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Definition of hypothesis

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The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.

In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

A theory , in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory . Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.

In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.

Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.

The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)

This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it's implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.

The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was "a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things." As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said , a theory "doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”

While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said "to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up."

hypothesis , theory , law mean a formula derived by inference from scientific data that explains a principle operating in nature.

hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.

theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth.

law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions.

Example Sentences

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'hypothesis.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback .

Word History

Greek, from hypotithenai to put under, suppose, from hypo- + tithenai to put — more at do

1641, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

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This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory

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Cite this Entry

“Hypothesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hypothesis. Accessed 11 Mar. 2023.

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Hypothesis in a Sentence  🔊

Definition of Hypothesis

a proposed explanation or theory that is studied through scientific testing

Examples of Hypothesis in a sentence

The scientist’s hypothesis did not stand up, since research data was inconsistent with his guess.  🔊

Each student gave a hypothesis and theorized which plant would grow the tallest during the study.  🔊

A hypothesis was presented by the panel, giving a likely explanation for why the trial medicine didn’t seem to have much of an effect on the patients.  🔊

During the study, the researcher changed her hypothesis to a new assumption that fit with current data.  🔊

To confirm his hypothesis on why the dolphin wasn’t eating, the marine biologists did several tests over a week’s time.  🔊

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How to Write a Hypothesis in 6 Steps

Matt Ellis

A hypothesis is a statement that explains the predictions and reasoning of your research—an “educated guess” about how your scientific experiments will end. As a fundamental part of the scientific method, a good hypothesis is carefully written, but even the simplest ones can be difficult to put into words. 

Want to know how to write a hypothesis for your academic paper ? Below we explain the different types of hypotheses, what a good hypothesis requires, the steps to write your own, and plenty of examples.

Write with confidence Grammarly helps you polish your academic writing Write with Grammarly  

What is a hypothesis? 

One of our 10 essential words for university success , a hypothesis is one of the earliest stages of the scientific method. It’s essentially an educated guess—based on observations—of what the results of your experiment or research will be. 

If you’ve noticed that watering your plants every day makes them grow faster, your hypothesis might be “plants grow better with regular watering.” From there, you can begin experiments to test your hypothesis; in this example, you might set aside two plants, water one but not the other, and then record the results to see the differences. 

The language of hypotheses always discusses variables , or the elements that you’re testing. Variables can be objects, events, concepts, etc.—whatever is observable. 

There are two types of variables: independent and dependent. Independent variables are the ones that you change for your experiment, whereas dependent variables are the ones that you can only observe. In the above example, our independent variable is how often we water the plants and the dependent variable is how well they grow. 

Hypotheses determine the direction and organization of your subsequent research methods, and that makes them a big part of writing a research paper . Ultimately the reader wants to know whether your hypothesis was proven true or false, so it must be written clearly in the introduction and/or abstract of your paper. 

7 examples of hypotheses (with examples)

Depending on the nature of your research and what you expect to find, your hypothesis will fall into one or more of the seven main categories. Keep in mind that these categories are not exclusive, so the same hypothesis might qualify as several different types. 

1 Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis suggests only the relationship between two variables: one independent and one dependent. 

2 Complex hypothesis

A complex hypothesis suggests the relationship between more than two variables, for example, two independents and one dependent, or vice versa. 

3 Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis, abbreviated as H 0 , suggests that there is no relationship between variables. 

4 Alternative hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis, abbreviated as H 1 or H A , is used in conjunction with a null hypothesis. It states the opposite of the null hypothesis, so that one and only one must be true. 

5 Logical hypothesis

A logical hypothesis suggests a relationship between variables without actual evidence. Claims are instead based on reasoning or deduction, but lack actual data.  

6 Empirical hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis, also known as a “working hypothesis,” is one that is currently being tested. Unlike logical hypotheses, empirical hypotheses rely on concrete data. 

7 Statistical hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is when you test only a sample of a population and then apply statistical evidence to the results to draw a conclusion about the entire population. Instead of testing everything , you test only a portion and generalize the rest based on preexisting data. 

