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## The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

## Table of Contents

## What is a Hypothesis?

## Different Types of Hypotheses

## 1. Null hypothesis

## 2. Alternative hypothesis

- Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
- Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

## 3. Simple hypothesis

## 4. Complex hypothesis

## 5. Associative and casual hypothesis

## 6. Empirical hypothesis

## 7. Statistical hypothesis

## Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

- A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
- It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
- It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
- A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
- If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
- A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

## Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

## Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

## 1. Be clear about your research question

## 2. Carry out a recce

## 3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

## 4. Write the first draft

## 5. Proof your hypothesis

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

## 2. What is an example of hypothesis?

## 3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

## 4. What are the types of research?

## 5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

## 6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

## 7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

## 8. What is plural for hypothesis?

## 9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

## 10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

## 11. When to reject null hypothesis?

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## What is Hypothesis?

## Characteristics of Hypothesis

Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:

- The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
- If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
- The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
- The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.

## Sources of Hypothesis

Following are the sources of hypothesis:

- The resemblance between the phenomenon.
- Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
- Scientific theories.
- General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.

## Types of Hypothesis

There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:

- Simple hypothesis
- Complex hypothesis
- Directional hypothesis
- Non-directional hypothesis
- Null hypothesis
- Associative and casual hypothesis

## Simple Hypothesis

## Complex Hypothesis

## Directional Hypothesis

## Non-directional Hypothesis

## Null Hypothesis

## Associative and Causal Hypothesis

## Examples of Hypothesis

Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:

- Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
- All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
- If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.

## Functions of Hypothesis

Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:

- Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
- It becomes the start point for the investigation.
- Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
- It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

## How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?

- Formation of question
- Doing background research
- Creation of hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collection of data
- Result analysis
- Summarizing the experiment
- Communicating the results

## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

A hypothesis is an assumption made based on some evidence.

## Give an example of simple hypothesis?

What are the types of hypothesis.

## State true or false: Hypothesis is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into a prediction.

Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

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## Types of Research Hypotheses

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## Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, & Examples

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

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Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons), Psychology, MSc, Psychology of Education

## Types of research hypotheses

## Null Hypothesis

## Nondirectional Hypothesis

E.g., there will be a difference in how many numbers are correctly recalled by children and adults.

## Directional Hypothesis

E.g., adults will correctly recall more words than children.

## Falsifiability

## Can a hypothesis be proven?

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

## How to write a hypothesis

- 1. To write the alternative and null hypotheses for an investigation, you need to identify the key variables in the study.The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and the dependent variable is the outcome which is measured.
- 2. Operationalized the variables being investigated.Operationalisation of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression you might count the number of punches given by participants
- 3. Decide on a direction for your prediction. If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect on the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis.If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
- 4. Write your hypothesis. A good hypothesis is short (i.e. concise) and comprises clear and simple language.

## What are examples of a hypothesis?

- The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
- The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

For example, a hypothesis goes like this;

- A research hypothesis must be specific, testable or measurable, and verifiable. In other words, the research hypothesis should create clear predictions than can be tested.
- Ideally, a hypothesis can be drawn from previous theoretical research publications.
- A good research hypothesis is much more than an intelligent guess, and sometimes, a research hypothesis could take the form of research questions that can be explored further via research and suggest an expected result.

There are various types of hypotheses, and the following checklist should guide a good hypothesis.

- Is the language employed clear and direct?
- Is there a good relationship between the hypothesis and the research topic?
- Can the hypothesis be tested?
- What are the methods used to carry out testability?
- What are areas of explanation being addressed?

The following listed below are the various 7 types of research hypotheses.

## 1. Simple Hypothesis

Consuming too many fizzy drinks will cause weight gain and a bloated belly.

## 2. Complex Hypothesis

It foretells the relationship between multiple independent and dependent variables.

For instance, eating more vegetables and a low-calorie diet would lead to weight loss.

## 3. Directional Hypothesis

## 4. Non-directional Hypothesis

## 5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

## 6. Null Hypothesis

## 7. Alternative Hypothesis

The Alternative Hypothesis is classified into two categories;

Directional and Non-Directional.

- Directional: A statement outlining the ways the expected outcomes would be collated. It is mostly used in cases where there is a need to establish a relationship between two different things or when comparing various groups. For example, Attending physiotherapy sessions will improve the stage performance of ballerinas.
- Non-directional: This implies no direction for the expected results. For example, attending physiotherapy sessions impacts the stage performance of ballerinas.

## 8. Empirical Hypothesis

Here are a few examples that depict the empirical hypothesis:

b. Good behavior in children can be reinforced when they are rewarded for good behavior.

## 9. Statistical Hypothesis

43% of the American population in the age group of 22-29 speak a second language.

## Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

- There must exist a viable means to prove that the hypothesis is true.
- Similarly, there must be a possibility to prove the hypothesis false.
- Finally, the result of the hypothesis must be replicable.

## How To Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis

What, who, where, when, how, and why?.

- How long does it take avocados to grow?
- Why do we have shorter days and longer nights in winter?
- What happened to the groundnut pyramids?
- How does a caterpillar become a butterfly?
- Why are students excited on Friday afternoon?
- How does sleep affect motivation?
- Why do tax systems help build an economy?

Refine your hypothesis by emulating the following as a checklist:

- Specific language devoid of any ambiguity must be used.
- Clearly predict the relationship between the variables and the expected outcome.
- No prior assumptions should be made about the reader’s knowledge.
- The results must be testable, relevant, and specific to the research questions.

Here are a few general examples that can guide you in formulating your hypothesis:

## Hypothesis in Research

Specific here refers to clarity about the parties involved and the expected results.

## Hypothesis in Statistics

## 4 Steps of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

There is a four-step process used for statistical hypothesis testing.

- State only two hypotheses; that way, only one can be right.
- Create an analysis plan that shows how the data would be evaluated.
- Implement the plan by physically analyzing the sample data
- Analyze the result and either accept the hypothesis or state the plausible hypothesis based on the given data.

## Scientific Hypothesis

- Create the question
- Carry out a background research
- Creating a hypothesis
- Design an experiment
- Collect data
- Analyze the results
- Reach a conclusion
- Share the results

Conduct effective research with functional forms in less than 90 seconds

## Recall Bias: Definition, Types, Examples & Mitigation

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## Formplus - For Seamless Data Collection

## How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

## What is Hypothesis?

## What is a Research Hypothesis?

## Essential Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

- Is the language clear and focused?
- What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic?
- Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how?
- What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?
- Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
- Can you manipulate your variables without hampering the ethical standards?
- Does your research predict the relationship and outcome?
- Is your research simple and concise (avoids wordiness)?
- Is it clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
- Is your research observable and testable results?
- Is it relevant and specific to the research question or problem?

## Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate an effective research hypothesis.

## 1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

## 2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

## 3. Define the variables

## 4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

## 3. Directional Hypothesis

5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

## 6. Null Hypothesis

## Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables:

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).

Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

## Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

- There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is true.
- There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is false.
- The results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

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## Hypothesis Examples: Different Types in Science and Research

- DESCRIPTION Woman in Bed Examples of Hypothesis
- SOURCE Karen Moskowitz / The Image Bank / Getty Images
- PERMISSION Used under Getty Images license

## What Is a Hypothesis?

## Parts of a Hypothesis: Independent and Dependent Variables

an independent variable stands on its own and is not changed by other variables

the dependent variable depends on other factors

How does the amount of makeup one applies affect how clear their skin is?

The amount of makeup one wears correlates to how clear their skin is.

Therefore, this hypothesis must be tested before it can be proven correct.

## Types of Hypotheses

The most common forms of hypotheses are:

See how these types of hypotheses are created through examples.

## Simple Hypothesis Examples

Drinking sugary drinks daily leads to being overweight.

Smoking cigarettes daily leads to lung cancer.

Getting at least 8 hours of sleep can make people more alert.

## Complex Hypothesis Examples

## Null Hypothesis Examples

## Alternative Hypothesis Examples

## Logical Hypothesis Examples

Cacti experience more successful growth rates than tulips on Mars.

Beings from Mars would not be able to breathe the air in Earth's atmosphere.

## Empirical Hypothesis Examples

Roses watered with liquid Vitamin B grow faster than roses watered with liquid Vitamin E.

Women taking vitamin E grow hair faster than those taking vitamin K.

Thirsty rats find their way through a maze quicker if there is water at the end of the maze.

## Statistical Hypothesis Examples

50% of Savannah's population lives beyond the age of 70.

80% of the U.S. population gets a divorce because of irreconcilable differences.

45% of the poor in the U.S. are illiterate.

## Parameters of a Good Hypothesis

For a hypothesis to be sound , hold tight to these tips.

## Step 1: Ask Yourself Questions

## Step 2: Be Logical and Use Precise Language

If I raise the temperature of a cup of water, then the amount of sugar that can be dissolved in it will be increased.

## Step 3: Make Sure Your Hypothesis Is Testable

## Applying Your Hypothesis

Educational resources and simple solutions for your research journey

## What is a research hypothesis: How to write it, types, and examples

## What is a hypothesis ?

## What is a research hypothesis ?

## Characteristics of a good hypothesis

Here are the characteristics of a good hypothesis :

- Clearly formulated and free of language errors and ambiguity
- Concise and not unnecessarily verbose
- Has clearly defined variables
- Testable and stated in a way that allows for it to be disproven
- Can be tested using a research design that is feasible, ethical, and practical
- Specific and relevant to the research problem
- Rooted in a thorough literature search
- Can generate new knowledge or understanding.

