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Stop the killing of journalists prevention and justice to end impunity.

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In the past decade 700 journalists have been killed for reporting the news: one death every five days. In nine out of ten cases the killers go unpunished. Impunity leads to more killings and is often a symptom of worsening conflict and the breakdown of law and justice systems. UNESCO warns that impunity damages whole societies by covering up serious human rights abuses, corruption and crime. Governments, civil society, the media and everyone concerned to uphold the rule of law are being asked to join in the global efforts to end impunity. This End Impunity-Day meeting in London is a chance for journalists, lawyers, policy-makers and others to consider how best to respond to that urgent challenge. The conference will focus on the realities of impunity in the field and the possible responses and courses of action to tackle this. Journalists, international lawyers, human rights figures and policymakers share their understanding of the acute situation regarding the issue of impunity for crimes against journalists, as well as potential responses from each of the actors involved. Responses include: raising awareness about the issue in accordance with the UN Plan of Action on Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity; gathering evidence and pressing for justice in cases of killed, injured and jailed journalists; requesting information on the status of investigations; promoting best practices; strengthening international legal frameworks; and enhancing the effectiveness of NGOs’ work.

UNESCO will convene or co-host events in Paris, London, New York and elsewhere, on Monday, 2 November 2015, to mark the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists (IDEI). The events will also serve as an occasion to launch, in various locations, the forthcoming UNESCO report, World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development – Special Digital Focus 2015, which contains the Organization’s most recent information on the safety of journalists and impunity. The events can take forward the outcomes of the commemoration conference on the occasion of the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists, in partnership with the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which was held in Costa Rica from 9 to 10 October 2015. They can also feed into and prepare the envisaged UNESCO international conference ‘News organizations standing up for the safety of media professionals’ scheduled for 5 February 2016.

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by Nimfa Estrellado September 14, 2019 (AP Photo) Journalism is not dead. But journalists are dying. They are being killed. They are...

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Media Killings Under the Culture of Impunity in the Philippines

