Thesis and Dissertation Guide

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  • Introduction

Copyright Page

Dedication, acknowledgements, preface (optional), table of contents.

List of Abbreviations

List of symbols.

Thesis and Dissertation Guide

I. Order and Components

Please see the sample thesis or dissertation pages throughout and at the end of this document for illustrations. The following order is required for components of your thesis or dissertation:

Many of the components following the title and copyright pages have required headings and formatting guidelines, which are described in the following sections.

Please consult the Sample Pages to compare your document to the requirements. A Checklist is provided to assist you in ensuring your thesis or dissertation meets all formatting guidelines.

The title page of a thesis or dissertation must include the following information:

Title Page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Notes on this statement:

Include a copyright page with the following information single-spaced and centered 2″ above the bottom of the page:

Copyright Page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

© Year Author's Full Name (as it appears on the title page) ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This page immediately follows the title page. It should be numbered with the lower case Roman numeral ii centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.

Inclusion of this page offers you, as the author, additional protection against copyright infringement as it eliminates any question of authorship and copyright ownership. You do not need to file for copyright in order to include this statement in your thesis or dissertation. However, filing for copyright can offer other protections.

See Section IV for more information on copyrighting your thesis or dissertation.

Include an abstract page following these guidelines:

Abstract page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Please write and proofread your abstract carefully. When possible, avoid including symbols or foreign words in your abstract, as they cannot be indexed or searched. Avoid mathematical formulas, diagrams, and other illustrative materials in the abstract. Offer a brief description of your thesis or dissertation and a concise summary of its conclusions. Be sure to describe the subject and focus of your work with clear details and avoid including lengthy explanations or opinions.

Your title and abstract will be used by search engines to help potential audiences locate your work, so clarity will help to draw the attention of your targeted readers.

You have an option to include a dedication, acknowledgements, or preface. If you choose to include any or all of these elements, give each its own page(s).

Dedication page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

A dedication is a message from the author prefixed to a work in tribute to a person, group, or cause. Most dedications are short statements of tribute beginning with “To…” such as “To my family”.

Acknowledgements are the author's statement of gratitude to and recognition of the people and institutions that helped the author's research and writing.

A preface is a statement of the author's reasons for undertaking the work and other personal comments that are not directly germane to the materials presented in other sections of the thesis or dissertation. These reasons tend to be of a personal nature.

Any of the pages must be prepared following these guidelines:

Include a table of contents following these guidelines:

Table of Contents page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations

If applicable, include a list of tables, list of figures, and/or list of illustrations following these guidelines:

Lists of Figures page with mesaurements described in surrounding text

If you use abbreviations extensively in your thesis or dissertation, you must include a list of abbreviations and their corresponding definitions following these guidelines:

List of Abbreviations with mesaurements described in surrounding text

If you use symbols in your thesis or dissertation, you may combine them with your abbreviations, titling the section “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS”, or you may set up a separate list of symbols and their definitions by following the formatting instructions above for abbreviations. The heading you choose must be in all capital letters and centered 1″ below the top of the page.

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How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 14, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

What can proofreading do for your paper?

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.

parts of thesis in order

See editing example

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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Organizing and Formatting Your Thesis and Dissertation

parts of thesis in order

Learn about overall organization of your thesis or dissertation. Then, find details for formatting your preliminaries, text, and supplementaries.

Overall Oraganization

A typical thesis consists of three main parts – preliminaries, text, and supplementaries. Each part is to be organized as explained below and in the order indicated below:

1. Preliminaries:

3. Supplementaries:

The order of sections is important


These are the general requirements for all preliminary pages.

Preliminaries have no page number on the first two. Then it is numbered with roman numerals.

A sample Thesis title page pdf is available here ,  and a sample of a Dissertation title page pdf is available here.

Refer to the sample page as you read through the format requirements for the title page.

The heading “ Thesis ” or “ Dissertation ” is in all capital letters, centered one inch from the top of the page.

Submitted by block

Divide this section exactly as shown on the sample page. One blank line must separate each line of text.

If your department name begins with “School of”, list as:

If you have questions about the correct name of your department or degree, consult your department. Areas of Study or specializations within a program are not listed on the Title Page.

Degree and Graduating Term block

Committee block

Copyright Page

Table of Contents

The text of a thesis features an introduction and several chapters, sections and subsections. Text may also include parenthetical references, footnotes, or references to the bibliography or endnotes.

Text and Supplementaries use Arabic numbering starting at 1

1 inch Margins

Major Headings


Running Head

Do not insert a running head.

When dividing paragraphs, at least two lines of text should appear at the bottom of the page and at least two lines of text on the next page.


The last word on a page may not be divided. No more than three lines in succession may end with hyphens. Divide words as indicated in a standard dictionary.

Poems should be double-spaced with triple-spacing between stanzas. Stanzas may be centered if lines are short.

Tables and Figures

Landscape Tables and Figures


These are the general requirements for all supplementary pages.

Arabic numbers continue into the supplementaries.

References or Bibliography

A Foreign Language Thesis

Occasionally, theses are written in languages other than English. In such cases, an English translation of the title and abstract must be included in the document.

Multipart Thesis

In some departments, a student may do research on two or more generally related areas which would be difficult to combine into a single well-organized thesis. The solution is the multi-part thesis.

Research and Writing Guides

Writing a paper? Don't get lost.

How to structure a thesis

parts of thesis in order

Starting a thesis can be daunting. There are so many questions in the beginning: How do you actually start your thesis? How do you structure it? What information should the individual chapters contain? Each educational program has different demands on your thesis structure, which is why asking directly for the requirements of your program should be a first step. However, there is not much flexibility when it comes to structuring your thesis in general. The generic structure of your thesis looks like this:

The abstract is the overview of your thesis and generally very short. It is recommended to write it last, when everything else is done.

The introduction chapter is there to give an overview of your thesis' basics or main points. It should answer the following questions:

In answering the first question "why", you should know what your personal interest in this topic is and if and why it is relevant in general. Why does it matter in real life? You can also give background information here. By answering these questions, you can ground your whole paper from the onset and the readers will not have to answer these questions themselves. In answering the "how", you should briefly explain how you are going to reach your research goal. Some prefer to answer that question in the methods chapter, but you can give a quick overview here. And finally, you should explain "what" you are studying. You could put your research question in this part. It is recommended to rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done to make sure it connects with your conclusion. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our thesis introduction guide .

Literature review is often part of the introduction, but it can be a separate section. It is an evaluation of previous research on the topic showing that there are gaps that your research will attempt to fill. A few tips for your literature review:

The methodology chapter outlines which methods you choose to gather data, how the data is analyzed and justifies why you chose that methodology. It shows how your choice of design and research methods is suited to answering your research question. Make sure to also explain what the pitfalls of your approach are and how you have tried to mitigate them. Discussing yourself where your study might come short can give you more credibility as it shows the reader that you are aware of the limitations of your study.

The results chapter outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses. It generally contains the facts of your research and does not include a lot of analysis, because that happens mostly in the discussion chapter. Whats helps making your results chapter better is to clearly visualize your results, using tables and graphs, especially when summarizing, and to be consistent in your way of reporting. This means sticking to one format to help the reader evaluate and compare the data.

The discussion chapter includes your own analysis and interpretation of the data you gathered, comments on your results and explains what they mean. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood your findings and their significance. Point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.

This is probably your most important chapter. This is where you highlight that your research objectives have been achieved, and how you have contributed to all parties involved with your research. In this chapter you should also point out the limitations of your study, because showing awareness of your limitation gives a better grounding on your thesis. You can talk about your personal learnings here and also make suggestions for future research.

Remember to check if you have really answered all your research questions and hypotheses in this chapter in a short and clear manner. Your thesis should be tied up nicely in the conclusions chapter and show clearly what you did, what results you got and what your learnings were. Learn more about how to write a good conclusion in our thesis conclusion guide .

The basic elements of a thesis are: Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.

It's recommended to start a thesis by writing the literature review first. This way you learn more about the sources, before jumping to the discussion or any other element.

It's recommended to write the abstract of a thesis last, once everything else is done. This way you will be able to provide a complete overview of your work.

Usually, the discussion is the longest part of a thesis. In this part you are supposed to point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.

The order of the basic elements of a thesis are: 1. Abstract, 2. Introduction, 3. Literature Review, 4. Methods, 5. Results, 6. Discussion, and 7. Conclusion.

parts of thesis in order

Thesis Structure: Writing Guide For Your Success

thesis structure

If you are about to start writing your thesis, then it is extremely important to know as much as possible about the thesis structure. Learning the main thesis chapters should enable you to quickly structure your academic paper. Keep in mind that not structuring the paper correctly usually leads to severe penalties. We know some of you are probably having questions about numbering dissertation chapters. Basically, you just need to give all the major sections consecutive numbers. Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on). Check out the most frequently asked questions and them move on to the 7 parts of the thesis or dissertation structure.

Thesis Structure Frequently Asked Questions

Thesis Abstract

The first part of the thesis structure is the abstract. It is basically an overview of the entire paper. There is no set dissertation abstract structure. It is just a summary of your thesis and it should be just 200 to 300 words long.

Thesis Introduction

The introduction is one of the most important dissertation chapters. It should contain all of the following information:

A bit of background about the topic. Some information about the current knowledge. The aim of your research (the gap in knowledge that prompted you to write the thesis).