What makes a good hypothesis?

No matter what you’re testing, a good hypothesis is written according to the same guidelines. In particular, keep these five characteristics in mind: 

Cause and effect

Hypotheses always include a cause-and-effect relationship where one variable causes another to change (or not change if you’re using a null hypothesis). This can best be reflected as an if-then statement: If one variable occurs, then another variable changes. 

Testable prediction

Most hypotheses are designed to be tested (with the exception of logical hypotheses). Before committing to a hypothesis, make sure you’re actually able to conduct experiments on it. Choose a testable hypothesis with an independent variable that you have absolute control over. 

Independent and dependent variables

Define your variables in your hypothesis so your readers understand the big picture. You don’t have to specifically say which ones are independent and dependent variables, but you definitely want to mention them all. 

Candid language

Writing can easily get convoluted, so make sure your hypothesis remains as simple and clear as possible. Readers use your hypothesis as a contextual pillar to unify your entire paper, so there should be no confusion or ambiguity. If you’re unsure about your phrasing, try reading your hypothesis to a friend to see if they understand. 

Adherence to ethics

It’s not always about what you can test, but what you should test. Avoid hypotheses that require questionable or taboo experiments to keep ethics (and therefore, credibility) intact.

How to write a hypothesis in 6 steps

1 ask a question.

Curiosity has inspired some of history’s greatest scientific achievements, so a good place to start is to ask yourself questions about the world around you. Why are things the way they are? What causes the factors you see around you? If you can, choose a research topic that you’re interested in so your curiosity comes naturally. 

2 Conduct preliminary research

Next, collect some background information on your topic. How much background information you need depends on what you’re attempting. It could require reading several books, or it could be as simple as performing a web search for a quick answer. You don’t necessarily have to prove or disprove your hypothesis at this stage; rather, collect only what you need to prove or disprove it yourself. 

3 Define your variables

Once you have an idea of what your hypothesis will be, select which variables are independent and which are dependent. Remember that independent variables can only be factors that you have absolute control over, so consider the limits of your experiment before finalizing your hypothesis. 

4 Phrase it as an if-then statement

When writing a hypothesis, it helps to phrase it using an if-then format, such as, “ If I water a plant every day, then it will grow better.” This format can get tricky when dealing with multiple variables, but in general, it’s a reliable method for expressing the cause-and-effect relationship you’re testing. 

5  Collect data to support your hypothesis

A hypothesis is merely a means to an end. The priority of any scientific research is the conclusion. Once you have your hypothesis laid out and your variables chosen, you can then begin your experiments. Ideally, you’ll collect data to support your hypothesis, but don’t worry if your research ends up proving it wrong—that’s all part of the scientific method. 

6 Write with confidence

Last, you’ll want to record your findings in a research paper for others to see. This requires a bit of writing know-how, quite a different skill set than conducting experiments. 

That’s where Grammarly can be a major help; our writing suggestions point out not only grammar and spelling mistakes , but also new word choices and better phrasing. While you write, Grammarly automatically recommends optimal language and highlights areas where readers might get confused, ensuring that your hypothesis—and your final paper—are clear and polished.

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Null & Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions, Templates & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shaun Turney . Revised on December 6, 2022.

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test :

Table of contents

Answering your research question with hypotheses, what is a null hypothesis, what is an alternative hypothesis, similarities and differences between null and alternative hypotheses, how to write null and alternative hypotheses, frequently asked questions.

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question . When the research question asks “Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?”:

The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That’s because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample . Often, we infer whether there’s an effect in the population by looking at differences between groups or relationships between variables in the sample. It’s critical for your research to write strong hypotheses .

You can use a statistical test to decide whether the evidence favors the null or alternative hypothesis. Each type of statistical test comes with a specific way of phrasing the null and alternative hypothesis. However, the hypotheses can also be phrased in a general way that applies to any test.

The null hypothesis is the claim that there’s no effect in the population.

