confusing both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should indicate clearly what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also describe in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not conducted, the rationale should be given in the Discussion. We suggest that our authors consult the full guidelines before submission.

Borders and Territories

Potential disputes over borders and territories may have particular relevance for authors in describing their research or in an author or editor correspondence address, and should be respected. Content decisions are an editorial matter and where there is a potential or perceived dispute or complaint, the editorial team will attempt to find a resolution that satisfies parties involved.

MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Publication Ethics Statement

IJMS is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics ( COPE ). We fully adhere to its Code of Conduct and to its Best Practice Guidelines .

The editors of this journal enforce a rigorous peer-review process together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure to add high quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism, data falsification, image manipulation, inappropriate authorship credit, and the like, do arise. The editors of IJMS take such publishing ethics issues very seriously and are trained to proceed in such cases with a zero tolerance policy.

Authors wishing to publish their papers in IJMS must abide to the following:

Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from your own publications, without giving any credit to the original source.

Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. If a study's design or the manuscript's structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.

All MDPI submissions are checked for plagiarism using the industry standard software iThenticate. If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, an investigation will take place and action taken in accordance with our policies.

Irregular manipulation includes: 1) introduction, enhancement, moving, or removing features from the original image; 2) grouping of images that should obviously be presented separately (e.g., from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels); or 3) modifying the contrast, brightness or color balance to obscure, eliminate or enhance some information.

If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed during the peer review process, we may reject the manuscript. If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed after publication, we may correct or retract the paper.

Our in-house editors will investigate any allegations of publication misconduct and may contact the authors' institutions or funders if necessary. If evidence of misconduct is found, appropriate action will be taken to correct or retract the publication. Authors are expected to comply with the best ethical publication practices when publishing with MDPI.

Citation Policy

Authors should ensure that where material is taken from other sources (including their own published writing) the source is clearly cited and that where appropriate permission is obtained.

Authors should not engage in excessive self-citation of their own work.

Authors should not copy references from other publications if they have not read the cited work.

Authors should not preferentially cite their own or their friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications.

Authors should not cite advertisements or advertorial material.

In accordance with COPE guidelines, we expect that “original wording taken directly from publications by other researchers should appear in quotation marks with the appropriate citations.” This condition also applies to an author’s own work. COPE have produced a discussion document on citation manipulation with recommendations for best practice.

Reviewer Suggestions

During the submission process, please suggest five potential reviewers with the appropriate expertise to review the manuscript. The editors will not necessarily approach these referees. Please provide detailed contact information (address, homepage, phone, e-mail address). The proposed referees should neither be current collaborators of the co-authors nor have published with any of the co-authors of the manuscript within the last five years. Proposed reviewers should be from different institutions to the authors. You may identify appropriate Editorial Board members of the journal as potential reviewers. You may suggest reviewers from among the authors that you frequently cite in your paper.

English Corrections

To facilitate proper peer-reviewing of your manuscript, it is essential that it is submitted in grammatically correct English. Advice on some specific language points can be found here .

MDPI provides minor English editing by native English speakers for all accepted papers, included in the APC. The APC does not cover extensive English editing. Your paper could be returned to you at the English editing stage of the publication process if extensive editing is required. You may choose to use a paid language-editing service, such as MDPI’s Author Services , before submitting your paper for publication. If you use an alternative service that provides a confirmation certificate, please send a copy to the Editorial Office. Authors from economically developing countries or nations should consider registration with AuthorAid , a global research community that provides networking, mentoring, resources and training for researchers.

Preprints and Conference Papers

IJMS accepts submissions that have previously been made available as preprints provided that they have not undergone peer review. A preprint is a draft version of a paper made available online before submission to a journal.

MDPI operates Preprints , a preprint server to which submitted papers can be uploaded directly after completing journal submission. Note that Preprints operates independently of the journal and posting a preprint does not affect the peer review process. Check the Preprints instructions for authors for further information.

Expanded and high-quality conference papers can be considered as articles if they fulfill the following requirements: (1) the paper should be expanded to the size of a research article; (2) the conference paper should be cited and noted on the first page of the paper; (3) if the authors do not hold the copyright of the published conference paper, authors should seek the appropriate permission from the copyright holder; (4) authors are asked to disclose that it is conference paper in their cover letter and include a statement on what has been changed compared to the original conference paper. IJMS does not publish pilot studies or studies with inadequate statistical power.

Unpublished conference papers that do not meet the above conditions are recommended to be submitted to the Proceedings Series journals .

MDPI follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( ICMJE ) guidelines which state that, in order to qualify for authorship of a manuscript, the following criteria should be observed:

Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments. More detailed guidance on authorship is given by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) .

Any change to the author list should be approved by all authors including any who have been removed from the list. The corresponding author should act as a point of contact between the editor and the other authors and should keep co-authors informed and involve them in major decisions about the publication. We reserve the right to request confirmation that all authors meet the authorship conditions.

For more details about authorship please check MDPI ethics website .

Reviewers Recommendation

Authors can recommend potential reviewers. Journal editors will check to make sure there are no conflicts of interest before contacting those reviewers, and will not consider those with competing interests. Reviewers are asked to declare any conflicts of interest. Authors can also enter the names of potential peer reviewers they wish to exclude from consideration in the peer review of their manuscript, during the initial submission progress. The editorial team will respect these requests so long as this does not interfere with the objective and thorough assessment of the submission.

Editorial Independence

Lack of interference with editorial decisions.