Remember that the introduction must present the thesis statement. It is very important to learn more about the thesis statement structure. A great thesis statement will pique the interest of the evaluation committee.

Thesis Literature Review

Many students who are looking to learn how to structure a thesis don’t know about the Literature Review section. Why? Because many people prefer to include it into the introduction. However, by separating the literature review from the intro, you can focus more on why your research is important. You can evaluate the most important research on your topic and clearly show the gap in knowledge.

Thesis Methods

In most cases, the Methods section is the easiest part of the structure of a thesis. All you have to do is present the method or methods you chose for the research. Don’t forget to also explain why you chose that specific research method. Your audience needs to understand that the chosen method is the best for the task.

Thesis Results

This is one of the most important chapters of a dissertation. In the Results chapter, you need to present your findings. Remember that written text is not enough. You need figures, stats, graphs, and other forms of data. This section contains all the facts of your research and should be written in an objective, neutral manner. It would be unusual for your to discuss your findings in this section.

Thesis Discussion

The Discussion chapter is very important in the dissertation chapters structure. It is the reason why you didn’t discuss your findings in the Results section. This is the section you can use to talk about your findings and provide your own opinions about the results. Here is what you can do in the discussion section:

Explain to the audience what your results mean for the scientific community. Comment on each of the results and discuss how your findings support your thesis. Explain any unexpected results so the evaluation committee can see that you know what you’re doing. Interpret the results and tie them with other research on the subject. How does your research help the academic community?

Thesis Conclusion

While not the most important chapter, the conclusion is one of the important chapters in a dissertation. It is the part where you can show your readers that you have achieved your research objectives. You can talk a bit about what you’ve learned in the process and even make some suggestions regarding the need for future research. In most cases, students also reiterate the thesis statement at the beginning of the conclusion, followed by a short summary of the paper’s most important chapters.

Still Not Sure How to Structure Thesis?

In case you are still struggling to find the best history dissertation structure, you should get some help as fast as possible. Remember that writing a thesis takes weeks, if not months. Don’t spend too much time trying to find the best structure. Instead, get in touch with a reliable academic company and get some quick assistance. For examples, one of our writers can create a thesis outline for you. You can just follow the outline and everything will be just fine.

Of course, you can also get some help with the thesis formatting. Citations and references can be difficult to master. Each academic writing style (MLA, Chicago, APA, etc.) has its own requirements. The way you format your academic paper is very important. Bolding and italicizing can emphasize certain ideas. A professional editor can help you make the thesis stand out from the rest. After all, a pleasantly-formatted dissertation that impresses the evaluation committee with its structure and quality of content has a very high chance of getting a top score.

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parts of thesis in order

The components of a doctoral dissertation and their order

By marina pantcheva.

Do acknowledgements follow or precede the table of contents? What comes first – the appendix or the bibliography? And what is the difference between a bibliography and a list of references? In this article, you can read about the main components of a doctoral dissertation and their order.

A doctoral dissertation is a book, and books have a particular structure. Most of us are familiar with the basic book design: we know that the preface comes before the first chapter and the appendices are somewhere towards the end. But the ordering of some book components can be less obvious: Do acknowledgements follow or precede the table of contents?  What comes first – the appendix or the bibliography? And what is the difference between a bibliography and a list of references?  In this article, you can read about the main components of a doctoral dissertation and their order. Many of these principles apply to master theses and books in general.

A dissertation has three major divisions: the front matter, the body matter, and the back matter. Each of them contains several parts. These parts and their customary ordering are presented below. Click on the link for more information about each particular part.

The front matter

The front matter serves as a guide to the contents and the nature of the book. The pages in the front matter are assigned lowercase roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv …). The front matter includes (in this order):

Half-title page (p. i)

This is the very first page of the book and also the first page that is counted. It carries nothing but the title. No subtitle, no author, no publisher. This is why it is often called “bastard title page”. The back ( verso ) of this page is blank.

Title page (p. iii)

The title page repeats the title. It carries also the subtitle and the full name(s) of the author(s) as they are printed on the cover. In addition, it has the university logo and a text about the academic degree, the place and time for the submission.

Copyright page (p. iv)

The verso (back) of the title page is where you find the copyright notice, the publisher, the ISSN number, etc.  This may look like this:

 Your university might not have a standard for a copyright page. If this is the case, you could put here the names of your supervisor(s) and evaluation committee members instead.

Dedication (optional)

On the dedication page the author names the person(s) for whom the book is written. It is for the author to decide whether to have a dedication or not. It is not necessary to identify the person(s) to whom the work is dedicated. Examples of a dedication are:

Epigraph (optional)

The epigraph is a short quotation or a poem, which usually serves to link the book to other, usually well-known, published works. The source of the quotation is given on the line following the epigraph and is usually aligned right, often preceded by a dash.

Table of Contents

The table of contents (often titled just Contents ) is the first page on which the page number appears (v, vii or ix – depending on whether there is a dedication/epigraph). The table of contents should contain the title and beginning page number of everything that follows it:  acknowledgements, book parts, chapters, sections, list of references, etc. If some chapter titles are too long, consider choosing alternative short titles to be used in the table of contents.  Do not include the contents in the table of contents unless you want to make a joke.

List of Illustrations (optional)

The list of illustrations contains all illustrations in the dissertation and the page numbers where they can be found. If there are various kinds of illustrations, the list can be divided into parts, such as Figures, Maps , etc. The titles of the illustrations need not correspond exactly to the captions printed with the illustrations themselves; you can use shortened titles. The list of Illustrations is usually titled simply Illustrations , but appears as List of Illustrations in the table of contents.

List of Tables

A list of tables (usually titled just Tables but entered in the table of contents as List of Tables ) contains all tables and their page numbers. The titles of the tables may be shortened if needed.

The abstract includes a concise description of the thesis – the problems discussed in it and their proposed solution.  The abstract must focus on the result of the scientific investigation, rather than giving the background and methodology for the investigation.  This is why people read the abstract: to find out what you have discovered . The abstract is a self-contained text and should not contain references. If this is needed, then you can include the whole reference in the abstract.

The abstract is best written towards the end of the dissertation writing process. Plan enough time for writing the abstract – a day or two perhaps;  it is generally more difficult to write a short, concise text than a long text.

The abstract will be the most widely read and published part of your thesis: this is what the potential reader will first look at when deciding whether to spend more time on reading the entire dissertation.


In the acknowledgement you thank the people who have contributed to your doctoral degree by providing academic supervision, administrative support, food and shelter, friendship, etc.

First and foremost, you should thank your main supervisor, followed by the co-supervisor(s) and the people who have helped you shape your academic profile. It is a good idea to thank the administrative staff at the Faculty, who will have most likely helped you sort out some problems during your postgraduate studies. You can then continue with thanking your close colleagues, friends, spouse, kids, parents, and (optionally) God.

The acknowledgements are the only place in the dissertation where you may reveal personal information about yourself and your life. It is less formal than the rest of the dissertation and can include jokes, sentences in foreign language, etc. Keep in mind though that a lot of people who do not know you personally will read this part, so you should not be too personal and revealing.

It is a good idea to prepare a list of people to include in the acknowledgements before one has started writing them. You can begin with this list months before you submit your dissertation; stick a post-it note on your desk and add the names of people to thank as you remember them.

The acknowledgements of a dissertation are the only part that everyone will read (I believe that by the end of a defense event, everybody in the audience has read the acknowledgements in the dissertation copy before them) . Make time to write it well and include all people you want to thank to.

Be aware that the acknowledgements of your dissertation can form the basis for the selection of your defense committee.

Note on Transliteration

Sometimes, the author may need to add a list of the transliterations used in the book. This is best done in the front matter and can include a table specifying the conversion of each symbol of the source alphabet into a symbol of the target alphabet.

List of abbreviations

The list of abbreviation contains all the abbreviations used in the body text of the dissertation, listed in an alphabetical order. If the list is less than a page, it can be places on the left-hand page next to the first page of text.

Body matter

The body matter contains the main text of the dissertation. It is commonly divided into chapters, which are often (but not necessarily) of approximately the same length. Each chapter title should provide a reasonable clue to the contents of the chapter.  Choose short title chapters; in case this is not possible, consider having shorter versions to be used in the Table of Contents and as running heads.

Chapter 1/Introduction

The first chapter in a dissertation is commonly labelled “Introduction” and serves to acquaint the reader with the topic of investigation, its importance for science, and the issues it raises. The Introduction often includes a literature overview, where the author provides short summaries of works relevant for the topic. The goal with this exercise is twofold:  to show what is already known about the problem(s) dealt with in the dissertation, and to demonstrate that the doctoral candidate is familiar with the findings in his/her assumed field of expertise.

The middle chapters

The exact structure of the middle chapters may vary, depending on the scientific field. In the exact sciences, one normally uses the IMRAD format ( I ntroduction – M ethods, R esults A nd D iscussion). (The introduction part naturally belongs to the first chapter “Introduction”.)  Dissertations in other fields may include one or more chapters on the theory and data.

In some dissertations, the middle chapters are journal articles where the doctoral candidate is a first author. This model has certain disadvantages. Firstly, the dissertation cannot be easily published as a book later on. Secondly, it might be tricky to write a common introduction/conclusion for all the different papers.