If the sample provides enough evidence against the claim that there’s no effect in the population ( p ≤ α), then we can reject the null hypothesis . Otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Although “fail to reject” may sound awkward, it’s the only wording that statisticians accept . Be careful not to say you “prove” or “accept” the null hypothesis.

Null hypotheses often include phrases such as “no effect,” “no difference,” or “no relationship.” When written in mathematical terms, they always include an equality (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

You can never know with complete certainty whether there is an effect in the population. Some percentage of the time, your inference about the population will be incorrect. When you incorrectly reject the null hypothesis, it’s called a type I error . When you incorrectly fail to reject it, it’s a type II error.

Examples of null hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and null hypotheses. There’s always more than one way to answer a research question, but these null hypotheses can help you get started.

*Note that some researchers prefer to always write the null hypothesis in terms of “no effect” and “=”. It would be fine to say that daily meditation has no effect on the incidence of depression and p 1 = p 2 .

What can proofreading do for your paper?

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The alternative hypothesis ( H a ) is the other answer to your research question . It claims that there’s an effect in the population.

Often, your alternative hypothesis is the same as your research hypothesis. In other words, it’s the claim that you expect or hope will be true.

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. Null and alternative hypotheses are exhaustive, meaning that together they cover every possible outcome. They are also mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

Alternative hypotheses often include phrases such as “an effect,” “a difference,” or “a relationship.” When alternative hypotheses are written in mathematical terms, they always include an inequality (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >). As with null hypotheses, there are many acceptable ways to phrase an alternative hypothesis.

Examples of alternative hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and alternative hypotheses to help you get started with formulating your own.

Null and alternative hypotheses are similar in some ways:

However, there are important differences between the two types of hypotheses, summarized in the following table.

To help you write your hypotheses, you can use the template sentences below. If you know which statistical test you’re going to use, you can use the test-specific template sentences. Otherwise, you can use the general template sentences.

General template sentences

The only thing you need to know to use these general template sentences are your dependent and independent variables. To write your research question, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis, fill in the following sentences with your variables:

Does independent variable affect dependent variable ?

Test-specific template sentences

Once you know the statistical test you’ll be using, you can write your hypotheses in a more precise and mathematical way specific to the test you chose. The table below provides template sentences for common statistical tests.

Note: The template sentences above assume that you’re performing one-tailed tests . One-tailed tests are appropriate for most studies.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (“ x affects y because …”).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses . In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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Turney, S. (2022, December 06). Null & Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions, Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/null-and-alternative-hypotheses/

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What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is an explanation for a set of observations. Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis.

Although you could state a scientific hypothesis in various ways, most hypotheses are either "If, then" statements or forms of the null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is sometimes called the "no difference" hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for experimentation because it's simple to disprove. If you disprove a null hypothesis, that is evidence for a relationship between the variables you are examining.

Examples of Null Hypotheses

Examples of If, Then Hypotheses

Improving a Hypothesis to Make It Testable

You may wish to revise your first hypothesis in order to make it easier to design an experiment to test. For example, let's say you have a bad breakout the morning after eating a lot of greasy food. You may wonder if there is a correlation between eating greasy food and getting pimples. You propose the hypothesis:

Eating greasy food causes pimples.

Next, you need to design an experiment to test this hypothesis. Let's say you decide to eat greasy food every day for a week and record the effect on your face. Then, as a control, you'll avoid greasy food for the next week and see what happens. Now, this is not a good experiment because it does not take into account other factors such as hormone levels, stress, sun exposure, exercise, or any number of other variables that might conceivably affect your skin.

The problem is that you cannot assign cause to your effect . If you eat french fries for a week and suffer a breakout, can you definitely say it was the grease in the food that caused it? Maybe it was the salt. Maybe it was the potato. Maybe it was unrelated to diet. You can't prove your hypothesis. It's much easier to disprove a hypothesis.

So, let's restate the hypothesis to make it easier to evaluate the data:

Getting pimples is unaffected by eating greasy food.