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Cuerdo, Ruth Ann P. Media Killings under the Culture of Impunity in the Philippines Freedom of Expression and the Media “Everyone has the right to freedom of expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” according to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Ideally that was the case, but what happens when this right to freedom becomes hampered in a country that was ironically deemed as being the freest in Asia. The Philippine media has been known for its “long tradition of respect for free expression” which we could be traced back during the American period of administration where the freedom of the press was said to be recognized (Pineda-Ofreneo, as cited in ARTICLE 19 & Center for Media Freedom & Responsibility [CMFR], 2005). This commitment to free expression, right to information and freedom of the press was then continued in the first Philippine Republic (Malolos Constitution in 1899) that was about more than a hundred years ago, and was expanded through the succeeding Constitutions in the country (Teodoro & Kabatay, cited in ARTICLE 19 & CMFR, 2005). However, regardless of the having a liberal tradition along with liberal laws, still there was no guarantee for the full exercise of the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press, as it was also challenged in the different administrations that have passed (ARTICLE 19 & CMFR, 2005). Even today, the right to freedom of expression that was supposed to claim as our right is still continually being challenged to the extent of being defied by the culture of impunity in the Philippines. One extreme and alarming manifestation of the challenges in relation to fully observing our right to freedom of expression is the longstanding, ongoing and inflaming extrajudicial killings of our media practitioners. The Advent of Media Killings (Emergence of the Social Problem) From decades ago up to the present, the killing of media practitioners is considered as one of the most troubling issues of free expression, a problem that has gained our attention, and has been there since 1986 (ARTICLE 19 & CMFR, 2005). It was presumed that the people behind the murder of some “prominent journalists” during those times were local politicians and their trusted policemen as their “response” to the criticisms by the journalists that were killed (Philippine Journalism Review, as cited in ARTICLE 19 & CMFR, 2005). As for today, it was mostly the individuals and groups that were involved in corruption and criminal acts and that were exposed by the journalist/media practitioners were seen as the mastermind behind the killings, which was deemed as their response against the journalists (CMFR, 2013). Prevalence of Media Killings in the Philippines (from 1986 until February of 2014) According to the CMFR database on the killing of Filipino journalists/media practitioners (as of February, 2014), there has been a total of 209 cases of killing of Filipino journalists/media workers (by motive) since 1986, wherein 139 (67%) were killed in the line of duty, and 70 (33%) were not work related. According to the database, 80 out of the 139 work related cases were killed under the Arroyo administration, while there were 21 cases during the late Aquino administration. Among the island groups in the Philippines, Mindanao was recorded as having the most number of cases with 80, while Luzon has 46 and Visayas with the remaining 13 cases. Looking at the gender, it can be seen that the majority of the victims were male (130 cases, 94%), while the female would only sum up to 9 cases (6%). Regarding the medium of their work, it can also be concluded that majority of the journalists/media workers that were killed since 1986 worked solely for radio with a total of 60 cases out of 139, next to them worked for print with 55 cases of individuals that has been killed. It was notable to mention that majority of the journalists/media workers that were killed (work-related) were based in the provinces, with ARMM as having the most number of killings summing up to 34 cases since 1986, which would include the 32 journalists/media workers that were killed in the Ampatuan Massacre last November 23, 2009. The Notorious Ampatuan Massacre in Maguindanao The dreadful event was said to have “shocked the world and struck a deep blow against freedom of expression, democracy and the rule of law” and now deemed as the “worst single-day attack on media professionals in recorded history” as stated by Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO in Crimes and Unpunishment: The Killing of Filipino Journalists (2012), a research work in accordance to UNESCO’s advocacy in promoting freedom of expression and promoting the safety of journalists. The International Crisis Group (ICG) also called the attack as “one of the worst acts of political violence in modern Philippine history, and the largest number of journalists slain on a single day ever, anywhere in the world” (Win, 2013). November 23, 2009, the dreadful date that everyone will remember as the worst single attack towards the Philippine press. This notorious massacre that happened in Maguindanao have captured even the attention of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX), leading them to assigned November 23 of every year as the International Day to End Impunity (IDEI), which sought to remind us all that the “murders should never happen again” as stated by Herminio Coloma Jr., Vice Chair of UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines in Crimes and Unpunishment (2012). Beyond the Numbers Along with these instances, it was also important to look at the advent of media killings in the country as a problem long before these numbers have reached the level they were now. In understanding the increasing numbers of extrajudicial killings among journalists/media practitioners in the country, not to mention how many of them were still not given justice, one must look at them as not just merely numbers of death that will affect the mortality rate of the country. They were people that were killed mostly for the reason of doing what their supposed to do as journalists, which was to present unbiased and accurate information to the public. It was not just about numbers, it was about the lives of these individuals, lives that should have and would have contributed to the development of our society. The loss that was felt by their families, was also a loss felt by the whole society. The long cry for justice of the people they have left was also our long awaited cry for justice, to end these killings, and to further end impunity. “Attacks on journalists are also attacks on the press as a pillar of democracy”, the killings affected the capability of the press in helping to create a more informed public that was deemed as important to a democratic society. Violence against them can also be seen as a manifestation of a culture of violence fostered by the culture of impunity which was “deeply destructive of our development, of our country, and of our people” (CMFR, 2013). As their voices were put to silenced, hundreds of lives were taken, along with their responsibility to adhere to our right to information and the right for freedom of expression. Hundreds of families were left broken, most of them were still longing for justice which would have seem very difficult for one to claim as long as we were under the culture of impunity, which furthermore intensified, and most likely sustained the problem of media killings in the country. Media Killings, an afflicting problem in the Philippines (Legitimation of the Social Problem and Mobilization of Action) Recognition of the Stirring Problem The increasing and seemingly unending incidences of media killings in the country undeniably caused an alarm to various sectors of the society. This was again further intensified by the series of killings just before the year 2013 ended. A “terrible coincidence” as they may have said, when three journalists have been murdered just between the International Day to End Impunity (IDEI on 23 November) and the International Human Rights Day. These incidents in turn marked the reputation of the country as one of the “world’s most dangerous countries for journalists”, and the sole country in Southeast Asia where (12) journalists were killed during 2013 (Southeast Asian Press Aliance [SEAPA], 2013). According to the Committee to Protect Journalist [CPJ], the Philippines ranked third for the fourth consecutive year for having the worst CPJ’s Impunity Index which was indicated by the number of unsolved (no convictions have been obtained) journalist murders as percentage of each country’s population. It was said that the “lack of convictions in the Maguindanao massacre case has entrenched the country's position on the index”. In addition to that, the Philippines have also ranked as the second deadliest country for journalists, only second to Iraq according to the CPJ research, wherein most of the journalists that were killed covered politics or corruption (CPJ, 2013). In addition to that, the United States also viewed media killings in the country as “deeply troubling”, as stated by Philip Goldberg, US Ambassador to the Philippines; he also stressed that the Philippines being a democratic country is in need of a free press. Although the President said that he is determined in dealing with the murders, local press watchdogs have noticed that the “masterminds behind the killings often go unpunished”, all could be attributed back to the culture of impunity (Agence France-Presse, 2014). A Call for Action, to Stand for Justice Even before the 2009 tragic incident, international media groups have protested and demanded the Arroyo administration to respond to the killings of Filipino journalist more seriously and to put an end to the culture of impunity. In relation to that, the International Day of Action Against Impunity and for the Safety of Filipino Journalists was organized by the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), having more than 500,000 members around the world (Espina, 2007). Recently, in the Philippine Senate, Sen. Pimentel III, Chair of the Senate Committee on Justice and Foreign Affairs, said that he would call for a “Senate investigation into the series of media killings”, he also called on to the police to step up in their fight against the criminals, as well as to make every effort in order to arrest the suspects and determine the mastermind behind the series of killings in Mindanao (as cited in Bordadora, 2013). In relation to the said killings, the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KBP) has called on the Philippine National Police (PNP) to respond and take action to the series of media killings in the Philippines. KBP was alarmed after 3 media personalities was subsequently killed just within two weeks, having no suspect pointed out by the police. Basbano, KBP National President also said that the PNP should do their best in arresting not only the gunmen but also the mastermind behind the killing (Kaga, 2013). An international media watchdog, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) being alarmed by the latest media killings in the Philippines has “called on authorities to punish the perpetrators”. RSF also added that “impunity breeds more violence, which will only be stopped by exemplary punishments” (as cited in Felongco, 2013). In addition to that, Human Rights Watch (HRW), a New York-based rights watchdog once again denounced the government for failing to end media killings as stated in its latest annual report. According to HRW, the “failure of the government to arrest, prosecute and convict perpetrators of media killings and human rights abuses has reinforced the continuing climate of fear and culture of impunity in the Philippines” (as cited in Espejo, 2014). Aside from the year 2009 where 32 journalist/media workers were killed in the infamous massacre, the year 2013 was also considered as one of the “deadliest years” for the Philippine press members, when 12 were killed, including the three that were killed just within a week according to the National Union of Journalists in the Philippines (NUJP). In addition to that, among the journalists and media workers killed under the current administration, there were only 6 cases that involved the arrest of the suspects, and only 2 that were arrested were convicted (HRW, as cited in Espejo, 2014). Carlos Conde of HRW also said that “the Aquino administration needs to declare that the attacks on journalists are a national catastrophe that threatens fundamental liberties” and that the Philippine government must interfere in the battle fought by the press, than just “ignore it”, referring to the statement by the Presidential spokesman Herminio Coloma Jr., wherein he said that media killings in the country were “not so serious” (as cited in Olea, 2013). And just as contradictory as that statement, is the fact that the Philippines was known as among the freest country in the world, yet “the price of this liberty freedom was paid by some media practitioners with their own blood” (Felongco, 2013). To be Free from the Price of Freedom (Formation and Implementation of the Plan of Action) Journey towards the End of Violence In search for solutions, CMFR conducted a study to understand the pattern in the killings of journalists (2002-2005), and then they proposed in their report some steps that can be done “to minimize the potential harm for journalists”. These could be done by “providing journalists with safety and security training, and assisting those who are threatened with stronger legal defense” (Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism [PCIJ], 2005). During the Arroyo’s administration, they issued the Administrative Order 181 in 2007 which would require the directing of the “cooperation and coordination between the national prosecution serviced and other concerned agencies of government for the successful investigation and prosecution of political and media killings”. In accordance to that, the act of killing the members of the media was also considered as human rights violation, wherein “finding a definitive solution to these killings is of the utmost priority” (Official Gazette of the Philippines,2007). In 2010, the Philippine National Police published the Handbook on Personal Security Measures for Media Practitioners, which was a part of the ongoing efforts in providing protection for the journalists that were face with threats in relation to their duty. As stated by Director General Bacalzo, PNP Chief, “the intention is to provide media practitioners with the basic knowledge and practical skills in securing themselves and their family, determining possible threats and improving communications among all concerned including local PNP units” (PNP, 2010). Under the current administration, the President has committed to “relentlessly pursue the perpetrators of media killings in the country”, despite the concerns and issues raised by international organizations (Calica, Lee-Brago, & Katigbak, 2013). Moreover, in the Senate, Sen. Grace Poe has also filed a resolution which calls for “a review of government efforts to end media violence in the country”. In her Senate Resolution (SR) No. 533, she stated that "Media killings have no place in a democratic country like the Philippines". SR 533 demands the Senate committee on public information and mass media and the committee on justice and human rights to probe for the intervention of the government in addressing the killings of media practitioners and the protection of journalists (Senate of the Philippines, 2014). While in the Lower House, Bayan Muna representatives Neri Javier Colmenares and Carlos Isagani Zarate have also filed a resolution which condemned the “continuing media killings and urging Aquino to carry out comprehensive and concrete actions to bring the perpetrators before the bar of justice”. It was mentioned under the House Resolution 526 that “forming local task forces every time a journalist is killed is hardly comprehensive action to address a larger problem of weak law enforcement and a tolerated culture of impunity” (as cited in Olea, 2013). Putting it all into Action According to COLOMA, Jr. (UNESCO, 2012), the responses to the killings that have happened ranged from political interventions through protest actions, public statements, meetings with government officials to activities related to the media such as the training of journalists on safety and ethics, providing support to families of slain journalists, monitoring and documentation. These actions were employed by different media advocacy groups in the country such as the Philippine Press Institute (PPI), Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR), Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (National Association of Broadcasters), National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP), National Press Club (NPC), Center for Community Journalism and Development (CCJD), and the Freedom Fund for Filipino Journalists (FFFJ). Most of what was mentioned above, were just actions, actions that may prevent or lessen the damage; the hurt that was already brought by the violence against the media, what we are still lacking was the effective implementation of the concrete action toward finally putting a period in the longstanding occurrences of media killings in the country. To give a concrete view of the justice system that our country has towards media killings, we can take a closer look again in the Ampatuan Maguindanao Massacre, an incident that will forever be marked in the history of media violence. It has been more than four years since 58 people were slaughtered, including 32 media workers, an incident that we could relate to electoral violence leading also to media violence. Yet, in those four years, the injustice still remains, along with the persisting killings of media practitioners. Looking at these particular case of long withstanding injustice among others, we can say that this was not just an isolated problem, this was a problem not just felt by the people that were directly affected, this was a problem that we can traced back not to a single mastermind or individual but rather to the system of governance that in a way allowed the “corrupt politicians and warlords to flourish in the regions and provinces in exchange for their loyalty and support” (NUJP, 2013). Each media killing was not an isolated case, or a coincidence as they may say but rather a result of the “twisted system”, the impunity, the idea that one can easily get away with the crime that one has committed, that all resulted to the prolonged killings. The killings of media workers will still continue in the midst of these attempted actions as long as there remains the system of injustice that was encouraged by the culture of impunity. Four years after the incident, and still “the only way we will ever find justice and the freedom to fully enjoy our rights is to lay claim to them, to seize them and, once we have them, to nurture them and jealously guard them against all those who would keep them from us (NUJP, 2013). Furthermore, according to the United Nations deputy general Jan Eliasson as he pleaded for the government to increase its effort in stopping the killing of journalists, “more than 90 percent of the cases of summary killings of media people in the country remain unsolved” (as cited in Fabunan, 2013). Lastly, in his own words (quoted by Fabunan, 2013) “every time a journalist is killed or intimidated into silence, there is one less voice to speak on behalf of the victims of conflict, crime and human rights abuse, one less observer of the efforts to uphold rights and ensure human dignity”. References Agence France-Presse. (2014, February 24). US says Philippine media murders are deeply troubling. Inquirer Global Nation. Retrieved from http://globalnation. inquirer.net/99403/us-says-philippine-media-murders-are-deeply-troubling ARTICLE 19 & Center for Media Freedom & Responsibility. (2005). Freedom of expression and the media in the Philippines. In a series of baseline studies of seven Southeast Asian countries. Retrieved from http://www.article19.org/data/ files/pdfs/publications/philippines-baseline-study.pdf Asian Institute of Journalism & Communication & United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2012). Crimes and Unpunishment: The killing of Filipino journalists. (F. Rosario-Braid, C. Maslog, R. Tuazon, Eds.). Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/ media- services/singleview/news/crimes_ and_unpunishment_new_publication_ relates_killings_of_filipino_journalists/ Bordadora, N. (2013, December 14). Senate to probe media killings. Inquirer News. Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/546033/senate-to-probe-media- killings Calica, A., Lee-Brago, P., & Katigbak, J. (2013, December 15). Noy vows justice in media killings. The Philippine Star. Retrieved from http://www.philstar.com/ headlines/2013/12/15/1268192/noy-vows-justice-media-killings Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. (2013, September 12). Killing of journalists continuing. Inquirer Opinion. Retrieved from http://opinion.inquirer.net/60943/killing-of-journalists-continuing Center for Media Freedom & Responsibility. (February, 2014). CMFR database on the killing of Filipino journalists/media workers since 1986. Center for Media Freedom Responsibility Research and Analysis. Retrieved from http://www. cmfr-phil.org/flagship-programs/freedom-watch/research-and-analysis/ Committee to Protect Journalists. (2013, May 2). Getting away with murder. Committee to Protect Journalists Special Reports. Retrieved from http://www.cpj.org/ reports/2013/05/impunity-index-getting-away-with-murder.php Committee to Protect Journalists. (n.d.). Philippines. Attacks on the Press in 2013. Retrieved from https://www.cpj.org/ 2014/02/attacks-on-the-press-in-2013- philippines.php Espejo, E. (2014, January 2). Rights watchdog says Philippines fails to protect journalists. Asian Correspondent Asia News. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/ 118707/human-rights-watchdog-again-scores-ph-government/ Espina, N. (2007, February 23). Journalists worldwide demand solution to RP media killings. INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos. Retrieved from http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/news/view/20070223-51230/Journalists-worldwide-demand-solution-to-RP-media-killings Fabunan, S. (2013, July 19). Media killings in PH 90% 'unsolved'. Manila Standard Today. Retrieved from http://manilastandardtoday.com/2013/07/19/ media-killings-in-ph-90-unsolved/ Felongco, G. (2013, August 13). International media watchdog 'dismayed' over continued killing of journalists in Philippines. Gulfnews.com, Newsletter. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/world/philippines/international-media-watchdog-dismayed-over-continued-killing-of-journalists-in-philippines-1.1216329 National Union of Journalists of the Philippines. (2013, November 23). Ampatuan massacre: Impunity working at its worst after four years. National Union of Journalists of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.nujp.org/2013/11/ ampatuan-massacre-impunity-working-at-its-worst/ Official Gazette of the Philippines. (2007). Administrative Order No. 181. Official Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.gov.ph/2007/07/03/ administrative-order-no-181-s-2007/ Olea, R. (2013, December 13). Act on media killings, gov’t told. Bulatlat. Retrieved from http://bulatlat.com/main/2013/12/13/act-on-media-killings-govt-told/ Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. (2005, September 8). In search of solutions to media killings. The PCIJ Blog. Retrieved from http://pcij.org/blog/2005/09/08/in-search-of-solutions-to-media-killings Philippine National Police. (2010, October 11). PNP publishes security handbook for journalists.PNP News. Retrieved from http://pnp.gov.ph/portal/index.php/ press-news-releases/latest-news/198-pnp-publishes-security-handbook-for-journalists Senate of the Philippines. (2014, March 5). Grace Poe: Strengthen efforts to end Media killings. Press Release. Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov.ph/press_release/ 2014/0305_poe1.asp Southeast Asian Press Alliance. (2013, December 13). Urgent and decisive response needed to curb media killings. Southeast Asian Press. Retrieved from http://www.seapa.org/?p=8637 Waga, B. (2013, December 12). KBP tells PNP: Solve media killings now. Kicker Daily News. Retrieved from http://kickerdaily.com/kbp-tells-pnp-solve-media- killings-now/ Win, T. (2013, August 9). Rights group urges action over journalist killings in Philippines. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.trust.org/item/ 20130809101540-v57od/