Final chapter/Conclusion

The final chapter of a dissertation is almost inevitably called “Conclusion”. It summarizes the conclusions of the scientific investigation, the solutions to the problems stated in the beginning, suggestions for future research, and practical implications of the findings. This chapter should be relatively short and preferably written in a way that it can stand alone. Avoid copy-pasting sentences from the Abstract and the Introduction.

Sections in a chapter

Long chapters can be divided into sections, which can be further divided into subsections and sub-subsections. When a chapter is divided in sections, there should be at least two of them. Just one section in a chapter is illogical and asymmetric — you should not have any sections at all in such case. The same applies to subsections and sub-subsections.

Numbering of sections

Numbering the sections and subsections in a chapter provides an easy way for cross-referencing. The most common numbering system is the multiple numeration system , where the number of each division is preceded by the number(s) of the higher division(s). For instance, the number 3.2 signifies Section 2 in Chapter 3; the number 5.4.2 signifies Subsection 2 in Section 4 in Chapter 5.

Back matter

The contents of the back matter are generally supplementary and often non-essential. The back matter of a dissertation comprises the following parts:

The material found in the appendix is not essential to the dissertation, but can be helpful for the reader who seeks further information. Examples are: source texts, lists, survey questionnaires, and sometimes even charts and tables. The appendix should not be a repository of raw data that the author has not been able to work into the main text.

If there are two or more appendices, they are designated by letters: Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.

The notes section must be arranged by chapters, with chapter numbers and even chapter titles serving as section titles.

Bibliography/Reference List

A reference list includes all sources cited in the work. A bibliography contains all sources the author has consulted, including sources that are not cited in the work: these can be background readings, relevant articles, etc.

No matter whether you have a Reference List or a Bibliography, make sure that all works cited in the text are included there. There is nothing worse than searching for a cited article in the back matter and not finding it there.

For more information on citing and referencing consult Harvard & Vancouver referencing style [coming soon].

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Guide to Writing

What are the parts of a thesis ?

The Parts of a thesis will depend fundamentally on the discipline to which it belongs (biology, literature, languages, engineering, etc.), since each of them suggests different conventions. However, in this section, we will offer a general outline of it.

Click to read  How to chose thesis topic?

The content of the thesis consists of the following parts:


Parts of a Thesis:

Preliminary body.

It refers to the pages that precede the text of the work, consisting of:


Acknowledgments, table of contents, index of illustrations and tables.

It is the first page of the writing, in this place the topic of research is identified; it contains the logo of the University, the name of the institution that endorses the studies, name of the author, or authors; the title of the thesis, titration protocol / purpose of certification, the name of the teacher or guide of the research, place and date.

a. Logo and Name of the institution

Place name of the university on the right side of the logo; put the name of the institution in center to which the thesis is put into consideration:

The title of the research identifies the type of work that is presented, must faithfully reflect the content of the thesis. It must be clear, concise, and specific, as far as possible, expressly name the main variables or dimensions. The title is written in capital letters so that it is distinguished from the other data on the cover, focusing on the middle higher; to occupy more than one line, leave double space. The title must be continuous, and there should be no cuts, abbreviations, underlines, or quotes. In case of a subtitle, this should further specify the meaning and scope of the study; place it below the title, it is written in lowercase with the exception of the initial letter of the first word and of the proper names.

c. Titling protocol / Titration purpose

It refers to the identification of the type of work presented and mentioned, the degree or title that is intended to be achieved. It is written in the lower middle part, centered and highlighted.

d. Author (s)

Full names and surnames in capital letters of those presenting the work. It is located immediately below the protocol, centered in the middle.

e. Professor or director of research

It refers to the names, complete surnames, and professional title of the professor guide, director or investigator, as the case may be, preceded for the words: “Guide teacher” or the nomination stipulated by each academic unit.

f. Place and date

It refers to the place and date of publication of the thesis. In the first line, you indicate the city and the country, in the second line, the year of publication.

This page is optional, it is located below the cover, includes all the cover data, except the data of the titration protocol. On the right side of the margin, the name of the teacher consigns the signature and / or qualification, expressed in numbers or concepts.

Optional page in which the names of persons are mentioned to whom the author of the thesis wants to devote his/her research, it is recommended to avoid the abuse of appointments, in some cases it is advisable to add a thought or phrase, which should be brief and moderate in adjectives, avoiding diminutives.

Optional page that is headed by the word: Acknowledgments. Authors of the work mention the people and institutions that contributed and supported the completion of the research. The acknowledgments are written formally, not anecdotally.

Refers to the organized list of the parts that make up the thesis in the order in which they appear inside the work. It includes all such elements as the pages of the preliminary body, the titles of the chapters, parts or sections, which should not exceed 9 levels and supplementary materials or reference. The organization of the table of contents should reflect that of the text, even in a spatial sense. It is necessary that the table of contents be written once the work is finished, so that the different chapters and sub-chapters remain with the final page.

This index is optional but it is necessary to list all the illustrations and pictures with the title and respective number, verifying the exact match between the illustration and the corresponding page. The list is located on a new page to continuation of the table of contents.

The summary determines the relevance of the research and allows the reader to decide if the document is of interest or not. It must give a clear objective, brief account and summary of the content of the work without interpretations, value judgments, or criticisms expressed by the author. The constituent elements of a summary are:

A good summary is brief, concise and informative regarding the content of the thesis. Numerical data may be included, as long as it contributes to the understanding of the content of the document. If the Academic Unit estimates it necessary, the extension of summary is one page maximum.

The text corresponds to the introduction of the thesis and the body of the work.


The introduction is the clear, brief and precise presentation of the content of the thesis, should not include results or conclusions. It is the first part of the thesis; therefore, you must take special care in the writing and the orthography.

It is important to consider the following aspects:

Body of the work:

It is constituted by the chapters, sub-chapters, parts or sections that make up the content of the thesis, the problem of research, the theoretical framework, the methodology, the results of the research the discussion of the results.

Within the work, the chapter is the part that indicates the general division of the body of work; the subchapter is the breakdown of the different points of each chapter. It is recommended to follow a logical order in the titles of the chapters and in that provide consistency to the different parts of the work and consider the materials that are mentioned in the introduction.

The illustrations and tables allow you to present and interpret the data and results of the thesis. Under the generic term of tables are grouped tables and other forms of presentation of data, whether statistical, mathematical or otherwise, which will be written in vertical columns and horizontal rows, in correlative order.

If the figure is the graphic representation of data and includes graphs, diagrams, maps, drawings, cartograms, flow charts, etc.

The following rules should be considered:


It is an important part of the thesis where the author makes judgments about his hypothesis, refutes or checks based on a synthesis of the results obtained. The conclusions should reflect the scope and limitations of the study, the recommendations that may be useful to the problem of research, as well as the consequences and determinations that may contribute to the development of knowledge.

Some of the aspects that are suggested to incorporate are:

Contribution to the field or discipline:

The conclusions must have a clear, concrete and direct wording; they are not a summary of the research.

This section contains the bibliographical references of the documents and texts used as support in the research. A bibliographic reference is the set of sufficiently detailed elements that allow the identification of the publications or part of a publication, used in the preparation of a scientific work.

a. Bibliographic citations

It refers to the bibliographical citations that come out of the text. They are located in a correlative number, at the bottom of the page or at the end of each chapter; bibliographic citations help to differentiate between the contribution of the researcher and that of other authors who have dealt with the subject.

b. Aspects to consider for ordering the bibliography.

Each component of a bibliographic reference is separated by point and two spaces.

Explanatory notes:

The explanatory notes fulfill the function of informing the reader about the way how the issue is being addressed. They can be incorporated at the bottom of the page or at the end of each chapter.

The purpose of the glossary is to try to homogenise and rationalize the specific terminology used in the thesis and that does not correspond to the common language.

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Jerz's Literacy Weblog (est. 1999)

Thesis statement tips: helpful hacks for how to write a thesis for academic essays.

Jerz >  Writing > Academic     [ Argument | Title  | Thesis |  Blueprint  | Pro/Con | Quoting |  MLA Format ]

parts of thesis in order

There is nothing magically “correct” about a thesis on challenging a cultural stereotype. Instead of claiming that a book “ challenges a genre’s stereotypes ,” you might instead argue that some text “ provides a more expensive but more ethical solution than X ” or “ undermines Jim Smith’s observation that ‘[some quote from Smith here]’ ”. (Don’t automatically use “challenges a genre’s stereotype” in the hopes of coming up with the “correct” thesis.)

A more complicated thesis statement for a paper that asks you to demonstrate your ability engage with someone else’s ideas (rather than simply summarize or react to someone else’s ideas) might follow a formula like this:

For a short paper (1-2 pages), the thesis statement is often the first sentence. A complex thesis statement for a long paper may be part of a thesis paragraph. But it’s hard to go wrong if you put your thesis first.

Useful Formulae for Thesis Statements

If you’re not sure whether you have a good thesis statement, see whether you can fit your ideas into one of these basic patterns.

If you are just starting out, and you are still developing an original, evidence-based claim to defend, a simpler formula is probably best. Once you have done the research, and you understand the subject, then a formula like the following won’t look like random words; it will suggest a way to frame a nuanced, complex argument that goes beyond making non-controversial factual statements.

Academic Argument: Evidence-based Defense of a Non-obvious Position

parts of thesis in order

Parts of a Thesis Statement

The thesis statement has 3 main parts : the limited subject , the precise opinion , and the blueprint of reasons .