So, if you eat fatty food every day for a week and suffer breakouts and then don't break out the week that you avoid greasy food, you can be pretty sure something is up. Can you disprove the hypothesis? Probably not, since it is so hard to assign cause and effect. However, you can make a strong case that there is some relationship between diet and acne.

If your skin stays clear for the entire test, you may decide to accept your hypothesis . Again, you didn't prove or disprove anything, which is fine

hypothesis sentence

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How to use Hypotheses in a sentence

Bradley and Molyneux discussed several hypotheses in the hope of fixing the solution.

The danger lies not in forming such hypotheses , but in regarding them as final, or as more than an attempt to throw light upon our observation of the phenomena.

After examining several hypotheses , he decides this to be fine particles of earth.

The "axioms" of geometry are the fixed conditions which occur in the hypotheses of the geometrical propositions.

Nothing was more alien to his mental temperament than the spinning of hypotheses .

Such hypotheses attend to Aristotle's philosophy to the neglect of his life.

Against the "Chorizontes," who have advanced various hypotheses on all these points without convincing one another, it may be objected that they have not considered Aristotle's method of gradual and simultaneous composition of manuscripts within the Peripatetic school.

Of the customary three themes which he suggested for his trial lecture, that "On the Hypotheses which form the Foundation of Geometry" was chosen at the instance of Gauss, who was curious to hear what so young a man had to say on this difficult subject, on which he himself had in private speculated so pro foundly (see Geometry, Non-Euclidian).

All the hypotheses about the causation of new growths seek to explain the secret of this individuality or " autonomy," as they recognize that the mystery of the origin of the great majority of tumours would be solved if we could trace how or why the tissue elements in which they develop first took on this abnormal growth.

Cole (1635-1716) (see above) published mechanical hypotheses concerning the causation of fevers which closely agree with those of the Italian iatro-mechanical school.

The theoretical assumptions of Newton and Euler ( hypotheses magis mathematicae quam naturales) of a resistance varying as some simple power of the velocity, for instance, as the square or cube of the velocity (the quadratic or cubic law), lead to results of great analytical complexity, and are useful only for provisional extrapolation at high or low velocity, pending further experiment.

Against the " Chorizontes," who have advanced various hypotheses on all these points without convincing one another, it may be objected that they have not considered Aristotle's method of gradual and simultaneous composition of manuscripts within the Peripatetic school.

Further, from an early period in his Medicinische Psychologie (1852) he reinforced the transcendental idealism of Kant by a general hypothesis of " local signs," containing the subordinate hypotheses , that we cannot directly perceive extension either within ourselves or without; that spatial bodies outside could not cause in us spatial images either in sight or in touch; but that besides the obvious data of sense, e.g.

Thereupon the Newtonian analysis which preceded this synthesis, became forgotten; until at last Mill in his Logic, neglecting the Principia, had the temerity to distort Newton's discovery, which was really a pure example of analytic deduction, into a mere hypothetical deduction; as if the author of the saying " Hypotheses non lingo" started from the hypothesis of a centripetal force to the sun, and thence deductively explained the facts of planetary motion, which reciprocally verified the hypothesis.

That Bacon underestimates the importance of selective and of provisional explanatory hypotheses even in such fields as that of chemistry, and that technically he is open to some criticism from the point of view that negative judgment is derivate as necessarily resting on positive presuppositions, may be true enough.

As early as 1860 Newcomb communicated an important memoir to the American Academy, 4 On the Secular Variations and Mutual Relation of the Orbits of the Asteroids, in which he discussed the two principal hypotheses to account for the origin of these bodies - one, that they are the shattered fragments of a single planet (Olbers' hypothesis), the other, that they have been formed by the breaking up of a revolving ring of nebulous matter.

Unfortunately such allusion to these disconnected certainties as alone might be introduced here would be too brief for comprehension, and we are forced to select a few of the broader hypotheses for a treatment that may seem dogmatic and prejudiced.

He found in Tycho's ample legacy of first-class data precisely what enabled him to try, by the touchstone of fact, the successive hypotheses that he imagined; and his untiring patience in comparing and calculating the observations at his disposal was rewarded by a series of unique discoveries.