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...International Law (Centerlaw), a nongovernment organization founded by my colleague Harry Roque. Centerlaw represents victims of human rights violations, especially persecuted advocates of freedom of expression. It is working to strengthen the network of free expression advocates in Southeast Asia. For four days, I listened to stories of arbitrary arrest and detention, intimidation, and some instances of torture committed by the very government that is supposed to protect the Thai citizenry against such crimes. It is all too reminiscent of the martial rule of Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines. The Thai military junta, euphemistically known as the National Council for Peace and Order, mounted a coup d’état and ousted the government of Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra. The junta imposed martial law when it seized power in May 2014, and while the regime officially lifted it in April 2015, Thailand remains under martial rule because the junta continues to wield executive, legislative and judicial powers. It is all too similar to Marcos who imposed martial law in 1972, officially lifted it in 1981, but continued to act as dictator by exercising executive and legislative powers until he was toppled by people power in February 1986. The Thai junta bans all criticism of its actions. It can jail violators for as...

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The Ec-Philippines Strategy Paper

...THE EC-PHILIPPINES STRATEGY PAPER 2007-2013 i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................................................... iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................... 7 1. COUNTRY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 9 1.1. Analysis of the political situation...................................................................... 9 1.2. Analysis of the economic situation.................................................................. 11 1.3. Trade structure ................................................................................................ 13 1.4. Analysis of social developments...................................................................... 14 1.5. Analysis of the environmental situation......................................................... 16 2. THE PHILIPPINES’ POLICY AGENDA ............................................................ 17 2.1. The Medium Term Philippine Development Plan ........................................ 17 2.2. Assessing the reform process .......................................................................... 17 2.3. Cross-cutting issues: human rights, gender, governance ............................. 19 3. OVERVIEW OF PAST AND ONGOING EC COOPERATION, COORDINATION AND COHERENCE ........................................

Words: 26770 - Pages: 108

...Contents Preface to the First Edition Introduction Part 1. Thought Control: The Case of the Middle East Part 2. Middle East Terrorism and the American Ideological System Part 3. Libya in U.S. Demonology Part 4. The U.S. Role in the Middle East Part 5. International Terrorism: Image and Reality Part 6. The World after September 11 Part 7. U.S./Israel-Palestine Notes Preface to the First Edition (1986) St. Augustine tells the story of a pirate captured by Alexander the Great, who asked him "how he dares molest the sea." "How dare you molest the whole world?" the pirate replied: "Because I do it with a little ship only, I am called a thief; you, doing it with a great navy, are called an Emperor." The pirate's answer was "elegant and excellent," St. Augustine relates. It captures with some accuracy the current relations between the United States and various minor actors on the stage of international terrorism: Libya, factions of the PLO, and others. More generally, St. Augustine's tale illuminates the meaning of the concept of international terrorism in contemporary Western usage, and reaches to the heart of the frenzy over selected incidents of terrorism currently being orchestrated, with supreme cynicism, as a cover for Western violence. The term "terrorism" came into use at the end of the eighteenth century, primarily to refer to violent acts of governments designed to ensure popular submission. That concept plainly is of little benefit to the practitioners of state......

Words: 93777 - Pages: 376

Crimes Against Women

...Preface There is no doubt that we are in the midst of a great revolution in the history of women. The evidence is everywhere; the voice of women is increasingly heard in Parliament, courts and in the streets. While women in the West had to fight for over a century to get some of their basic rights, like the right to vote, the Constitution of India gave women equal rights with men from the beginning. Unfortunately, women in this country are mostly unaware of their rights because of illiteracy and the oppressive tradition. Names like Kalpana Chawla: The Indian born, who fought her way up into NASA and was the first women in space, and Indira Gandhi: The Iron Woman of India was the Prime Minister of the Nation, Beauty Queens like Aishwarya Rai and Susmita Sen, and Mother Teresa are not representative of the condition of Indian women. Over 32000 murders, 19,000 rapes, 7500 dowry deaths and 36500 molestation cases are the violent crimes reported in India in 2006 against women. There are many instances of crime especially against women go unreported in India. These are figures released by the National Crime Records Bureau recently. While Madhya Pradesh is worst off among the states, the national capital New Delhi continues to hold on to its reputation of being the most unsafe city in India. Delhi takes the top slot for crimes ranging from murders and rapes to dowry deaths and abductions. It reflects country's law and order situation when its capital is a cauldron of crime.......

Words: 20252 - Pages: 82

The Relationship Between Electoral Process and Stability in Nigeria

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study Structured election process is one of the indicators of stability in Nigeria’s democracy. Elections in Nigeria continue to elicit more than casual interest by Nigerian scholars due to the fact that despite the appreciation that only credible election can consolidate and sustain the country’s nascent democracy, over the years, Nigeria continues to witness with growing disappointments and apprehension inability to conduct peaceful, free and fair, open elections whose results are widely accepted and respected across the country (Ekweremadu, 2011). All the elections that have ever been conducted in Nigeria since independence have generated increasingly bitter controversies and grievances on a national scale because of the twin problems of mass violence and fraud that have become central elements of the history of elections and of the electoral process in the country (Gberie, 2011). Despite the marked improvement in the conduct of the 2011 elections, the process was not free from malpractices and violence (National Democratic Institute, 2012). Thus over the years, electoral processes in the history of Nigeria’s democratic governance have continued to be marred by extraordinary display of rigging, dodgy, “do or die” affair, ballot snatching at gun points, violence and acrimony, thuggery, boycotts, threats and criminal manipulations of voters' list, brazen falsification of election results, the use of security agencies......

Words: 23070 - Pages: 93

...IDSA Monograph Series No. 23 September 2013 India's Internal Security Situation Present Realities and Future Pathways Namrata Goswami INDIA'S INTERNAL SECURITY SITUATION | 1 IDSA Monograph Series No. 23 September 2013 India's Internal Security Situation: Present Realities and Future Pathways Namrata Goswami 2 | IDSA MONOGRAPH SERIES Cover Illustration : The Cover depicts Kohima-Dimapur Road. Cover Photograph courtesy : Namrata Goswami © Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, sorted in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). ISBN: 978-93-82169-23-9 Disclaimer: It is certified that views expressed and suggestions made in this Monograph have been made by the author in her personal capacity and do not have any official endorsement. First Published: Price: Published by: September 2013 Rs. 285/Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses No.1, Development Enclave, Rao Tula Ram Marg, Delhi Cantt., New Delhi - 110 010 Tel. (91-11) 2671-7983 Fax.(91-11) 2615 4191 E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.idsa.in Cover & Layout by: Printed at: Geeta Kumari M/S A. M. Offsetters A-57, Sector-10, Noida-201 301 (U.P.) Mob: 09810888667 E-mail: [email protected] INDIA'S INTERNAL SECURITY......

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Discrimination of Hindus

...Hindus  in  South  Asia  and  the  Diaspora:   A  Survey  of  Human  Rights   2011               www.HAFsite.org     March  12,  2012                   “All  human  beings  are  born  free  and  equal  in  dignity  and  rights.”   “One  should  never  do  that  to  another  which  one  regards  as  injurious  to   one’s  own  self.    This,  in  brief,  is  the  rule  of  dharma.    Yielding  to  desire  and   acting  differently,  one  becomes  guilty  of  adharma.”   “Thus,  trampling  on  every  privilege  and  everything  in  us  that  works  for   privilege,  let  us  work  for  that  knowledge  which  will  bring  the  feeling  of   sameness  towards  all  mankind.”   Swami  Vivekananda,  “The  Complete  works  of  Swam  Vivekananda,”  Vol  1,  p.  429     Mahabharata  XII:  113,  8     Universal  Declaration  of  Human  Rights,  1948,  Article  1     "All  men  are  brothers;  no  one  is  big,  no  one  is  small.  All  are  equal."   Rig  Veda,  5:60:5     ......