1. Limited Subject

Make sure you’ve chosen a subject that meets your instructor’s requirements for the assignment. (It never hurts to ask.)

2. Precise Opinion

The precise opinion gives your answer to a question about the subject. A good precise opinion is vital to the reader’s comprehension of the goal of the essay .

3. Blueprint of Reasons

A blueprint is a plan. It lets the builder know that the foyer will be here, the living room will be to the east, the dining room to the west, and the family room will be north.The blueprint of an essay permits you to see the whole shape of your ideas before you start churning out whole paragraphs.While it’s okay for you to start writing down your ideas before you have a clear sense of your blueprint, your reader should never encounter a list of details without being told exactly what point these details are supposed to support. (For more details on the reasoning blueprint, see Blueprinting .)

If your thesis statement introduces three reasons A, B and C, the reader will expect a section on reason A, a section on reason B, and a section on reason C.

For a single paragraph, you might only spend one sentence on each reason. For a 2-3 page paper, each reason might get its own paragraph. For a 10-page paper, each reason might contain its own local thesis statement, with its own list of reasons, so that each section involves several paragraphs.To emphasize the structure of your essay, repeat keywords or paraphrased ideas from the blueprint as you introduce the sections in which you expand on each point. Crafting good transitions is a skill that takes time and practice. ( See Transitions and Reminders of Thesis ).

Note : If you repeat your blueprint phrases and your thesis statement robotically (“The third point I want to talk about is how Black Elk Speaks accurately represents the Indian lifestyle through its direct quotes from Black Elk.”), your writing will be rather dry and lifeless. Dull writing is probably better than aimless rambling, although neither is terribly effective. |

Note : A thesis statement amounts to nothing if the paper is not completely focused on that main point . Blueprinting helps create the coherency of the thesis throughout the entire essay, which makes it a necessary part of the thesis statement.

17 Oct 2000 — originally posted by Nicci Jordan, UWEC Junior 08 Dec 2000 — first posted here. Maintained by Prof. Jerz. 13 Dec 2003 — links updated 22 Sep 2006 — moderate revisions by Jerz 29 Oct 2011 — updated by Jerz 14 June 2015 — minor adjustments

Blueprinting: Planning Your Essay A blueprint is a rough but specific  plan , or outline, which defines the structure of your whole essay. The blueprint, usually located within the thesis statement, is a brief list of the points you plan to make, compressed into just a few words each, in the same order in which they appear in the body of your paper.

Hochstein, Jordan, and Jerz Thesis Reminders A thesis reminder is a direct  echo of the thesis statement . In a short paper, the topic sentence of each paragraph should repeat words or phrases from the thesis statement.

Dennis G. Jerz Timed Essays: Planning and Organizing in a Crunch

222 thoughts on “ Thesis Statement Tips: Helpful Hacks for How to Write a Thesis for Academic Essays ”

this did not help at all

I can’t win them all.

Gibberish person may be skimming too fast. This always helps. I’m in the middle of replying to a student email on how to rework her thesis statement and I use your explanation as a clear explanation.

This has helped a lot, thank you.

I find this page helpful. Thank you!

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please I want some more examples of how to construct a very good acedamic essays

From this class,I kind of know what is thesis statement.It is a strong support of a whole passage,it can inform people of what the passage is telling,only by using a few words .It should have the keywords and a good organization to make itself brief but rich.After learning this class,I think I will be better at writing the thesis statement.Thanks

I am doing a project for my MST…but iam finding it difficult in putting up my paragraphs which needs to include my subject and limited subject…..pliz advice me on how to put up my paragraph

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I am doing preparation of ielts exam . but I faface difficulty in grammar and especially in thesis line which I confuse that what should i write in thesis line among all kinds of essay …plz tell me but should I do to improve it.

I think you should read more and write more.After writing,you can ask someone that is good at English learning to help you know what your mistakes are.

Vehicles has become a essential part of human being life. People used to bicycle but by the time mode of commute has been replaced by car .however, still in some cities people prefer to ride bicycle for travelling.

Plz tell me how can I impressive to my intro and how can I improve my writing skill

Jonu, I’d say the most important helpful thing you can do is expose yourself to English as spoken by native English speakers, talking with people who know the language well enough that they can correct you immediately, in casual conversation, when you make one of the word-level errors that only an expert user of the language would spot. There is no shortcut — exposing yourself to a language is the only way to learn it.

I happened to come across this video, which is geared towards a young audience, but is written for English language learners.

Hi i am doing the preparation of competitive exam , i have to write an Essay of 2500-2800 words, data should be critical and researched base, for example there is Essay on Climate change , then please tell me how i develop a thesis statement, and how we write thesis statement, is it is written in the start of Essay or in the end of introduction, some people said that thesis satement should be written in start other say that this written in end of introductory paragraph. please help me with example thanks

Rab, if you are looking for my advice on thesis statements, you have found the right page. If you have any specific questions or comments about the content of this page, I’d be happy to address them. I’ve already put lots of time into this page, and at the moment I can’t think of a way to present my advice any more clearly.

Although you did say “please,” even so, “tell me how I develop a thesis statement” is asking for quite a lot.

What is your college major or your area of professonal expertise? If I asked you to tell me, right here on my blog, what I need to know in order to succeed in a competitive exam in your field, what would you say?

If I went to a doctor and said “Tell me how to diagnose a patient,” or I went to a judge and said “Tell me how to interpret the law,” or I went to an artist and said “Tell me how to be creative,” do you think they would be able give me a few sentences that completely answer my question and prepare me for professional work as a doctor, judge, or artist? If they had spent years as students learning their subject matter, and additional years teaching or writing a textbook on their specialty, they might be very good in their professions but I’d bet they’d all find it tough to answer such a question in any meaningful way.

I won’t be evaluating your submission, so my opinion on debatable topics such as where the thesis should go won’t be of any specific use to you.

thesis statement should be the last statement in your introductory paragraph, it will consist of a short explanation as to why you are writing the essay and what is involved.

That’s certainly a valid place to put a thesis statement, jentar. If your instructor tells you to put a thesis statement in a certain place, then putting it anywhere else is risky. But it’s also possible to start with a paragraph that grabs the reader’s attention with a gripping example that illustrates what’s at stake, and then give the thesis statement in the second paragraph.

This is great stuff. I wonder if you didn’t mean expansive rather than expensive in the following sentence. “Instead of claiming that a book “challenges a genre’s stereotypes,” you might instead argue that some text “provides a more expensive but more ethical solution than X” or “challenges Jim Smith’s observation that ‘[some quote from Smith here]’” instead.

Thanks for your feedback. I’m glad you found the page useful. I really did mean “expensive” in that example, though I am simply suggesting that considering cost is worth exploring in an argument, depending on the kind of argument you are making.

I found the information to be very informative and easy to understand. Thank you

Hi. I began an essay on the topic ; reasons why pursuing college education is important. I had it started off this way… Aristotle said it best when he stated, “Education is the best provision for life’s journey.” Pursuing a college education provides individuals with career pportunities, higher income and experiences necessary in the journey of life. Please do you think I started off good or too weak? I need your help as this is a great assignment for me to make up for my mid semester examination which I was unable to attend!

Your instructor is the one who will grade the assignment, so he or she is the best source of feedback. Without knowing what grade/level you are, or what kind of class you are taking, I can’t really advise you. However, unless you have read Aristotle’s works yourself and can place that quote in its context, I would not recommend pulling a random quote from a website and using it to start a paper. The complete quote is “Education is the best provision for the journey to old age,” but what does that mean?

The word “best” means there is at least a “good” and a “better,” and that by some measurement or judgement, a third thing is “best.” What are the two other sayings (at least) that you have compared to Aristotle, and what are the two other things (at least) that Aristotle thinks are not as good provision for life’s journey to old age? Why does your opinion (on at least three different sayings, of which the best is Aristotle’s), and at least three different provisions for old age (of which the best is education) help you to answer your instructor’s prompt about the reasons for pursing a college education?

What we think of as “college” is very different from the education that Aristotle would have received (or provided). I suggest you look into ways that a college education encourages critical thinking, which is a different way of thinking than “Did I get the right answer? Will my teacher approve? What’s the secret ‘correct’ answer in the back of my instructor’s book that I should memorize and spit back?” Maybe your instructor wants you to determine for yourself whether you feel gaining a college education is worth the intellectual effort.

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parts of thesis in order

What are the Basic Four Parts of a Thesis Statement?

What are the basic four parts of a thesis statement?

Writing a good thesis statement requires thorough research and time. This one sentence can make or break your writing project. There are four parts to a thesis statement, which you should include in your paper.

The purpose of academic writing is to demonstrate the quality of your analysis, insight, and ideas. It shows that you know the concepts and that you have studied them. As an outcome of your evaluation, you can think about the concepts in your way, accept and oppose, or develop your particular ideas. Your thesis statement is the single sentence that describes what you believe since it presents your main arguments and insights clearly.

What is a Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is a short statement, usually a sentence that explains or highlights the main point of an essay, research paper, etc., and is often supported by examples and facts.

Typically the thesis statement is presented in the first paragraph of your dissertation. The thesis contains the core idea of your paper and controls and organizes all the other parts.

Types of Thesis Statements

There are two types of thesis statements. One is argumentative, the other explanatory.

Argumentative thesis

An argumentative thesis is typically made up of one or two sentences. It states the writer’s stance and position. It should present the idea on which the essay is based.