Useful light is shed on this distinction by Lotze, who contrasts (Logic, § 273) postulates (" absolutely necessary assumptions without which the content of the observation with which we are dealing would contradict the laws of our thought") with hypotheses , which he defines as conjectures, which seek "to fill up the postulate thus abstractly stated by specifying the concrete causes, forces or processes, out of which the given phenomenon really arose in this particular case, while in other cases maybe the same postulate is to be satisfied by utterly different though equivalent combinations of forces or active elements."

It is of course possible that Map's rise at court may have been due to his having hit the literary taste of the monarch, who, we know, was interested in the Arthurian tradition, but it must be admitted that direct evidence on the subject is practically nil, and that in the present condition of our knowledge we can only advance possible hypotheses .

In the above work we have a combination of the redaction and sources hypotheses .

Clifford (q.v.) was working out the hypothesis of psychophysical parallelism to a conclusion different from that of Lewes, and more allied to that of Leibnitz, the prime originator of all these hypotheses .

The varied standpoints (historical, social, legal, religious, &c.) combine with the fragmentary character of much of the evidence to suggest that the literature Hypotheses .

This view, which has influenced not only German but also English logicians, such as Venn, Bradley and Bosanquet, destroys the fabric of inference, and reduces scientific laws to mere hypotheses .

But these hypotheses do not commend themselves, and we accept the tradition that Jesus taught that his death was an atonement for others.

The number of speculations as to the nature of this distinction has been, it is said, well-nigh doubled since Drelincourt, in the r8th century, brought together 262 "groundless hypotheses ," and propounded on his own part a theory TABLE I.

In laying the foundations of a science of ancient chronology he relied sometimes upon groundless, sometimes even upon absurd hypotheses , frequently upon an imperfect induction of facts.

Various attempts have also been made to deduce these laws from particular hypotheses as to the action between the molecules of the elastic substance.

The second part endeavours to deduce the facts of the elasticity of a finite portion of the substance from hypotheses as to the motion of its constituent molecules and the forces acting between them.

We shall therefore endeavour to apply to this subject the methods used in Thermodynamics, and where these fail us we shall have recourse to the hypotheses of molecular physics.

The hypotheses which carried it back to the early years of the Christian era have been wholly abandoned.

Moreover, every statement of fact involves certain general notions and theories, so that the "facts" of the separate sciences cannot be stated except in terms of the conceptions or hypotheses which are assumed by the particular science.

These and similar assumptions are ultimate presuppositions or working hypotheses for the sciences themselves.

Like a law of nature, objective in the world, it gives order and regularity to the movement of things, and makes the system rational.3 The failure of Heraclitus to free himself entirely from the physical hypotheses of earlier times prevented his speculation from influencing his successors.

The upper part of the dam having been designed in the light of these conditions, the whole process of completing the design is simple enough when certain hypotheses have been adopted, though somewhat laborious in its more obvious form.

In the earliest land vegetations of which we have any sufficient record specialized forms of Equisetales, Lycopodiales, Sphenophyllales and Filicales existed, so that we are reduced to hypotheses founded on the careful comparison of the recent and extinct members of these groups.

It will be evident that no direct record of this evolution can be expected, and recourse must be had to hypotheses founded on the indirect evidence available.

It is not enough merely to repel the incursions of physiological science, armed with hypotheses and theories valid enough in their own sphere, upon the domain of consciousness.

The mistake of earlier advocates of determinism lay in the supposition that self-conscious moral action could be explained by the use of the same categories and upon the same hypotheses usually considered sufficient to explain the causal sequences observable in the physical world.

Consciousness and especially self-consciousness, can never be explained upon hypotheses adequate only to explain the blind working of the unconscious world.

Fourthly, if we examine things fairly, we see that in point of fact all knowledge depends on certain hypotheses , or facts taken for granted.