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...Filipino children are not as secure and protected as they are ideally portrayed. The increasing number of street children who work on the streets or beg for alms from pedestrians and motorists belie such an idealized portrayal. Street children, among other things, are the most palpable reminder that all is not well with Filipino children. Reality reveals the many children who are denied even the most minimum of needs like food, love, nurturance, stability, security, and stimulating learning environment that will allow for their healthy development. Many Filipino children are rushed into maturity because early on in their lives, they are forced to contend with difficult problems and to take on adult roles and responsibilities. Media and popular and academic literature, more than any other time, has brought to our attention the plight of children, be they street children or not, who perform adult roles and who are in need of the basic components of a healthy family life. 2 Bautista, Roldan & Garces-Bacsal Reports of child abuse are also on the rise. Often, abused children have to deal, on their own, with the fear and pain brought on by parents, relatives, significant others, or complete strangers. Such realities repudiate Da Silva’s idealized view of children (in Torres 1990), as persons who “needs adult protection...

Words: 49490 - Pages: 198

...National Events – 2013 January: S Ramakrishnan takes charge as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Director Senior scientist with four decades of experience in rocketry, S Ramakrishnan has assumed charge as Director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Tiruvananthapuram. Ramakrishnan, who was director of the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), succeeds P S Veeraraghavan. A Padma Shri award recipient, Ramakrishnan is an expert in aerospace propulsion, launch vehicle systems and project management. The new director was one of the scientists who took part in the mission to realise India's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3. He was the mission director for PSLV C1, C2, C3 and C4 flights. Amitabh Bachchan, Vidya Balan named PETA's hottest vegetarian celebrities Bollywood megastar Amitab Bachchan and actress Vidya Balan have been named PETA's hottest celebrity vegetarians of 2012. The other names in the running were Miss India Neha Dhupia, actor Shahid Kapoor, Sonu Sood, southern star Dhanush, Kareena Kapoor and veteran actress Hema Malini. Bachchan, 70, has been named the hottest vegetarian celebrity three times in the past and even won the crown in PETA Asia's equivalent contest in 2011. Balan, who had won the crown in 2010 too, has often credited her curves to her meat-free diet. IPS officer creates triathlon record A senior officer of Andhra Pradesh cadre has created a record of sorts on completing a 695 km long journey from Visakhapatnam to Hyderabad on a bicycle. Rajiv......

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Popular Essays

media killing essay

Essay On Dangers Of Journalism

Tom Stoppard, the Czech playwright, once said: “I still believe that if your aim is to change the world, journalism is a more immediate short-term weapon.” According to The University of North Carolina at Pembroke, Journalism is a field where journalists work hard to report and transmit news to an audience. The transmission process is done through print (newspapers, magazines and books), broadcast (radio and television) and online (blogs, social networks...) media. This seems a very simple and easy job however journalism is not a safe and secure domain to work in; journalists may face different dangers throughout their working life. The first reason why journalism is dangerous is because journalists might be killed because of their work or identity. Statistical analysis shows, that the highest percentages of killed journalists, were working on corruption (20%), war (36%) or political (44%) topics. However the same statistics show, that the medium with higher percentage of victims is printed media (51%), and males (93%) are mainly the ones who suffer from this tragedy. When asking about the way and the people behind the death of those journalists, numbers showed that 67% of the victims were murdered, which means this act was intended and there is someone behind it. The most suspected sources in these cases are government officials (23%) and political groups (30%). One of the victims is Chauncey Bailey. According to cleveland.com he was a reporter, working on that time on a short article about the bankruptcy that was said to be caused by a Black Muslim cult; Yusuf Bey IV. Bailey was shot by a masked man in august 2007in Oakland because of the subject of his article and the murder was done by the men of Yusuf Bey IV ... ... middle of paper ... ...n she used in her article. Journalists around the world face a big number of dangers while working on a particular topic or in a defined place or country. Through history, a lot of journalists were killed, kidnapped or went missing and threatened or jailed. All these terroristic acts have a main purpose: to kill the truth and dominate the people. However the voice of the truth is so strong that it can’t be shut down. ‘ Freedom of the press ’ is one of the most crucial global issues nowadays and people should decode critically the messages they are receiving and the news they are getting about harmed journalists in order to understand where it is suppressed. In the mind of every journalist and citizen one question is being formed: is the press in the 21st century as free as we think it is or there is people modelling the content we get for their own benefit?

In this essay, the author

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Killing the media

There’s been no lack of effort to highlight “media killings” in the media. Periodically, we are subjected to stories about another media practitioner ambushed, gunned down (sometimes in the radio station itself) or even shot in front of his or her children.

But why, media people ask, has it been so difficult to sustain  public anger over the killing of media people? Given how everyone agrees about the importance and necessity of a free and unfettered media in the life of our democracy, why is it that the killing of media folk still continues? (Six journalists have been killed since P-Noy took office last year.)

Those were some questions raised during Media Nation 8, the annual “talk fest” that gathers media people of all stripes and inclinations to discuss issues that bedevil the profession and alert the community to developments (like new media and Wikileaks) that have an impact on our work. FEATURED STORIES OPINION Battle of the brains OPINION Backing Ukraine makes sense OPINION Farewell

A total of 80 media practitioners took part in Media Nation 8 over the weekend held at the Marco Polo Hotel in Cebu. This wasn’t just the first time the gathering was held outside Luzon, it was also marked by the greater number of provincial journalists attending, a development that brought a new dimension to the discussions, a greater awareness of the special risks inherent in the work of provincial journalists who make up the bulk of the victims.

The distinctions being made drew heated responses. “Those block timers were among the most courageous opponents of martial law,” reminded Inday Espina Varona of ABS-CBN and the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.

And even if they were acting as paid mouthpieces or attack dogs, others pointed out, it was still their media work that put them in the line of fire. “Journalists enjoy special protections in our society,” pointed out Vince Lazatin of the Transparency and Accountability Network, “and because of the nature of their work, they work in a bubble that is usually respected by most parties.”

Still, part of the discussions centered on the lack of professionalism and the absence of journalistic ethics among many journalists, a factor which may explain the lack of credibility of journalist-victims and of journalists in general. Which may also explain the lack of sympathy among members of the public, who at the same time already labor under the onus of “extrajudicial killings” that are taking place.

Readers may remember the Gulfin family of Tinton Falls, New Jersey, who were supposed to be deported to the Philippines as illegal immigrants, including their youngest son Miguel who was brought to the United States as a child and has not known any other home.

A week before their scheduled departure last Sept. 30, the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) granted Carmelo and Aurelia Gulfin and Miguel a one-year reprieve “to afford them time to legalize their status,” wrote Edmund Silvestre, reporter for the Filipino Reporter.