Here’s an example to help you understand the argumentative thesis:-

BBC News is the best news channel on TV.

There are no debatable points in this sentence, so it is not an argumentative thesis statement.

It should be forbidden for TV channels to manipulate the news in any manner.

It is a specific thesis statement because the author is giving his opinion on a certain point. He believes the channel must report the news in its original way.

Explanatory Thesis

The purpose of an explanatory thesis is to search for and describe the characteristics of a particular subject. You can examine this subject for a long time, so the thesis announcement has to express this.

We can understand the explanatory thesis better with an example:-

There is a continuous decline in GDP.

This is not an appropriate explanatory thesis statement as it just states the fact without providing any reasons as to why it occurred.

The high cost of housing, insufficient housing support, and the desire to live in nuclear families are the main causes of homelessness.

The writer details and explains the reasons behind the problem well to make it an explanatory thesis statement.

The Main Four Parts of a Thesis Statement

There are four parts to a bachelor’s or master’s thesis (main part).

parts of thesis in order

Accordingly, the way the study’s text is written can be modified based on the nature of the author’s work, whether it is a research-type article, a construction project, or a qualitative review.

The introduction familiarizes the audience with the subject of the thesis and piques their interest in it. This statement explains the context, intellectual basis, explanation, and inspiration for selecting a subject, discusses the literature on the subject, identifies the area of study, identifies the assignor, and outlines the purpose of the assignment. A description of the topic, its relevance in professional life, and its significance for the author can be found here.

Master’s or bachelor’s thesis theoretical frameworks define the goal of the degree project, along with an overview of the development and research activities involved. The theoretical basis should be in theory.

In the absence of a theoretical basis, the subject’s history should be discovered and a theory formulated. Its subject matter and nature will depend upon the method used and to what extent the phenomenon was examined.

After the author’s study, the theoretical basis is derived from data and then synthesized. He draws upon prior research, his professional experience, literature, and intuition. There is the possibility to present observations from the past combined with a description of the reliability, overall significance, and connections between previous work and current work. The data collected is presented objectively by dealing with comparisons and the results.

In the theoretical part of the study, essential notions are specified, while others are defined in the context in which they appear.

The author’s steps in implementing their research involve some arguments and must be described correctly. Implementation reporting gives a clear explanation of the research process. It also shows how the author works to attain the target. The audience may evaluate the research validity based on the writer’s implementation of the research.

An objective report displays the intent of the thesis, the methods of data collection, the author’s method of conducting the research, the material used, and how it was used. Besides describing the target audience for the study, it evaluates the legitimacy of the results with justifications.

From the four parts of a thesis statement, the most crucial one is its presentation of the research findings. Findings and results may not look the same, but both provide solutions to the research question.

The results of a research project can be judged in several ways depending on the problem addressed. A thesis statement’s structure, coupled with the research’s nature, determines how the results will emerge. Whenever the results are presented, one should always explain the goals of the thesis.

In the discussion, the outcomes and background information from the introduction are merged with the new results explained in the theoretical section, which makes the main conclusions more prominent.

Discussions provide a deeper insight into the writing area, as enhanced after the information gathered while putting together the master’s thesis. The writer’s findings should be compared with those mentioned earlier. Their arguments ought to be analyzed concerning their differences and similarities.

These findings give greater clarity to how the master’s or bachelor’s thesis has changed or enhanced knowledge in the field. Furthermore, the success of a thesis depends on the study and the practical application of its ideas.

What are the Most Common Mistakes of a Thesis Statement?

After you know the basics of thesis statement writing, there are certain errors that you should avoid. Identifying these errors and learning how to avoid them will help you to write a strong thesis statement .

Here are the thesis statement’s common mistakes.

The unclear statement

Your audience needs to comprehend your objective immediately. If it seems unclear or vague, you’ll lose them from the outset. Stay focused and use straightforward language to declare your main idea.

The complicated statement

A wordy statement and too long will frustrate readers and weaken the points you are trying to make.

The too basic statement

As you get older, you should prepare your work with more maturity. A solid thesis statement must include the main points. While being very straightforward in younger writing may be ok, older students must be more specific and refined.

The real purpose of the statement must be clear

Your audience must consider the topic in various ways. Does it provide useful data, help? Is it worthwhile to study? If not, then it is better to pick another topic that might be more captivating.

The statement includes bad use of words

There is no point in abbreviating, using slang, or using poor spellings to address a straightforward assertion of the thesis. To address, use technical terms.

The argument lacks reference to the rest of the writing

Even if you have a good thesis point, if the rest of the paper strays from your main claim, then it won’t matter. It would help if you always link your thoughts to the statement of your thesis. The paper must be cohesive and stays on track with its original theme.

What are the Four Qualities of a Good Thesis Statement?

Your essay must contain a central idea. This idea must come from a chosen topic or result from a question your teacher recently asked. If you discuss a topic in detail or answer a yes or no question, that is not enough. The main idea has to be formed when you form an opinion, and this idea is the one upon which your thesis is constructed.

Your thesis is your interpretation of a question or subject, not the topic itself. If your professor assigns you any topic at all, you must ask yourself what you intend to say about it. By answering this question, you will develop a thesis that is clear, convincing, and persuasive .

The thesis is usually one sentence long and appears at the end of your introduction. It mentions one to three key points of your piece—points that can be demonstrated in the body of your paper. It presents your plan for the essay and helps you get organized. Remember that a thesis statement does not summarize an issue but rather dissects it.

A strong thesis statement has the following qualities.

Topic Sentence vs Thesis Statement

Thesis statement.

The thesis statement represents the basic idea that the writer wishes to present, the opinion that they want to express, and the major point that they wish to make about the topic. It provides the idea for the whole article and gives it a sense of direction. A thesis statement must convince the reader that the statement is indeed valid.

Writing an effective thesis sentence involves narrowing and focusing the topic. Your thesis’ scope will depend on the length, purpose, audience, occasion, and level of expertise.

All theses will (a) state the subject explicitly so that it can be divided into parts; (b) state an opinion on the subject; and (c) indicate, either implicitly or explicitly, the order in which each point can be developed.

It is a word, phrase, or clause that creates the writer’s attitude, stance, or point of view about a subject; it elucidates the angle from which the writer seeks to approach the subject.

The thesis is always a single declarative statement:

Topic Sentence

The topic sentence serves as an analog to the thesis; that is, it serves to give unity to the paragraph as the thesis does to the essay, chapter, or book. The topic sentence does this by specifically developing the major argument of the thesis. The topic sentence, like the thesis, is essential to the essay’s structure. Topic sentences should be included in every paragraph.

It contains the dominant idea of the paragraph.

In a normal fashion, it appears as the first sentence in every paragraph.

In the subject sentence, the main idea describes the sentence in a descriptor or judgmental way or provides an argument by issuing a judgment.

The topic sentence is also particular, just like the thesis. In contrast to a prediction or question, it is a single declarative statement.

Tips on How to Write a Thesis Statement

Tips on How to Write a Thesis Statement

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The Graduate School

University information technology (uit), main navigation, formatting requirements: preliminary pages.

Copyright Page

Statement of thesis/dissertation approval, dedication, frontispiece, and epigraph, table of contents and list of figures/tables, acknowledgements.

Preliminary pages are, in order, the title page; copyright page; statement of thesis/dissertation approval; abstract; dedication (optional); frontispiece (optional); epigraph (optional); table of contents; lists of tables, figures, symbols, and abbreviations (necessary only in certain situations); and acknowledgments (optional). Table 2.1 lists all the possible preliminary sections in order and if they are required or not. 

The preliminary pages are counted in sequence (except the copyright page, which is neither counted nor numbered). Any page with a main heading on it (title page, abstract, table of contents, etc.) is counted, but no page number is typed on the page. Second pages to the abstract, table of contents, lists, and acknowledgments are numbered with lower case Roman numerals centered within the thesis margins and .5” from the bottom of the page. See the preliminary pages in this handbook for an example. 

Order of preliminary pages, indicating which are mandatory and where page numbers should be included.

Note : Page numbers in the preliminary pages appear centered on the bottom of the page in lower case Roman numerals. This differs from page numbers in the text, which appear on the top right of the page and use Arabic numerals.

SEE Sample Preliminary Pages

The title page is page i (Roman numeral) of the manuscript (page number not shown). 

The title of the thesis or dissertation is typed in all capital letters. The title should be placed in the same size and style of font as that used for major headings throughout the manuscript. If longer than 4 1/2 inches, the title should be double spaced and arranged so that it appears balanced on the page. The title should be a concise yet comprehensive description of the contents for cataloging and data retrieval purposes. Initials, abbreviations, acronyms, numerals, formulas, super/subscripts, and symbols should be used in the title with careful consideration of clarity and maximizing search results for future readers. Consult the manuscript editors if in doubt. 

The word “by” follows the title. The full legal name of the author as it appears in CIS follows after a double space. The name is not typed in all capital letters. These two lines of text are centered between the title and the statement described in the following paragraph. 