The serious character of the problems of early Israelite history can be perceived from the renewed endeavours to present an adequate outline of the course of events; for a criticism of the most prominent hypotheses see Cheyne, Ency.

The progress of inductive knowledge is by the formation of successive hypotheses , and it frequently happens that the demolition of one or even many hypotheses is the direct road to a new and accurate hypothesis, i.e.

The recognition of the importance of hypotheses has led to various attempts at drawing up exact rules for their formation, but logicians are generally agreed that only very elementary principles can be laid down.

Mill's principle, though sound in the abstract, has, except in a few cases, little practical value in determining the admissibility of hypotheses , and in practice any rule which tends to discourage hypothesis is in general undesirable.

In the worst case scenario of the hypothesis, the model maker is forced just to formulate hypotheses about them.

There are two hypotheses about the TSE agent [the agent that transmits Spongiform encephalopathy] .

The six resulting hypotheses create a split among the party that appears irreconcilable.

A fundamental precept of science is the freedom enjoyed by the theorist in devising hypotheses .

These methods were then applied to develop and test hypotheses about the impact on exposure patterns of respirable silica and dust.

In the judgment of D'Alembert the Cartesan theory was the best that the observations of the age admitted; and " its explanation of gravity was one of the most ingenious hypotheses which philosophy ever imagined."

The vast authority of Cuvier was employed in support of the traditionally respectable hypotheses of special creation and of catastrophism; and the wild speculations of the Discours sur les revolutions de la surface du globe were held to be models of sound scientific thinking, while the really much more sober and philosophical hypotheses of the Hydrogeologie were scouted.

It is a comparatively simple thing to state the question to which we want an answer, but extremely difficult to define the exact nature of the evidence which will constitute a good answer; easy enough to say we must try hypothesis after hypothesis, and test each one by an appeal to the facts, but a man may easily spend his life in this sort of thing and still leave to his descendants nothing more than a legacy of rejected hypotheses .

Although such hypotheses could contribute nothing directly to the development of a science which laid especial claim to experimental investigations, yet indirectly they stimulated inquiry into the nature of the " essence " with which the four " elements " were associated.

He explained chemical combination on the hypotheses that matter consisted of minute corpuscles, that by the coalescence of corpuscles of different substances distinctly new corpuscles of a compound were formed, and that each corpuscle had a certain affinity for other corpuscles.

In 1860 there prevailed such a confusion of hypotheses as to the atom and molecule that a conference was held at Karlsruhe to discuss the situation.

But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts put forward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved hypotheses , which, it must be said, did not meet with general acceptance; Liebig seceded from him, and invited Wohler to endeavour to correct him.

It is one of the grandest hypotheses which ever have been formed to account by mechanical processes for the movements of the universe.

There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'

The community we are studying must have reached such a stage of development that its economic functions and those immediately cognate to them form a well-defined group, and adequate means must be available so that we can, as it were, watch the performance of these functions and test our hypotheses and conclusions by observation and experience.

As a matter of fact, discussions of method and the criticism of hypotheses and assumptions are very rarely found in early economic works.

In most cases the interpretation of the facts is far from obvious, and we have to try several hypotheses before we reach one which will bear the strain of a critical examination in the light of further evidence.

The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.

The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of properties and relative composition became a dominant feature of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c.

Under any of these hypotheses the address would indicate that we have a circular letter, written to a group of churches, doubtless in Asia Minor.

In "applied mathematics" the "deductions" are given in the shape of the experimental evidence of natural science, and the hypotheses from which the "deductions" can be deduced are sought.

Newton's Hypotheses non fingo was a proud boast, but it rests upon an entire misconception of the capacities of the mind of man in dealing with external nature.

Many of the hypotheses of the past put forward - to explain cancer must be discarded, in view of the facts brought to light by the comparative and experimental research of recent times.

The foregoing hypotheses have all sought the origin of new growths in some intrinsic cause which has altered the characters of the cell or cells which gave rise to them, but none of them explain the direct exciting cause.

