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How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)


(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.) | Generator, Template, Examples

Published on November 6, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on August 23, 2022.

The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual provides guidelines for clear communication , citing sources , and formatting documents. This article focuses on paper formatting.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines:

APA format (7th edition)

Let an expert format your paper

Our APA formatting experts can help you to format your paper according to APA guidelines. They can help you with:

reference thesis format

Table of contents

How to set up apa format (with template), apa alphabetization guidelines, apa format template [free download], page header, headings and subheadings, reference page, tables and figures, frequently asked questions about apa format.

References are ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name. If the author is unknown, order the reference entry by the first meaningful word of the title (ignoring articles: “the”, “a”, or “an”).

Why set up APA format from scratch if you can download Scribbr’s template for free?

Student papers and professional papers have slightly different guidelines regarding the title page, abstract, and running head. Our template is available in Word and Google Docs format for both versions.

In an APA Style paper, every page has a page header. For student papers, the page header usually consists of just a page number in the page’s top-right corner. For professional papers intended for publication, it also includes a running head .

A running head is simply the paper’s title in all capital letters. It is left-aligned and can be up to 50 characters in length. Longer titles are abbreviated .

APA running head (7th edition)

APA headings have five possible levels. Heading level 1 is used for main sections such as “ Methods ” or “ Results ”. Heading levels 2 to 5 are used for subheadings. Each heading level is formatted differently.

Want to know how many heading levels you should use, when to use which heading level, and how to set up heading styles in Word or Google Docs? Then check out our in-depth article on APA headings .

APA headings (7th edition)

The title page is the first page of an APA Style paper. There are different guidelines for student and professional papers.

Both versions include the paper title and author’s name and affiliation. The student version includes the course number and name, instructor name, and due date of the assignment. The professional version includes an author note and running head .

For more information on writing a striking title, crediting multiple authors (with different affiliations), and writing the author note, check out our in-depth article on the APA title page .

APA title page - student version (7th edition)

The abstract is a 150–250 word summary of your paper. An abstract is usually required in professional papers, but it’s rare to include one in student papers (except for longer texts like theses and dissertations).

The abstract is placed on a separate page after the title page . At the top of the page, write the section label “Abstract” (bold and centered). The contents of the abstract appear directly under the label. Unlike regular paragraphs, the first line is not indented. Abstracts are usually written as a single paragraph without headings or blank lines.

Directly below the abstract, you may list three to five relevant keywords . On a new line, write the label “Keywords:” (italicized and indented), followed by the keywords in lowercase letters, separated by commas.

APA abstract (7th edition)

APA Style does not provide guidelines for formatting the table of contents . It’s also not a required paper element in either professional or student papers. If your instructor wants you to include a table of contents, it’s best to follow the general guidelines.

Place the table of contents on a separate page between the abstract and introduction. Write the section label “Contents” at the top (bold and centered), press “Enter” once, and list the important headings with corresponding page numbers.

The APA reference page is placed after the main body of your paper but before any appendices . Here you list all sources that you’ve cited in your paper (through APA in-text citations ). APA provides guidelines for formatting the references as well as the page itself.

Creating APA Style references

Play around with the Scribbr Citation Example Generator below to learn about the APA reference format of the most common source types or generate APA citations for free with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator .

Formatting the reference page

Write the section label “References” at the top of a new page (bold and centered). Place the reference entries directly under the label in alphabetical order.

Finally, apply a hanging indent , meaning the first line of each reference is left-aligned, and all subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches.

APA reference page (7th edition)

Tables and figures are presented in a similar format. They’re preceded by a number and title and followed by explanatory notes (if necessary).

Use bold styling for the word “Table” or “Figure” and the number, and place the title on a separate line directly below it (in italics and title case). Try to keep tables clean; don’t use any vertical lines, use as few horizontal lines as possible, and keep row and column labels concise.

Keep the design of figures as simple as possible. Include labels and a legend if needed, and only use color when necessary (not to make it look more appealing).