The statement “A thesis submitted to the faculty of The University of Utah in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of” appears single spaced in the middle of the title page (see Figure 2.1). For doctoral candidates, the phrasing reads “A dissertation submitted. . . ” 

The appropriate degree follows the statement. The space between the statement and the degree should be the same size that is between the author’s name and the statement. In the event the name of the degree differs from the name of the department, e.g., Master of Science in Environmental Humanities, the words “Master of Science” are placed below the statement, followed by “in” and then the degree program; the lines of the degree name and program are double spaced (see Figure 2.2). Thus, a student receiving a doctorate in history need use only the words “Doctor of Philosophy.” A student receiving a doctorate in Geophysics must put “Doctor of Philosophy in Geophysics.” 

Below the degree field, the full name of the department is listed on the title page. “The University of Utah,” is listed a double space below the department name.

The date appears on the title page a double space below “The University of Utah.” Only the month and year appear, with no punctuation separating them. The month indicates the last month in the semester the degree is granted: fall semester, December; spring semester, May; summer semester, August. 

Again, the spaces below the title, the full legal name, the statement, and the degree should be of equal size. 

The second page is the copyright page, which is uncounted and unnumbered. A copyright notice appears in every copy of the thesis or dissertation. The notice, as illustrated in Figure 2.3, is centered within the side margins and the top and bottom margins of the page. 

Copyright © Student’s Full Legal Name 2022

All Rights Reserved 

There is a double space between the two lines. 

The statement of thesis/dissertation approval is page ii (Roman numeral) of the manuscript (page number not shown). This statement is prepared as shown in Figures 2.4 (for master’s students) and 2.5 (for doctoral students). 

The statement of thesis/dissertation approval signifies that the thesis or dissertation has been approved by the committee chair and a majority of the members of the committee and by the department chair and the dean of The Graduate School. The names of any committee members who did not approve or digitally sign the forms for the thesis or dissertation are not dated. The dates entered should match the date when you received notification that the committee member electronically signed the form. 

The full name of the student, as it appears on the title page and copyright page, must be used. 

As with the digital signature forms, full legal names of committee members must be listed. The full legal names of committee members and department chair or dean can be found on your CIS page under the Committee tab. Neither degrees nor titles should be listed with the names of faculty members. No signatures are required. 

Abstract Page

The abstract is page iii, unnumbered; if there is a second page, it is page iv, and a number appears on the page. The abstract is a concise, carefully composed summary of the contents of the thesis or dissertation. In the abstract, the author defines the problem, describes the research method or design, and reports the results and conclusions. No diagrams, illustrations, subheadings, or citations appear in the abstract. The abstract is limited to 350 words (approximately 1.5 double-spaced pages). A copy of the abstract of all doctoral candidates is published in Dissertation Abstracts International. The word ABSTRACT is placed 2 inches from the top of the page in all capital letters. Following a heading space, the abstract text begins, with the first line indented the same size space as for the paragraphs in the remainder of the manuscript. The text of the abstract must be double spaced. 

If a manuscript is written in a foreign language, the abstract is in the same language, but an English version (or translation) of the abstract must precede the foreign language abstract. The two abstracts are listed as one in the table of contents. The first page of each version is unnumbered but counted. If there is a second page to each version of the abstract, the page number (lower-case Roman numeral) is centered between the left and right margins and between the bottom of the page and the top of the bottom margin. 

The dedication is an optional entry; enumeration continues in sequence, but no page number appears on the page. It follows the abstract and precedes the table of contents. Often only one or two lines, it is centered within the top and bottom margins of the page and within the thesis margins. It is not labeled “Dedication” and is not listed in the table of contents. 

Frontispiece and Epigraph

These are infrequently used entries. The frontispiece is an illustration that alerts the reader to the major theme of the thesis or dissertation. An epigraph is a quotation of unusual aptness and relevance. 

Contents or Table of Contents

The table of contents follows the abstract (or dedication if one is used). The word CONTENTS (or TABLE OF CONTENTS) is placed 2 inches from the top of the page in all capital letters. Following a heading space, the table of contents begins. The table of contents, essentially an outline of the manuscript, lists the preliminary pages beginning with the abstract (page iii). It does not list a frontispiece, dedication, or epigraph if these are used, nor is the table of contents listed in the table of contents; these pages are, however, counted. The list of figures and list of tables, if used, are included (see the Table of Contents in this handbook for a sample using numbered chapters; see Figures 2.6, 2.7, and 2.8 for additional options). 

All chapters or main sections and all first-level subheadings of the manuscript are listed in the table of contents. No lower subheadings levels are to appear in the table of contents. Beginning page numbers of each chapter or section listed are lined up with each listing by a row of evenly spaced, aligned period leaders. The numbers, titles, and subheadings of chapters or sections used in the table of contents must agree exactly in wording and capitalization with the way they appear on the actual page. 

The table of contents reflects the relationship of the chapters and subheadings. Chapter titles appear in all capital letters, as do titles of appendices. First-level subheadings can be headline style or sentence style in capitalization. Subheadings are neither underlined nor italicized in the table of contents. If the table of contents continues to a second page, it begins 1 inch from the top of the page, and it is not labeled “Table of Contents Continued.” Main headings are followed by a double space in the table of contents; all subheadings are single spaced. The words “Chapters” and “Appendices” are used as referents only, printed above the list of entries. The word “Chapter” or “Appendix” is not repeated with each entry. 

List of Figures / List of Tables

The enumeration continues in sequence; no number appears on pages with main headings (those in all caps). A list of tables, a list of figures, a list of symbols, a list of abbreviations, or a glossary may be used. All lists follow the table of contents. The title is placed 2 inches from the top edge of the page in all capital letters: LIST OF TABLES. Following a heading space, the list begins. A list of tables or a list of figures is required if there are 5 to 25 entries. Lists with fewer than 5 entries or more than 25 are not included. It is not permissible to combine a list of tables and figures. The word “Table” or “Figure” is not repeated with each entry. 

As noted for entries in the table of contents, the listing of tables and figures must agree exactly in wording, capitalization, and punctuation with the table title or figure caption. (An exception to this rule occurs if the table title appears in all capital letters on the table itself; table titles in the list of tables are not typed in all capital letters.) Capitalization styles may not be mixed. In the case of long titles or captions, the first sentence must convey the essential description of the item. The first sentence alone then is used in the list. Long captions may not be summarized. 

The table or figure number begins at the left margin and is followed by the title or caption. The page on which each table or figure appears is at the right margin. As in the table of contents, the page numbers are lined up with each entry by a row of evenly spaced, aligned periods (period leaders). If a table or figure occupies more than one page, only the initial page number is listed. If the title or caption of a table or figure appears on a part-title page preceding the table or figure, the page number in the list refers to the number of the part-title page. 

If a list continues to a second page, the second page of text begins 1 inch from the top of the page. The second page is not labeled “List of Tables Continued” or “List of Figures Continued.” Individual entries are single-spaced with a double space between each entry. 

A list of symbols and abbreviations or a glossary does not replace defining terms, symbols, or abbreviations upon their first occurrence in the text. When introducing terms, always introduce terms upon their first usage in the document. 

The enumeration continues in sequence; no number appears on the first page. Acknowledgments are optional. If a preface is used, the acknowledgments are added to the end of the preface without a separate heading. The word ACKNOWLEDGMENTS is placed 2 inches from the top of the page in all capital letters. Following a heading space, the acknowledgments begin. The text of the acknowledgments must be double spaced. In the acknowledgments, students may wish to recognize special assistance from committee members, friends, or family members who may have helped in the research, writing, or technical aspects of the thesis or dissertation. Research funding, grants, and/or permission to reprint copyrighted materials should be acknowledged. Individuals employed to prepare the manuscript are not acknowledged. 

The enumeration continues in sequence; no number appears on the first page. This is an optional entry. The word PREFACE is placed 2 inches from the top of the page in all capital letters. Following a heading space, the preface begins. The text of the preface must be double spaced. A preface includes the reasons for undertaking the study, the methods and design of the researcher, and acknowledgments. Background data and historical or other information essential to the reader’s understanding of the subject are placed in the text as an introduction, not in the preface. Theses and dissertations generally do not contain a foreword (i.e., a statement about the work by someone other than the author). 

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Essay Structure

Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.

Answering Questions:  The Parts of an Essay

A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections. Even short essays perform several different operations: introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counterarguments, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don't. Counterargument, for example, may appear within a paragraph, as a free-standing section, as part of the beginning, or before the ending. Background material (historical context or biographical information, a summary of relevant theory or criticism, the definition of a key term) often appears at the beginning of the essay, between the introduction and the first analytical section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it's relevant.

It's helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. (Readers should have questions. If they don't, your thesis is most likely simply an observation of fact, not an arguable claim.)

"What?"   The first question to anticipate from a reader is "what": What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? To answer the question you must examine your evidence, thus demonstrating the truth of your claim. This "what" or "demonstration" section comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. Since you're essentially reporting what you've observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing. But be forewarned: it shouldn't take up much more than a third (often much less) of your finished essay. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description.

"How?"   A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument? How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. (Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions.) This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.

"Why?"   Your reader will also want to know what's at stake in your claim: Why does your interpretation of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you? This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end. If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular.

Mapping an Essay

Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea.

Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:

Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.

Signs of Trouble  

A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" (also labeled "summary" or "description"). Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words ("first," "next," "after," "then") or "listing" words ("also," "another," "in addition"). Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text (in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing . . . ) or simply lists example after example ("In addition, the use of color indicates another way that the painting differentiates between good and evil").

Copyright 2000, Elizabeth Abrams, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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parts of thesis in order

Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

Make Your Essay Structure Rock-Solid with These Tips

Lindsay Kramer

So you’ve been assigned an essay. Or, probably more realistically, two, three, or four essays  . . . and they’re all due the same week. 