Editorial independence is of utmost importance and MDPI does not interfere with editorial decisions. All articles published by MDPI are peer reviewed and assessed by our independent editorial boards, and MDPI staff are not involved in decisions to accept manuscripts. When making an editorial decision, we expect the academic editor to make their decision based only upon:

In all of our journals, in every aspect of operation, MDPI policies are informed by the mission to make science and research findings open and accessible as widely and rapidly as possible.

Editors and Editorial Staff as Authors

Editorial staff or editors shall not be involved in processing their own academic work. Submissions authored by editorial staff/editors will be assigned to at least two independent outside reviewers. Decisions will be made by other Editorial Board Members who do not have a conflict of interest with the author. Journal staff are not involved in the processing of their own work submitted to any MDPI journals.

Conflicts of Interest

According to The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, “Authors should avoid entering into agreements with study sponsors, both for-profit and non-profit, that interfere with authors’ access to all of the study’s data or that interfere with their ability to analyze and interpret the data and to prepare and publish manuscripts independently when and where they choose.”

All authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could inappropriately influence or bias their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include but are not limited to financial interests (such as membership, employment, consultancies, stocks/shares ownership, honoraria, grants or other funding, paid expert testimonies and patent-licensing arrangements) and non-financial interests (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, personal beliefs).

Authors can disclose potential conflicts of interest via the online submission system during the submission process. Declarations regarding conflicts of interest can also be collected via the MDPI disclosure form . The corresponding author must include a summary statement in the manuscript in a separate section “Conflicts of Interest” placed just before the reference list. The statement should reflect all the collected potential conflicts of interest disclosures in the form.

See below for examples of disclosures:

Conflicts of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stocks in Company Y. Author C has been involved as a consultant and expert witness in Company Z. Author D is the inventor of patent X.

If no conflicts exist, the authors should state:

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Editorial Procedures and Peer-Review

Initial Checks

All submitted manuscripts received by the Editorial Office will be checked by a professional in-house Managing Editor to determine whether they are properly prepared and whether they follow the ethical policies of the journal, including those for human and animal experimentation. Manuscripts that do not fit the journal's ethics policy or do not meet the standards of the journal will be rejected before peer-review. Manuscripts that are not properly prepared will be returned to the authors for revision and resubmission. After these checks, the Managing Editor will consult the journals’ Editor-in-Chief or Associate Editors to determine whether the manuscript fits the scope of the journal and whether it is scientifically sound. No judgment on the potential impact of the work will be made at this stage. Reject decisions at this stage will be verified by the Editor-in-Chief .


Once a manuscript passes the initial checks, it will be assigned to at least two independent experts for peer-review. A single-blind review is applied, where authors' identities are known to reviewers. Peer review comments are confidential and will only be disclosed with the express agreement of the reviewer.

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  1. Calciprotein particles regulate fibroblast growth factor-23 expression in osteoblasts

    graphical abstract kidney international

  2. Regulatory innate lymphoid cells suppress innate immunity and reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion

    graphical abstract kidney international

  3. Clinicopathological spectrum of renal parenchymal involvement in B-cell lymphoproliferative

    graphical abstract kidney international

  4. Renal globotriaosylceramide facilitates tubular albumin absorption and its inhibition protects

    graphical abstract kidney international

  5. β-hydroxybutyrate attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through its anti-pyroptotic

    graphical abstract kidney international

  6. Abstract Vector Illustration Of Human Kidneys Stock Illustration

    graphical abstract kidney international


  1. national kidney institute

  2. Kidney Project

  3. Kidney Model Spotting... #kidney #dissection #AIMC

  4. Internal structure of kidney drawing || Internal structure of kidney diagram || L.S. of kidney

  5. kidney 2

  6. UCLA CORE Kidney


  1. What Are Some Symptoms of Kidney Disease?

    Some symptoms of kidney disease include edema in the lower legs, fatigue, nausea, muscle cramps and loss of appetite, states Mayo Clinic. Other symptoms can include vomiting, muscle twitches, weakness, hiccups and high blood pressure that i...

  2. Kidney Basics

    Learn about how your kidneys work and why they are so important. Find out if you are at risk for kidney disease and what tests you need to check your kidney health. Understanding kidney health Risk factors & causes Kidney health testing Kid...

  3. Kidney Disease

    Get all your questions and concerns cleared when you explore the National Kidney Foundation's online Kidney Disease Center. Your comprehensive guide to kidney disease and related conditions and topics. A diagnosis of kidney disease can be s...

  4. Guide for authors

    A graphical abstract is now mandatory for Kidney International. The Graphical Abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise

  5. Guide for authors

    Short original research reports—approximately 1,200 words. · Word limit: 1,200 words. · No abstract required. · Methods must be provided as a separate supplemental

  6. Findings from 4C-T Study demonstrate an increased cardiovascular

    Mortality and causes of death of end-stage renal disease in children: a Dutch cohort study. Kidney Int. 2002; 61: 621-629. View in Article.

  7. Novel retinal vascular phenotypes for the potential assessment of

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a global prevalence of ≈10% and is independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  8. A single center observational study of the clinical characteristics and

    Management of patients on dialysis and with kidney transplantation during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Brescia, Italy. Kidney Int Rep.

  9. Instructions to Authors

    Authors are encouraged to submit a graphical, video and/or audio abstract as part of the article, in addition to the text abstract. Graphical abstracts: should

  10. Instructions for authors

    Visual Abstracts are brief graphical summaries of Original Articles

  11. Nephron Guidelines

    Upon editorial request, a graphical abstract may be submitted together

  12. KI Reports in 2019: Further Expanding Access to Research in ...

    In addition, graphical abstracts (Figure 1),1 which are now being included ... Finally, our strong relationship with Kidney International

  13. Submission guidelines

    issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.

  14. IJMS

    SI Units (International System of Units) should be used.