The first two books enable us better than anything else in ancient literature to appreciate the boldness and, on the whole, the reasonableness of the ancient mind in forming hypotheses on great matters that still occupy the investigations of physical science.

His system, however, like all others, is built in the main upon hypotheses incapable at present of quite satisfactory verification, such, for example, as the conjectural reading " Gargamish " for a group of symbols which recurs in inscriptions from Jerablus and elsewhere.

The attempts made during the 19th century to disprove the Pauline authorship now possess merely an historic interest, nor have the various hypotheses of more or less extensive interpolation won any serious support.

The various hypotheses , dogmas, proposals, as to the family, to capital, &c., are merely propositions measurable by considerations of utility and a balance of expediencies.

Moreover, heresies are not to be confounded with tentative and faulty hypotheses broached in a period prior to the scrutiny of a topic of Christian doctrine, and before that scrutiny has led the general mind to an assured conclusion.

It would be vain to form hypotheses as to the conditions or faculties which make vue a distance possible.

It is only when we remember the extensive and mischievous influence on science which hypotheses about aethers used formerly to exercise, that we can appreciate the horror of aethers which sober-minded men had during the 18th century, and which, probably as a sort of hereditary prejudice, descended even to John Stuart Mill.

Besides these works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS.

Thus we observe persistent organs and persistent types of animals, analogous organs and analogous types of animals, and this analogy applies still further to the rival and more or less contradictory hypotheses of the sudden as distinguished from the gradual appearance of new parts or organs of animals, and the sudden appearance of new types of animals.

These difficulties are complicated by various hypotheses concerning the composition of the Aristotelian works.

A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in simplicity and importance with the association of a falling apple with the discovery of the principle of universal gravitation.

On the strength of the consilience of arguments for evolution in the organic world, he carries back the process in the whole world, until he comes to a cosmology which recalls the rash hypotheses of the Presocratics.

Both, however, used this influence freely; and, whereas Lotze used the Leibnitzian argument from indivisibility to deduce indivisible elements and souls, Fechner used the Leibnitzian hypotheses of universal perception and parallelism of motions and perceptions, in the light of the .Schellingian identification of physical and psychical, to evolve a world-view (Weltansicht) containing something which was neither Leibnitz nor Schelling.

The preliminary hypotheses , it would seem, must be both literary and historical.

And the determinism of modern science no longer consists in a crude denial of the reality of conscious processes, or an attempt to explain them as only a sublimated form of matter and its movements; it is content to admit the relative independence of the world of consciousness, while it maintains that laws and hypotheses sufficient to explain material processes may be extended to and will be discovered to be valid of the changing sequences of conscious states of mind.

Again and again I ask impatiently, "Why concern myself with these explanations and hypotheses ?"

Therefore competition can be seen as a process in which rivalrous firms generate and test different hypotheses about good problem solutions.

Contrary to skeptics ' claims, she does not weigh the evidence in light of the two opposing hypotheses .

Statistical tables are sometimes tabulated only for one-tailed hypotheses .

The choice between warmed-over Labourism and Marxist politics is not a choice between abstract hypotheses about reform and revolution.

Starting at about age 12, adolescents can formulate hypotheses and systematically test them to arrive at an answer to a problem.

For example, they can formulate hypotheses based on the phrase "what if."

Research gathered by the council support this hypothesis including a 2008 study in the journal Medical Hypotheses and a 2010 article in Acta Paediatrica.

It examines some of the legends and hypotheses surrounding this cryptid and also shows clips from other videos as well as drawings based on descriptions from "eyewitnesses".

Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses , based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.

Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.

The principles outlined above constitute the foundations of our science; and although it may happen that experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of working hypotheses of inestimable value.

Henser, Bencke, Adami, Marchand and others have also put forward hypotheses to account for the origin of new growths.

Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.

From these two arbitrary hypotheses about corporeal motion, that it requires indivisibly simple elements, and that it offers only passive resistance, he concluded that behind bodies there must be units, or monads, which would be at once substantial, simple, indivisible and active.