We’ve all been there: overwhelmed, staring down that blank screen, and not sure which essay to start with or how to get it started. 

In high school and college, it’s not enough to just write strong essays. One of the most important skills to develop is writing strong essays efficiently . And the foundation of that skill is knowing how to structure an essay. With a template for the basic essay structure in hand, you can focus on what really matters when you’re writing essays: your arguments and the evidence you’re using to support them. Take a look at the basic essay structure below and see how the parts of an essay work together to present a coherent, well-reasoned position, no matter what topic you’re writing about. 

Make your essays shine. Polish your writing with Grammarly Write with Grammarly

Basic essay structure: the 3 main parts of an essay

Almost every single essay that’s ever been written follows the same basic structure: 


Body paragraphs.

This structure has stood the test of time for one simple reason: It works. It clearly presents the writer’s position, supports that position with relevant examples, and neatly ties their supporting arguments together in a way that makes their position evident. 

It all starts here. This is where you introduce the topic you’re discussing in your essay and briefly summarize the points you’ll make in the paragraphs that follow. 

This is also where you state your thesis. Your thesis is the most important part of your essay because it’s the point you’re making . It needs to take a clear stance and shouldn’t include hedging language that undermines that stance like “seems to” or “possibly could.”

Here are a few examples of thesis statements:

An easy way to write your thesis statement is to think of it as a summary of your essay. Your thesis makes and supports your essay’s point in one concise sentence. 

When you proofread your finished essay, make sure your thesis is clearly stated in your introduction paragraph. If it’s not clear, go back and write a definitive thesis statement. 

>>Read More: How to Write a Persuasive Essay

Your essay’s body paragraphs are where you support your thesis statement with facts and evidence. Each body paragraph should focus on one supporting argument for your thesis by discussing related data, content, or events. 

If you’re not sure whether you should include a specific point or detail in your body paragraphs, refer back to your thesis statement. If the detail supports your thesis, it should be in your essay. If it doesn’t, leave it out. Your thesis statement is the core of your basic essay structure, so everything else in the essay needs to relate to it in some way. 

In your essay’s conclusion paragraph , you summarize the points you made and bring your argument to its logical conclusion. Because your reader is now familiar with your thesis, the summary in your conclusion paragraph can be more direct and conclusive than the one in your intro paragraph.

>>Read More: 7 Writing Tips from Professors to Help you Crush your First Essays

How many paragraphs are in an essay?

There’s no hard-and-fast requirement for college essays. In high school, you were probably taught to write five-paragraph essays. This is a solid essay structure to work with, but in college, you generally have more flexibility with assignment lengths and formats. 

Now, consider five the minimum—not the standard—number of paragraphs you should include in your essays. 

Essay structure examples

There are a few different ways to present information in an essay. Often, your assignment will tell you what kind of essay to write, such as a chronological, compare and contrast, or problems-methods-solution essay. If you’re not sure which is best for your assignment, ask your instructor. 


A chronological essay guides the reader through a series of events. This essay structure is ideal if you’re writing about:

With this kind of essay, you first introduce your topic and summarize the series of events in your introduction paragraph. Then, each body paragraph takes the reader through a key stage in that series, which might be a decisive battle in history, a pivotal scene in a novel, or a critical stage in a judicial process. In your conclusion, you present the end result of the series you discussed, underscoring your thesis with this result. 

Compare and contrast

A compare-and-contrast essay has a structure that discusses multiple subjects, like several novels, concepts, or essays you’ve been assigned to read.

There are a few different ways to structure a compare-and-contrast essay. The most obvious is to spend one paragraph discussing the similarities between the topics you’re covering (comparing), then one paragraph detailing their differences (contrasting), followed by a paragraph that explores whether they’re more alike or more different from each other. 

Another method is to only compare, where each of your body paragraphs discusses a similarity between the topics at hand. Or you can go the only-contrast route, where your body paragraphs explore the differences. Whichever you decide on, make sure each paragraph is focused on one topic sentence . Every new comparison or contrast should occupy its own paragraph.


As its name implies, this kind of essay structure presents the writer’s position in three segments:

This kind of essay works great if you’re discussing methods for resolving a problem, like knowing how to distinguish between credible and non-credible sources when you’re doing research for assignments. It can also work when you’re tasked with explaining why certain solutions haven’t worked to fix the problems they were created for. 

With this kind of essay, begin by introducing the problem at hand. In the subsequent body paragraphs, cover possible methods for resolving the problem, discussing how each is suited to fixing the problem, and potential challenges that can arise with each. You can certainly state which you think is the best choice—that could even be your thesis statement. In your conclusion paragraph, summarize the problem again and the desired resolution, endorsing your method of choice (if you have one). 

In this kind of essay, you can also include a call to action in your final paragraph. A call to action is a direct order for the reader to take a specific action, like “call your congressperson today and tell them to vote no” or “visit today to add Grammarly browser extension for free.”

>>Read More: How to Write Better Essays: 5 Concepts you Must Master

With the basic essay structure down, you can get to writing

For a lot of students, getting started is the hardest part of writing an essay. Knowing how to structure an essay can get you past this seemingly insurmountable first step because it gives you a clear skeleton upon which to flesh out your thoughts. With that step conquered, you’re on your way to crushing your assignment.

parts of thesis in order


Project Reporting Instructions

Project Reporting Instructions

4.2 The Main Part of the Thesis — Various Approaches

The actual text (main part) of a bachelor’s or master’s thesis contains an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Depending on the nature of the author’s work—whether it represents a research-type report , a development project, or a qualitative analysis—the structure of the text of the thesis may be adapted accordingly. A research-type report can represent, e.g. survey, interview, market, or operational research. Throughout these instructions, the word research is used to describe both research and development work.

A qualitative analysis can lend itself well to the structure of a report. The writing can commence directly with empirical observations, then move on to discuss the originally identified problem and the effects of the empirical observations on it, the interpretation of findings, as well as some commentary on their more general significance. Finally, a theoretical hypothesis is deduced from the generalised findings. At the end of the report, the solution to the problem serves as an added bonus. (See Alasuutari 1999, 246–249.)

Quantitative research methods are used to study specific theories. Often qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in tandem in order to confirm findings and increase their reliability. (Kananen 2008, 10–11.) Quantitative research reports follow an extremely clear IMRD (introduction, methods, results and discussion) structure.

A development project is a project of practical nature , for example the organisation of an event, an artistic performance, a business plan, or the design and production of a product. A development project is typically divided into two parts:

In development project work, including work of the artistic performance variety, the output of the project may be realised in the form of, e.g. a video production, a new tool, or some other similar practical implementation. The process of realising the project’s output is presented in writing and reported in accordance with how the development project, event, or other output is designed, developed, and evaluated (see Figure 2 as an example). The theoretical foundation, which serves as the starting point for the project, is also presented in the report. The logic of the research report is, incidentally, suitable in many cases for the reporting of practical work.

The sample table of contents shown in Figure 2 can also serve as an example of a synchronic reporting method . A synchronic reporting method is one in which the description of the research implementation in the report, the knowledge base, and the findings and conclusions are interrelated and cannot be considered as separate entities. Very rarely does the writing of a thesis follow a linear sequence of steps; it rather tends to progress through simultaneous work on different parts of the report. In this manner, the main chapters can be determined, for example, based on their degree of importance relative to the work as a whole.

Thesis Structure

This page outlines the stages of an honours thesis and provides links to other pages that will give you more information and some examples from past theses.

A diagram of possible steps to planning an essay.

Stages of a thesis (in order)

Write this last. It is an overview of your whole thesis, and is between 200-300 words.

See writing abstracts for honours theses for what to include in your abstract or see some example abstracts .


Usually longer than an abstract, and provides the following:

See thesis introductions exercises for more information.

Often part of the Introduction, but can be a separate section. It is an evaluation of previous research on your topic, where you show that there is a gap in the knowledge that your research will attempt to fill. The key word here is evaluation.

See literature reviews for more information and examples to get you started on your literature review.

Often the easiest part of the thesis to write. Outlines which method you chose and why (your methodology); what, when, where, how and why you did what you did to get your results.

Here are some sample methods .

Outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses, presented in figures and in written text.

Results contain the facts of your research. Often you will include a brief comment on the significance of key results, with the expectation that more generalised comments about results will be made in the Discussion section. Sometimes Results and Discussion are combined: check with your supervisor and with highly rated past theses in your School.

Here are some suggestions for writing up results .

The Discussion section:

The Discussion should also relate your specific results to previous research or theory. You should point out what the limitations were of your study, and note any questions that remain unanswered. The Discussion CAN also include Conclusions/Future Research. Check with your supervisor.

See our theses in discussion page for more information or try these exercises .

Very important! This is where you emphasise that your research aims/objectives have been achieved.

You also emphasise the most significant results, note the limitations and make suggestions for further research.

Conclusions can include Future Directions. Check with your supervisor.

For more information see conclusions in honours theses or sample conclusions .

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Parts Of A Research Paper

Here's What We'll Cover

You can only write an irrefutable research paper after acknowledging all the parts. How many parts are available in a research paper? It deems fit that you understand all the parts in depth.

No matter how excellent your writing skills are, it takes acknowledging the different parts of a research paper to keep the readers hooked. A research paper follows the hourglass structure.