The ICE decision was released Sept. 22 in a letter signed by John Tsoukaris, field office director of ICE Newark, N.J.

Tsoukaris’ letter was in response to the application for deferred action status filed by the Gulfins’ lawyer, J.T.S. Mallonga of Abad Constancio & Mallonga and the Filipino American Legal Defense and Education Fund.

Mallonga said the latest development is “a big victory” for the Gulfins and their numerous supporters. But more is needed to be done such as having the ICE join the Gulfins in joint motion to reopen their old deportation case so that a relief can be introduced.

“It’s easier said than done, but we have to try,” Mallonga said.

An iPad 2 will go to a lucky participant in the latest installment of FPTI’s (Forecasting and Planning Technologies, Inc.) performance management series tomorrow, Oct. 5 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.) at the Bahia Room of Hotel Intercontinental Makati.

Among the afternoon’s speakers are FPTI president and chief executive officer Lofreda “Dada” Del Carmen and Gian Amurao, FPTI director for business development.

For inquiries and reservations call: 8971435 local 121 / 8995834 or go to fpti.com.ph/ spte/registration.aspx for free registration.

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Essay Service Examples Crime Serial Killer

Impact of Mass Media on Serial Killers: Analytical Essay

Ted Bundy, one of the more infamous and prolific serial killers in history, was said to have killed 36 people, but what leads one to commit such heinous acts? Serial killers are all influenced by similar social experiences throughout life and learn from the environments around them to become serial killers. A sociological perspective explains how the media’s portrayal of serial killers motivates serial killers to start or continue killing. Anthropology provides insight on how similar cultural conditions impact the rise of serial killers in a given culture. Lastly, psychology develops the idea that serial killers are a product of nurture.

The rise of mass media creates conditions for the rise of serial murder in the modern world. The media’s portrayal of serial killers often glorifies and gives serial killers the attention or fame they may seek. About 0.5% of all serial killers kill for attention and a majority of serial killers remain in constant contact with the global press (FGCU). For decades now, serial killers have taken center stage in the news and entertainment media, allowing serial killers to achieve celebrity status. Our society has produced a celebrity culture in which individuals are recognized for their bad acts, and in the public’s condemnation of them, a reverence for them emerges. Rather than being shamed by their actions, serial killers often revel in their celebrity status and actively seek out media attention (Bonn). In condemning them publicly, the media eulogizes the murderers by giving them what they crave—recognition (Kass-Gergi). Secondly, the rise of serial killer is a product of biased and selective media coverage. Black people account for 13.3 percent of the US population but are victims to 24 percent of all serial killers (FGCU). Female sex workers are 18 times more likely to be killed by a serial killer than someone who does not participate in sex work and those who kill primarily prostitutes, kill for slightly longer periods of time. (Reid and Lee). FBI data shows that there is a marked under-representation of African American children in media reports relative to non-African American children and a subsequent study found that girls from minority groups were the most underrepresented in these missing-children news reports by a very large margin (Min and Feaster). An increase in media coverage leads to the increased interest of the general public which pushes the police to find the killer faster and stop the killings. However, lower-class or marginalized victims do not receive as much attention in the media or in society which provides opportunities for serial killers to get away with targeting vulnerable populations. Lastly, media outlets play a key role in the proliferation of modern copycat serial killers. The copycat effect is the tendency of sensational publicity about violent murders to result in more of the same through imitation.The term was first coined around 1916 due to the crimes that were inspired by Jack the Ripper, a notorious killer at the time, who received extensive newspaper coverage. Media coverage plays a role in inspiring other criminals to commit crimes in a similar fashion, and even for non-criminals to begin committing crimes when they otherwise might not have done so (Coleman). About one out of four juveniles report having attempted a copycat crime and are significantly more likely to credit the media as both a general and personal influence (Surrette). By providing lurid details, posting step-by-step ​recaps, media provides instructional models to predisposed individuals and shapes the stylistic form the crime takes on. The media attention allows people to learn about new violent acts and methods, and as society becomes a more mediated, celebrity-focused, social media-dominated culture, copycats and serial killers, in general, will continue to increase.

media killing essay

Anthropology focuses on how serial killers may be a product of cultural conditions, as shared values, beliefs and norms influence the manner people learn, live, and behave. The invasion and colonization of Western culture leads to the rise of serial killers in non-Western cultures. In serial killing, the USA with a figure of 1,948 serial killers stays at the top position, and England with 109 serial killers is second globally and is followed by Japan, South Africa, and India (FGCU). Based on research, the majority of serial killers in non-Western culture was raised and committed murder in a time when their nations were already invaded by Western ideals. For example, Japan’s first serial killer Tsutomu Miyazaki was born in 1962 and killed four girls between 1988 and 1989. The Western world began invading Japan long before then and already had many influences in the Asian culture during Miyazaki’s youth (Japan Today). Another serial killer who came out of a non-Western nation years after the Western cultural invasion is Jimmy Marketta, a man born around 1964 in South Africa and was found guilty of 16 counts of murder and 19 counts of rape (Dolley). South Africa was invaded by Britain in the 1800s, the Dutch in the 1600s, making the nation a blended mix of Western and non-Western ideals (Cobbing). Between 1492 and 1914, Europeans conquered 84 percent of the globe, establishing colonies and spreading their influence across every inhabited continent (Hoffman). Foreign societies tend to adopt changes in their own social systems relative to Western ideology and lifestyle, and due to the overwhelming rise of serial murders occurring in areas of Western culture, shifts in non-Western culture patterns can instigate the promotion of serial killers. Secondly, the phenomenon of the serial killer has arisen concordant with the rise of urbanization due to Westernization. The start of the Industrialized Revolution in Europe and the USA during the 1800s and 1900s led to a surge of urbanization, population, and economy (Pilson). Through Westernization, a process whereby societies come under or adopt the Western culture, industrialization spread to the rest of the world (Thong). Industrialization leads to urbanization by creating economic growth and job opportunities that draw people to cities (Investopedia). In South Africa, the British joined the Dutch and started increasing urbanization by bringing in new technologies and expanding the economy. From the 1870s, urbanization increased rapidly in Japan and Pakistan as well (Pilson). In pre-modern societies individuals knew one another by name, often having intimate knowledge of their neighbor. Strangers were rarely encountered and the average medieval citizen might have only met 100 strangers during the course of their entire life. The rise of industrialism and related processes of mass migration to urban centers resulted in individuals being immersed in a sea of strangers. This development proved to be a key precondition for the emergence of serial murder, given that a defining attribute of serial killers is that they prey on strangers. Thus, dense modern urban environments represent ideal settings for the routinized impersonal encounters that operate as a hallmark of serial killing (Haggerty and Ellerbrock). Lastly, serial killers are created due to Westernization increasing the inequalities between social classes. The Gini index, which measures income inequalities, shows that the economic inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa rose by 9% between 1993 and 2008, China’s score soared by 34% over twenty years, and few countries decreased the inequalities (W). Westernization is a key contributor to widening the gap between the rich and the poor. As Western countries industrialize poorer countries, they often employ skilled workers and pay high wages. A report from the OECD found that average wages paid by foreign multinationals are 40% higher than wages paid by a local firm. By contrast, unskilled workers, or poor ones in rural areas, tend not to have such opportunities, resulting in inequality (W). The UNODC (2011:30) reports that ‘countries with large income disparities (Gini Index higher than 0.45) have a homicide rate almost four times higher than more equal societies’ (Wilkinson and Pickett). Wide class differences and rigid social hierarchies might increase the ‘social distance’ between individuals, thereby reducing the levels of social cohesion and increased aggression and violence (Frank and Aitken). Therefore, the wider the income inequalities caused by Western influences, the more likely serial killers will increase.