On the fundamental hypotheses of the molecular theory, Value we must regard a solution as composed of a number osmotic of separate particles of solute, scattered through- p out the solvent.

He imagines all possible plans or hypotheses , not actually contradicted by our experience of familiar events, which will represent in an intelligible way the processes of astronomy and meteorology.

The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.

For a true appreciation of the chaotic polytheism that reveals itself even in the earliesttexts it would be necessary to be able to trace its development, stage by stage, out of a number of naive primitive cults; but the period of growth lies behind recorded history, and we are here reduced to hypotheses and a posleriori reconstructions.

In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).

In pure mathematics the hypotheses which a set of entities are to satisfy are given, and a group of interesting deductions are sought.

Such a distinction involves the assumptions that bodily pleasures are generically different from mental ones, and that there is in practice a clearly marked dividing line, - both of which hypotheses are frequently denied.

It is a mistake to present a great body of hypotheses - if Comte meant them for hypotheses - in the most dogmatic and peremptory form to which language can lend itself.

The unanimous recognition on the part of all biblical scholars that the Old Testament cannot be taken as it stands as a trustworthy account of the history with which it deals, necessitates a hypothesis or, it may be, a series of hypotheses , which shall enable one to approach the more detailed study of its history and religion.

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Hypothesis and prediction are commonly used interchangeably. But are they the same? Learning the difference between hypothesis and prediction comes down to science. Explore hypothesis vs. prediction through examples of each one.

The primary difference between a hypothesis and a theory is the point at which they are formed in the scientific process. A hypothesis is made before an experiment while a theory is formed after collecting a lot of scientific evidence. Explore how these terms differ from each other and similar science terms.

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  1. The best 500 hypothesis sentence examples

    Hypothesis sentence example hypothesis Meanings Synonyms Sentences Their hypothesis explains so many facts. 1016 314 An unproven hypothesis of the existence of things can be useful. 363 210 There is no data to accept or refute this hypothesis. 301 196 The schedule now called for hypothesis testing. 286 246

  2. Hypothesis Definition & Meaning

    1. a. : an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument. b. : an interpretation of a practical situation or condition taken as the ground for action. 2. : a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. 3. : the antecedent clause of a conditional statement.

  3. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, …

  4. Hypothesis: In a Sentence

    Definition of Hypothesis a proposed explanation or theory that is studied through scientific testing Examples of Hypothesis in a sentence The scientist’s hypothesis did not stand up, since research data was inconsistent with his guess. Each student gave a hypothesis and theorized which plant would grow the tallest during the study.

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis in 6 Steps

    7 examples of hypotheses (with examples) 1 Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis suggests only the relationship between two variables: one independent and one... 2 Complex hypothesis. A complex hypothesis suggests the relationship between more than two variables, for example, two... 3 Null ...

  6. Null & Alternative Hypotheses

    To write your research question, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis, fill in the following sentences with your variables: Does independent variable affect dependent variable? Null hypothesis ( H0 ): Independent variable does not affect dependent variable. Alternative hypothesis ( Ha ): Independent variable affects …

  7. Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

    A hypothesis is a tentative, testable answer to a scientific question. Once a scientist has a scientific question she is interested in, the scientist reads up to find out what is already known on the topic. Then she uses that information to form a tentative answer to her scientific question.

  8. What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?

    Examples of If, Then Hypotheses If you get at least 6 hours of sleep, you will do better on tests than if you get less sleep. If you drop a ball, it will fall toward the ground. If you drink coffee before going to bed, then it will take longer to fall asleep. If you cover a wound with a bandage, ...

  9. Use hypotheses in a sentence

    The primary difference between a hypothesis and a theory is the point at which they are formed in the scientific process. A hypothesis is made before an experiment while a theory is formed after collecting a lot of scientific evidence. Explore how these terms differ from each other and similar science terms.

  10. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

    When it comes to writing a hypothesis, there are six basic steps: Ask a question. Gather preliminary research. Formulate an answer. Write a hypothesis. Refine your hypothesis. Create a null hypothesis. 1. Ask a Question In the …