Check out our in-depth article about table and figure notes to learn when to use notes and how to format them.

APA table (7th edition)

The easiest way to set up APA format in Word is to download Scribbr’s free APA format template for student papers or professional papers.

Alternatively, you can watch Scribbr’s 5-minute step-by-step tutorial or check out our APA format guide with examples.

APA Style papers should be written in a font that is legible and widely accessible. For example:

The same font and font size is used throughout the document, including the running head , page numbers, headings , and the reference page . Text in footnotes and figure images may be smaller and use single line spacing.

You need an APA in-text citation and reference entry . Each source type has its own format; for example, a webpage citation is different from a book citation .

Use Scribbr’s free APA Citation Generator to generate flawless citations in seconds or take a look at our APA citation examples .

Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page , table of contents , and reference page . Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header.

To insert page numbers in Microsoft Word or Google Docs, click ‘Insert’ and then ‘Page number’.

APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, August 23). APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.) | Generator, Template, Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/format/

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reference thesis format

American Psychological Association

Published Dissertation or Thesis References

This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or theses.

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2309521814.html?FMT=AI

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

reference thesis format

This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.

APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

Standard Format

Formatting rules, various examples.

Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000


See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

reference thesis format

References Page Formatting

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This resource covers American Sociological Association (ASA) style and includes information about manuscript formatting, in-text citations, formatting the references page, and accepted manuscript writing style. The bibliographical format described here is taken from the American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide , 5 th edition.

References follow the text in a section headed REFERENCES (use first-level head format identified earlier).

All references should be double-spaced and use a hanging indent.

Use title case for all titles (capitalize all words except prepositions such as  of, between, through ), articles (such as  a, the , and  an ), and conjunctions (such as  but, and, or ; however, capitalize them if they begin the title or the subtitle).

Capitalize only the first word in hyphenated compound words, unless the second word is a proper noun or adjective (for example, don’t capitalize it in  The Issue of Self-preservation for Women , but do capitalize it in  Terrorist Rhetoric:   The Anti-American Sentiment ).

All references should be in alphabetical order by first authors’ last names.

Include first names for all authors, rather than initials, but use first-name and middle-name initials if an author used initials in the original publication.

List all authors. It is not acceptable to use  et al . in the References section unless the work was authored by a committee.

For repeated authors or editors, include the full name in all references (note: this is a change from the third edition of the  ASA Style Guide ). Arrange references for the same author in chronological order, beginning with the oldest.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1958.  Philadelphia Gentlemen . Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1964.  The Protestant Establishment . New York: Random House.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1976. “The Protestant Establishment Revisited.”  American Scholar  45:499-519.

When an author appears in both single-authored references and as the first author in a multiple-authored reference, place all of the single-authored references first, even though they may not be in the proper chronological order.

Hoge, Dean R. 1979. "A Test of Theories of Denominational Growth and Decline." Pp. 179-197 in  Understanding Church Growth and Decline 1950-1978 , edited by D. R. Hoge and D. A. Roozen. New York and Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press.

Hoge, Dean R., Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. 1994.  Vanishing Boundaries: The Religion of Mainline Baby Boomers . Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

When the same first author appears in multiple references, arrange them alphabetically by the last name of the second author.

Alba, Richard, and Philip Kasinitz. 2006. “Sophisticated Television, Sophisticated Stereotypes.”  Contexts  5(4):74-77.

Alba, Richard, John R. Logan, and Brian J. Stults. 2000. “The Changing Neighborhood Contexts of the Immigrant Metropolis.”  Social Forces  79(2):587-621.

When including more than one work by the same author(s) from the same year, add letters to the year (2010a, 2010b, 2010c) and then list the references for that author and year alphabetically by title.

Fyfe, James J. 1982a. “Blind Justice: Police Shootings in Memphis.”  The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology  73(2):707-22.

Fyfe, James J. 1982b. “Race and Extreme Police-Citizen Violence.” Pp. 173-94 in  Readings on Police Use of Deadly Force , edited by J. J. Fyfe. New York: Police Foundation.