In psychology, nurture is the influence of a person’s environment, family life, childhood, and social interactions from infancy to adulthood on his or her behaviors and thoughts. Childhood abuse is a huge factor in creating serial killers. In 2001, 3% of the general population was reported to have suffered sexual abuse, in contrast, 26% of serial killers have reported abuse (Mitchell and Aamodt). According to Sigmund Freud, the development of the unconscious personality early in childhood will influence behavior for the rest of one’s life. Childhood abuse contributes to feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness, and their crimes compensate for this by providing a sense of potency and often social revenge, by giving them a feeling of power (Arikan). Isolation from family and other children causes severe loneliness and increases the risk of serial killers. The FBI Behavioral Sciences Unit found that 71% of the murderers they profiled experienced a “sense of isolation in their childhood,”(Federal Bureau of Investigation). The danger with loneliness is that the incipient serial killer has the time and space to dwell on these homicidal fantasies of revenge, power and dominance and can find comfort in these thoughts. At some critical point in their life, either as children or adolescents, these individuals take their fantasies on a test run into the world of reality. An estimated range of 21% to 73% of serial killers abuses animals before killing. If the child finds the commission of the act satisfying or sexually exciting, it could be a matter of time before the test runs become full-blown acts of homicide (Vronsky). Adoption also plays a factor in generating serial killers. The FBI estimates that of the 500 serial killers in the US, most are American-born and adopted. This is alarming because only 2-3 % of the population (5-10 million) are adopted people (Federal Bureau of Investigation). The idea of infant bonding is imperative to personality development, and a common characteristic of serial killers is that they were adopted. For the adopted child the suffering is experiencing being left and abandoned while feeling the sense of being unwanted and unloved even if they are wanted and loved in their adoptive families (Carlis). This trauma may intensify and can manifest in depression, substance abuse, acting out, anger, and in a small number of cases, serial killings. Improper nurture can lead to aggressive behavior and violence later on as retaliation against a world that had treated them unfairly.

Factors related to the lifestyle and background an individual encounters, largely influence the creation of serial killers. Sociologically, the attention and spotlight around serial killers in media give incentive for serial killers. Anthropology states that the transmission of similar cultures has repercussions in breeding serial killers. Lastly, psychology demonstrates that the nurture a child receives influences serial killer behavior. During a child’s development, there are important periods to learn about love, trust, empathy and basic rules about how to interact with other human beings. If these traits aren’t imprinted upon the child during that period, it may impossible to learn them later in life. Therefore, the environment a child grows up in and the type of nurture they receive can significantly shape the life choices made, including becoming a serial killer. As a result, psychology offers the most reasonable rationale as to why serial killers do what they do.

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Theodore Robert Bundy most commonly referred to as Ted Bundy was one of the most infamous American serial killers in history. His known active killing spree was between 1973 and 1978. Before his execution Ted confessed to over 30 murders, although police suspect the actual number is estimated to be 35 or more. His technique was to entice young women into being alone with him then kidnap, thrash and strangle them to death. He confessed to acts of rape, mutilation...

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Media Killings Under The Culture of Impunity in The Philippines

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media killing essay

University of Vienna - Main page

Killings of Journalists Worldwide: The Full Costs of a Free Press

Download: Full Report

Download: Database


Why does it matter to know more about the numbers of killed journalists?

Until recently, professionals, the media and civil society but also the international community and states have approached journalism under an image of a clear set of expectations as to how society and the political system ought to respect the act of holding power to account, and also as to the conditions under which journalists work. Until now, it has been generally accepted that some risks are inherently associated with doing a highly sensitive profession, one that seeks to stand between power and society. These risks are associated with the coverage of armed conflict as a matter of "collateral damage" and unintended effects. Our assumptions have been based on the understanding that the extermination of human beings and the silencing of voices in this utmost drastic manner, a killing, were the exceptions rather than the rule, in the quest of society to achieve more equality, justice, democracy and prosperity for the many.


2294 journalists were killed in the period 2000-2016 worldwide. The study found that the number of killed journalists, even when accounting for definitional conflicts, far exceeds the most cited numbers currently in public debate. 

Despite international efforts to monitor and record the circumstances of death, there are significant gaps in information for which the international community has not yet compensated. Certainly, the role of national governments and the State are here paramount in actively protecting journalists, ending impunity, and providing transparency in terms of information surrounding the killings.

There are significant gaps in the information the international community holds with regards the media for which journalists have worked, the stories they have covered and their employment status. Although there is some evidence about the trends of killings of journalists, there is little information about the conditions under which they moved into assignments.

For 33 journalists we have no information on gender; 161 of all journalists were women. For 20 per cent of the cases no information could be found about journalists' citizenship and relation to location of reporting and death. 72 per cent or 1647 were local journalists and eight per cent correspondents i.e. died abroad. We have no information about the job position for three per cent of cases and no information about the type of media journalists worked for, for almost a quarter of the cases.

Information about these demographic categories can reveal evidence for changing trends or continuities, as to whether for example the presence of major global television broadcaster might inadvertently provide more safety or whether there are cases where in terrorist assaults, in particular, this might contribute to making journalists even more vulnerable if publicity is sought after by such groups. Information also can reveal gender differences, if any, as well as the role of geopolitical conditions determining at least employment protection. 

Recorded suicides constitute below one per cent of all cases. Information on suicides is consistently missing, is incomplete or uncertain particularly as to whether the recorded number corresponds to the reality of journalism. It is estimated that suicides, due to their social stigma, as well as methodological uncertainties as to whether they are to be attributed to practicing journalism, are severely under-reported. 

The role of the press itself and the international community in bringing to the light the dangers and violations against human rights is crucial. 

In the following interactive map the number of journalists killed per country are showed.

Also the peaks of killings, the running total, top 20 countries of killed journalsts.

In the second map all journalists killed are marked with a box - by clicking it the name, age, citizenship, country of death, Media Employer, position, sex, topic covered, type of death are visable. Please find a further description of these categories in the report.

Dashboard 1


Essay on Women as Victims in the Media

Gender Roles In Night Of The Living Dead

Men and women have played gender specific roles, from the earliest sign of civilization to modern society. In the cult classic “Night of the Living Dead”, stereotypical gender role were on display. George A. Romero’s film hinted at subtle references to the responsibilities of men and women and depicted the stereotypes America held during the 1960s. Men played the protectors and enforcers, while the women represented the submissive homemakers and caretakers. Romero’s film portrays the sexes, men and women, in their respective stereotypical behaviors. Stereotypes that sets the undertone for the duration of the film.