The paper must present some general information first before you can add a literature review, hypothesis , or even your problem statement.

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Why do I say this?

There is no definite manner or style of crafting and writing research papers. The field of study dictates the style of the paper. However, there are commonly known parts of a research paper and are pinpointed below.

Format On How To Write Parts Of A Research Paper

Introduction, limitations of the study, methodology, literature review, the main body.

The cover page is also known as the title page. The page presents information about the research paper’s title.

The name of the student authoring the paper is always available on this page, the course unit, and the professor tutoring the course.

The dates when the research paper was presented must appear on the page as well.

An abstract is necessary to present a general overview of the research paper. Nonetheless, not all academic research papers necessitate an abstract.

Where one is required, it sticks within a word limit of 100-300 words. Through the abstract, readers grasp the central theme of the research and its essence.

When crafting the abstract , you should avoid using footnotes. Instead, you should present the significance of the research, the method used, the research questions , and the results of your research and findings.

Most importantly,

The abstract must be crafted carefully hence recording no mistakes. The abstract must appeal to the instructor as it’s the first thing they read apart from the title.

Your introduction helps the reader understand everything about the paper. You need to snatch the attention of the readers through your statement of the problem.

The thesis statement creates a trajectory that your research and paper follow. Endeavour to make readers understand what your topic focuses on and why it’s of great relevance to you.

How broad is the scope of your research paper? Readers ought to understand the areas that your paper focuses on and the ones it discounts.

There are so many factors that might limit your study from geographical location, time, gender, nationality, and many other factors.

As a research paper author, there is a need for you to make your research methodologies known. There are instances when you follow quantitative or qualitative research methods, and discussing the methods used makes your paper engaging.

How did you collect data? Some students interview people randomly, and others prepare and give out questionnaires.

Other researchers have written about the topic before. A literature review helps uncover what other researchers have identified.

Therefore, have a segment that presents what is already known and documented about the topic or subject matter.

The body of your research paper is the longest and showcases your arguments and findings. Therefore, when crafting the main body, you need to keep the thesis as your central area of focus.

The last thing that you need is missing the point or giving distorted and confusing information. Maintain a rational and sober argument .

The main body contains numerous citations in support of your arguments. To present a top-notch research paper, ensure to abhor meaningless parentheses.


You need to give your arguments and paper a conclusive underscore. The conclusion part must be informative and extensively stimulating.

Your hypothesis and questions appearing in your introduction must receive an answer at this point. Readers may forget the words used in the body but never on the conclusion. Therefore, endeavor to maintain an exciting conclusion.

Here’s the point,

As a result, the readers will get contented by your arguments and the research paper at large.

For the sake of your readers, you should consider adding several appendices. The appendices help readers enlarge their understanding.

The appendices materials that you can avail include questionnaires, tables, maps, a list of terms, images, lengthy statistics, charts, letters, and any other supplementary information or material relevant to the topic.

Essay help

  List of references

Finally, you need to have your list of references. The citations available in your paper must be cited as per their recommendations. Therefore, ensure to avail details of all your sources following alphabetical order. Ensure to follow the reference format demanded by your tutor.

Lets not forget,

Understanding the parts that make a research paper helps sharpen your skills. Therefore, understand and master all the above sections. Nonetheless, ensure to consider working on the components required by your tutor for your research paper.

An Example Showing Parts Of A Research Paper

An examples showing parts of a research paper

What are the main parts of a research paper?

The mains parts of a research paper include; Abstract, Introduction, Limitation of the study, methodology, literature review, research findings and analysis, the discussion then finally bibliography/ references.

What are the parts of research introduction?

The research introduction should have the topic sentence, which presents the main idea of your paper, thesis statement, which states the primary purpose clearly, supporting sentences then finally a conclusion statement.

What are the parts of thesis?

The thesis has a basic structure, and it includes; an abstract, research methods and discussions, conclusion then finally references/ bibliography.

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  2. THESIS PARTS (Conventional Format

  3. Thesis & Its parts

  4. How To Write The Perfect Academic Paragraph

  5. Parts of thesis @vooglespublication

  6. Interior Design Sargodha


  1. Order and Components

    The following order is required for components of your thesis or dissertation: Title Page Copyright Page Abstract Dedication, Acknowledgements, and Preface (each optional) Table of Contents, with page numbers List of Tables, List of Figures, or List of Illustrations, with titles and page numbers (if applicable) List of Abbreviations (if applicable)

  2. Parts of a Thesis Statement

    The thesis statement is the one sentence that encapsulates the result of your thinking, as it offers your main insight or argument in condensed form. A basic thesis statement has two main parts: Topic: What you're writing about Angle: What your main idea is about that topic Sample Thesis #1 Sample Thesis #2 Sample Thesis #3 << Previous Next >>

  3. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Placement of the thesis statement Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer Step 4: Refine your thesis statement Types of thesis statements Frequently asked questions about thesis statements What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay.

  4. Organizing and Formatting Your Thesis and Dissertation

    Each part is to be organized as explained below and in the order indicated below: ... The solution is the multi-part thesis. Each part is considered a separate unit, with its own chapters, bibliography or list of references, and appendix (optional); or it may have a combined bibliography or list of references and appendix. ...

  5. How to structure a thesis

    The generic structure of your thesis looks like this: 1. Abstract The abstract is the overview of your thesis and generally very short. It is recommended to write it last, when everything else is done. 2. Introduction The introduction chapter is there to give an overview of your thesis' basics or main points.

  6. Thesis Structure

    The first part of the thesis structure is the abstract. It is basically an overview of the entire paper. There is no set dissertation abstract structure. It is just a summary of your thesis and it should be just 200 to 300 words long. Thesis Introduction The introduction is one of the most important dissertation chapters.

  7. The components of a doctoral dissertation and their order

    Many of these principles apply to master theses and books in general. A dissertation has three major divisions: the front matter, the body matter, and the back matter. Each of them contains several parts. These parts and their customary ordering are presented below. Click on the link for more information about each particular part. The front matter

  8. What are the parts of a thesis ?

    The content of the thesis consists of the following parts: Preliminary body Text Conclusions Bibliography Glossary (Optional) Parts of a Thesis: Preliminary Body It refers to the pages that precede the text of the work, consisting of: Cover Qualifications Dedication Acknowledgments Table of contents Index of illustrations and tables Summary Cover

  9. Thesis Statement Tips: Helpful Hacks for How to Write a Thesis for

    A thesis statement is the single, specific claim that your essay supports. A strong thesis answers the question you want to raise; it does so by presenting a topic, the position you wish to defend, and a reasoning blueprint that sketches out your defense of your chosen position. A good thesis is not merely a factual statement, an observation, a personal opinion or preference, or the question ...

  10. What are the Basic Four Parts of a Thesis Statement?

    There are four parts to a thesis statement, which you should include in your paper. The purpose of academic writing is to demonstrate the quality of your analysis, insight, and ideas. It shows that you know the concepts and that you have studied them.

  11. Formatting Requirements: Preliminary Pages

    Order of preliminary pages, indicating which are mandatory and where page numbers should be included. ... The statement of thesis/dissertation approval signifies that the thesis or dissertation has been approved by the committee chair and a majority of the members of the committee and by the department chair and the dean of The Graduate School ...

  12. Essay Structure

    Essay Structure. Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

  13. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement. 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.; An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.; An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies ...

  14. Essay Structure: The 3 Main Parts of an Essay

    Basic essay structure: the 3 main parts of an essay Almost every single essay that's ever been written follows the same basic structure: Introduction Body paragraphs Conclusion This structure has stood the test of time for one simple reason: It works.

  15. 4.2 The Main Part of the Thesis

    The actual text (main part) of a bachelor's or master's thesis contains an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Depending on the nature of the author's work—whether it represents a research-type report, a development project, or a qualitative analysis—the structure of the text of the thesis may be adapted accordingly.A research-type report can represent, e.g. survey, interview ...

  16. PDF Overview of the Master's Degree and Thesis

    way to doctoral studies, completing the thesis will open many doors for you, both personally and professionally. The intent of this book is to give you a blueprint of the research process as well as provide you with step-by-step guidance on how to write the actual thesis, one chapter at a time. The Master's Degree

  17. Thesis Structure

    Often the easiest part of the thesis to write. Outlines which method you chose and why (your methodology); what, when, where, how and why you did what you did to get your results. Here are some sample methods. Results Outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses, presented in figures and in written text.

  18. Parts Of The Manuscript

    Table of Contents > Parts of the Manuscript. Parts of the Manuscript of an ETD. A thesis or dissertation consists of three main parts: the preliminary pages, the text, and the reference matter. Each part contains several sections. Some sections may be omitted, but the order of the following outlines must be observed.

  19. The thesis and its parts

    The thesis and its parts 1 of 39 The thesis and its parts Sep. 18, 2012 • 691 likes • 680,630 views Download Now Download to read offline Education Technology Draizelle Sexon Follow Teacher at DepEd-Manggahan High School Advertisement Advertisement Recommended Writing the Background of Your Study Philip Adu, PhD 105.4k views • 7 slides

  20. Parts of a research paper with the format on how to write one

    What are the main parts of a research paper? The mains parts of a research paper include; Abstract, Introduction, Limitation of the study, methodology, literature review, research findings and analysis, the discussion then finally bibliography/ references. What are the parts of research introduction?