Reference Examples

Book with One Author

Author's full name, inverted so that last name appears first. Year.  Book Title in Title Caps and Italicized . Publishing City: Publisher.

Note that the two-letter state abbreviation should be given only if needed to identify the city. For a publisher located in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, or Boston, for example, it would not be necessary to include the state abbreviation.

Note that the word "volume" is capitalized and abbreviated but not italicized.

Gurr, Ted Robert, ed. 1989.  Violence in America . Vol. 1,  The History of Crime . Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mason, Karen. 1974.  Women's Labor Force Participation . Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

Book with Two or More Authors

Same as with one author, but do not invert authors’ names after the first author. Separate authors’ names with a comma, and include the word  and  before the final author.

Note that the word “edition” is abbreviated, and not italicized or capitalized.

Corbin, Juliet, and Anselm Strauss. 2008.  Basics of Qualitative Research.  3 rd  ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Edited Volume (when citing the entire volume)

Same as book reference but add "eds." to denote book editor'(s') name(s).

Hagan, John, and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995.  Crime and Inequality . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Chapter in an Edited Volume

Put chapter title in quotes.

Use Pp. and page numbers to designate where the chapter is found in the volume.

Italicize the book title, then give the book editor’(s’) name(s).

Do not invert editor'(s)' name(s).

Use initials instead of first and middle names for editor(s).

Include location of publisher by state or province postal code

Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in  Aging and Society.  Vol. 3,  A Sociology of Stratification , edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Scholarly Journal Article

Author's full name, inverted so that last name appears first. Year. “Article Title in Title Caps and in Quotes.”  Journal Title in Title Caps and Italicized  Volume Number(Issue Number):page numbers of article. 

Note that there is no space after the colon preceding page numbers.

For multiple authors, invert last name of first author only.

Separate with commas, unless there are only two authors.

Use  and  between last two authors.

Conger, Rand. 1997. "The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting."  American Journal of Sociology  79:1179-259.

Coe, Deborah L., and James D. Davidson. 2011. “The Origins of Legacy Admissions: A Sociological Explanation.”  Review of Religious Research  52(3):233-47.

Magazine or Newspaper Article

Ziff, Larzer. 1995. "The Other Lost Generation,"  Saturday Review , February 20, pp. 15-18.

Newspaper Article (author unknown)

Lafayette Journal & Courier . 1998. Newspaper editorial. December 12, p. A-6.

Public Documents

Because the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documentation cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily.

Reports, Constitutions, Laws, and Ordinances

New York State Department of Labor. 1997.  Annual Labor Area Report: New York City, Fiscal Year 1996  (BLMI Report, No. 28). Albany: New York State Department of Labor.

Ohio Revised Code Annotated, Section 3566 (West 2000).

Telecommunications Act of 1996 , Public Law 104-014,  110 U.S. Statutes at Large 56 (1996).

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990.  Characteristics of Population . Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 4.

Legislation Examples

Court cases and legislative acts follow a format stipulated by legal publishers.

The act or case is listed first, followed by volume number, abbreviated title, and the date of the work in which the act or case is found.

The volume number is given in Arabic numerals, and the date is parenthesized.

Court cases are italicized, but acts are not.

Case names, including v., are italicized.

Brown v. Board of Education , 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

If retrieved from an online database, such as LexisNexis or HeinOnline, provide access information.

Ohio v. Vincer  (Ohio App. Lexis 4356 [1999]).

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives.  Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007.  H.R. 2. 110 th Congress, 1 st  Session, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2010  (http://thomas.loc.gov).

Unpublished Materials

Name of author. Year. Title of Presentation. Location where the article was presented or is available or has been accepted for publication but has not yet been published.

Conger, Rand D. Forthcoming. “The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting.”  Sociological Perspectives .

Smith, Tom. 2003. “General Social Survey.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 16, Atlanta, GA.