The Media Of Female Offenders

The media today, is highly selective in their constructions of offences, offenders and victims. Media representations of crime are moulded and women are portrayed in a way that is entertainment driven and is appealing to the audience. Despite the fact that women seldom stalk, murder outsiders or commit sequential murders- in fact they are rarely vehement, “accounting for only ten percent of convicted violent offenders- those who do so are highly newsworthy because of their novelty” (Jewkes 2011, p. 123) Present day media admits that because fierce women are comparatively uncommon, they are all the more appealing and diabolical to the audience as a result. The essay shall discuss the reason and presentation in the media of female offenders, female victims and women specific crimes.

Lizzie Borden Analysis

“Women cannot be murderers.” Even though this was not explicitly stated in the newspapers, The Boston Herald in its article “Lizzie Borden” conveys the perception that the feminine ways associated with women would make it impractical for women to commit murder. Lizzie Borden, a young lady accused of brutally killing her stepmother and father with multiple blows to their heads with a hatchet was described as a religious, sincere, and modest human being in The Boston Herald’s article covering Lizzie’s life before and after the murders. During Lizzie’s youth, she suffered from isolation because of her reserved personality and belief that nobody appreciated her presence, but in womanhood turned her life around and attain friendships who vouched for her good character during the time of the investigation. The Boston Herald’s article “Lizzie Borden: Her School and Later Life - A Noble Woman, Though Retiring”, successfully persuades the reader of Lizzie Borden’s innocence with the focus on her femininity through diction and logic.

Misrepresentation of Women in The Media Essay

“People learn more from media than any other single source of information” (Missrepresentation). This quote exemplifies how society learns and creates their standards about people, places, and things. All sources and mediums of media impact billions of lives every day. The media holds this power over society and it’s time to change that; especially when it comes to the media’s view of women. Women are constantly being misrepresented. This misrepresentation of women in the media is negatively impacting America by corrupting both the youth and adults. This is occurring because of the hyper-sexualization of women, wrongly portraying women in leadership positions, and creating stereotypes of women in movies and television.

Role Of Media In Media

The media plays a massive role in the construction of crime, this includes the reporting of crime, the sensationalisation of stories, over-representation of different social groups and age of offenders. Construction of crime is also through stereotyping both ethnicity and gender. It is sometimes argued that the media is an ideological tool that is used to distort reality from its viewers. Female killers are often considered as ‘oxymoronic’, as they are seen as contradictory. Females are generally seen as caring beings but once they commit violent crimes, they are judged based individual circumstances and it is not taken into consideration that they could just as violent as male offenders in their own right. In this essay, I will be focusing on the gender stereotypes in media, specifically focusing on female killers.

Female Serial Killers

Women kill largely for instrumental reasons such as monetary gain rather than affective reasons such as achieving motional satisfaction. Absent is the presence of sexual fantasy as a motivating factor (Richard N.Kocsis, 2007). A survey of known serial killers worldwide reveals that 41% of homicidal women kill for profit or greed. Female serial killers who victimize their own children and other relatives sometimes have a much stranger motive than profit. According to psychiatrists, some of them become addicted to the sympathetic attention they receive after the death of their loved ones (Micheal & John, 2008).

Representation of Women in Horror

Since the inventions of television and film, media influences have become extremely important in modern society with people constantly being inundated by images and messages that come from film, television, magazines, internet and advertising. Researchers and theorists such as Carol J. Clover and Jean Kilborne believe that the fact that people are going to be affected by the media is absolutely unavoidable. Films can act as guides to how people, particularly women, should act and look. Women in horror are typically shown as the ‘damsel in distress’ and are usually attacked by the killer after committing a sinful act like having sex or misusing drugs or alcohol. The females are

Embodying Martial Behavior

Throughout the 18th century, men were believed to be aggressive and women were seen as naturally passive and sexually feral. These gender differences helped mold the evolving distinctions between masculinity and femininity. Beginning in the 18th century, men were beginning to demonstrate their desire to exhibit self-control by limiting their alcohol consumption, and avoiding engaging in fights. In contrast, women were beginning to be perceived as morally and spiritually strong, that assisted to refine and compliment men. These shifting ideas of men and women altered societies perception of men and women’s capacity for violence. Historically, women were perceived to be sexually unattainable and dangerous. In the early 17th century there were many newspapers and publications that provoked this ideology of dangerous women, such as the killer wife. However, the 18th century exhibited a deviation from this commonly held belief and men were

Essay on Female Serial Killers

Throughout history, violent women and women with violent intent have starkly emerged from many countries, carving their niches in myths and legends. The creation of these stories suggests that men began to notice lethality in feminine charm centuries back.

Rape Culture in the Media Essay

“Rape Culture is an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popular culture” (1a) Today you can't turn the television on without hearing references to rape culture. Jokes about sexual abuse plague every sitcom and news channels question rape victim’s every move. Even entire shows are dedicated to the topic such as Law and Order SVU. The media trivializes rape leading to a rape culture in America.

Urban Legends Essay

We have all heard of strange and gory stories that are supposedly true, experienced by a friend of a friend. Whether true or not these so called "urban legends" tend to circulate throughout society thriving on each individual's fears and curiosity. What most people don't realize is, within these tales lies the attitudes and values of a community. These tales do not survive throughout the years solely on the basis of their entertainment level, but due to the fact that they reflect society's fears and anxieties. In dissecting these tales one can indefinitely find the social fallacy against females that has existed for decades, as well as the fears women have against men. However, more importantly, the values that society hold are

Sexism in the Media Essay

One thousand years go by and an abundant amount of people still view women in a stereotypical type of way. On the opposing view, if women did not overstretch the slightest of things, this wouldn’t be such an enormous issue. Women may be overreacting to what the media has to say about them. It is not affecting everybody but a vast majority of successful women from continuing to moving forward said Marianne Schnall. Important to realize, women are capable of doing jobs men can do. Such jobs as being an engineer, physician, mechanic, lawyer and even top notch business women! Up to the present time there is an ongoing public debate on women suffering from double standards. If it makes a female feel threatened or belittled than it may be

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Women are sexually exploited in the media. In today’s society if people watch television programs such as Chingy featuring Snoop & Ludacris – Holidae; Charlie's Angels; the Z100 commercial with Britney Spears; or Baywatch they will see that the feminine image is presented differently than the masculine. In these programs men are typically placed in sexual situations fully clothed, while women are presented in provocative clothing or less. The camera will frequently zoom in on body parts to focus on the woman’s buttocks, midriff, and legs. Society is still dominated by men who control what people see. As a result women are increasingly portrayed as sex symbols as a way for a media company to turn

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Redbook magazine are devoted to selling products ranging from shoes to shampoo. The entire magazine only has only 210 pages. Approximately 6-8 min of every half hour television show is produced by ad agencies. Americans are bombarded with advertisements. We see them everyday in many different forms and through different mediums. Advertisers study America’s population through a systematic breakdown and analysis of our likes and dislikes in relation to our differences. These differences include gender, sexual orientation, economic status, location, race, ethnicity, and more. Advertisers have substantial knowledge of what appeals to each of these demographics and how these demographics will respond to

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