Dissertation or Thesis

King, Andrew J. 1976. “Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern Zoning.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Archival Sources

Meany Archives, LRF, Box 6, March 18, 1970. File 20. Memo, conference with Gloster Current, Director of Organization, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Electronic Sources

The fifth edition of the  ASA Style Guide  includes an expanded fifth chapter detailing how to reference electronic sources. This section of the resource will provide examples of some of the more common electronic sources form. 

PowerPoint  Presentations

Conard-Salvo, Tammy, Caitlan Spronk, and Joshua M. Paiz. 2014.  "Soaring into the Future: The Purdue OWL and  Supporting the Next Generation of Writers." Presented  at the 2014 ECWCA Conference, March 28, Miami, Ohio.  Retrieved November 21, 2014 (http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1003&context=writinglabpres).

Social Media Sources

References to social media sources should not appear in the references page. Rather, it should be footnoted in the body text where referenced. this footnote should include the page's title and URL.

Purdue University. 2012. "Purdue University's Foundations of  Excellence Final Report: A Roadmap for Excellent  Beginnings." Retrieved Nov. 21, 2014 (http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/provost_pubs/1/).

Print Edition of a Book Accessed through an Online Library

Daniels, John. 2010.  Apathetic College Students in America . Middletown, IL: University of Middletown Press. Retrieved April 6, 2011 (http://site.ebrary.com/lib/collegestudies/docDetail.action?docID=1010101010).

e-Journal Articles with DOI

Phillips, Reginald M., and S. H. Bonsteel. 2010. "The Faculty and Information Specialist Partnership Stimulating Student Interest and Experiential Learning."  Nurse Educator, 35(3), 136-138. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e3181d95090.  

Note: when a DOI is included, it should be cut and pasted from the article.



Drug Inspector, GPAT, NIPER, Bpharm, Mpharm study material

How to Format References for Thesis & Research Paper Article

How to Format References for Thesis & Research Paper Article

Reference formatting  when you cite references in research article different publishers will follow the different guidelines according to their society rules. When writing a thesis for any piece of work you need to refer and your text material  produced by other people. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. References need to be cited in two different places.

Let us discuss some general views on this.

Article Reference Formating

You put a superscript number after where you want to reference. I mean you can put a superscript number one after a statement.

You always need to put the reference after punctuation. For example if there is a comma and then the citation number.. If you have two citations for the same comment we put a comma between the two numbers separated by a space.

If you have more than two citations we put in the range of numbers separated by dash again after the punctuation point.

Author’s the journal title and then the author’s names the initials first separated by full stops and the last author is has the word and before him then you need to give the journal name appreciated appropriately and those abbreviations are available on the right side.

The year should be mentioned and insert a comma then give the volume in bold. Give issue number and then the first page number and then as a full stop.

Book Reference Formating

If its a Book reference you need to give the author’s names with and before the last author you’ve got the book title in italics. Then the publisher name. If there’s more than if this was more than the first edition we put in the Edition number. The publication site then the year of publication and all of that information is on the inside of a book cover.Book section reference and the page numbers at the end the rest of the format is the same so here we have the author who’s written a section in the book title we’ve got the book editors preceded by the words EDS heads had the publication year and strictly speaking this reference should also have the publication city and the publishers.

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  1. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, ...

  2. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form) or on a ...

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    Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr. Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.). Include a page number on every ...

  4. Published dissertation or thesis references

    A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive. If the database assigns publication numbers to dissertations and theses, include the publication number in parentheses after the title of the dissertation or thesis without italics.

  5. Thesis/Dissertation

    Formatting Rules Formatting: Italicize the title Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title Various Examples See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules Last Updated: Jan 4, 2023 2:35 PM

  6. References Page Formatting

    References Page Formatting References follow the text in a section headed REFERENCES (use first-level head format identified earlier). All references should be double-spaced and use a hanging indent. Cite your source automatically in MLA or APA format Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by

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    Reference formatting when you cite references in research article different publishers will follow the different guidelines according to their society rules. When writing a thesis for any piece of work you need to refer and your text material produced by other people. This procedure is called citing or quoting references.