## How to create an effective research hypothesis

Let’s look at each step for creating an effective, testable, and good research hypothesis :

- Identify a research problem or question: Start by identifying a specific research problem.
- Review the literature: Conduct an in-depth review of the existing literature related to the research problem to grasp the current knowledge and gaps in the field.
- Formulate a clear and testable hypothesis : Based on the research question, use existing knowledge to form a clear and testable hypothesis . The hypothesis should state a predicted relationship between two or more variables that can be measured and manipulated. Improve the original draft till it is clear and meaningful.
- State the null hypothesis: The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between the variables you are studying.
- Define the population and sample: Clearly define the population you are studying and the sample you will be using for your research.
- Select appropriate methods for testing the hypothesis: Select appropriate research methods, such as experiments, surveys, or observational studies, which will allow you to test your research hypothesis .

## How to write a research hypothesis

An example of a research hypothesis in this format is as follows:

“ If [athletes] follow [cold water showers daily], then their [endurance] increases.”

Independent variable: daily cold water showers

## Research hypothesis checklist

Following from above, here is a 10-point checklist for a good research hypothesis :

- Testable: A research hypothesis should be able to be tested via experimentation or observation.
- Specific: A research hypothesis should clearly state the relationship between the variables being studied.
- Based on prior research: A research hypothesis should be based on existing knowledge and previous research in the field.
- Falsifiable: A research hypothesis should be able to be disproven through testing.
- Clear and concise: A research hypothesis should be stated in a clear and concise manner.
- Logical: A research hypothesis should be logical and consistent with current understanding of the subject.
- Relevant: A research hypothesis should be relevant to the research question and objectives.
- Feasible: A research hypothesis should be feasible to test within the scope of the study.
- Reflects the population: A research hypothesis should consider the population or sample being studied.
- Uncomplicated: A good research hypothesis is written in a way that is easy for the target audience to understand.

## Types of research hypothesis

Different types of research hypothesis are used in scientific research:

## 1. Null hypothesis:

Example: “ The newly identified virus is not zoonotic .”

## 2. Alternative hypothesis:

Example: “ The newly identified virus is zoonotic .”

## 3. Directional hypothesis :

## 4. Non-directional hypothesis:

Example, “ Cats and dogs differ in the amount of affection they express .”

## 5. Simple hypothesis :

Example: “ Applying sunscreen every day slows skin aging .”

## 6 . Complex hypothesis :

## 7. Associative hypothesis:

Example: “ There is a positive association between physical activity levels and overall health .”

## 8 . Causal hypothesis:

A causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between variables.

Example: “ Long-term alcohol use causes liver damage .”

## Research hypothesis examples

Here are some good research hypothesis examples :

Some bad research hypothesis examples (and the reasons why they are “bad”) are as follows:

## Importance of testable hypothesis

## Frequently asked questions on research hypothesis

1. what is the difference between research question and research hypothesis .

## 2. When to reject null hypothesis ?

## 3. How can I be sure my hypothesis is testable?

- Clearly define the key variables in your hypothesis. You should be able to measure and manipulate these variables in a way that allows you to test the hypothesis.
- The hypothesis should predict a specific outcome or relationship between variables that can be measured or quantified.
- You should be able to collect the necessary data within the constraints of your study.
- It should be possible for other researchers to replicate your study, using the same methods and variables.
- Your hypothesis should be testable by using appropriate statistical analysis techniques, so you can draw conclusions, and make inferences about the population from the sample data.
- The hypothesis should be able to be disproven or rejected through the collection of data.

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## COMMENTS

Different Types of Hypotheses · 1. Null hypothesis · 2. Alternative hypothesis · 3. Simple hypothesis · 4. Complex hypothesis · 5. Associative and

Types of Hypothesis · Simple hypothesis · Complex hypothesis · Directional hypothesis · Non-directional hypothesis · Null hypothesis · Associative and casual

Types of Research Hypotheses · Simple Hypothesis: A simple hypothesis predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent

In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called

1. Simple Hypothesis · 2. Complex Hypothesis · 3. Directional Hypothesis · 4. Non-directional Hypothesis · 5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis · 6.

A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is

There are basically two types, namely, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. A research generally starts with a problem. Next, these hypotheses

Types of Hypotheses · Simple Hypothesis · Complex Hypothesis · Null Hypothesis · Alternative Hypothesis · Logical Hypothesis · Empirical Hypothesis · Statistical

TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS · Simple Hypothesis · Complex Hypothesis · Working or Research Hypothesis · Null Hypothesis · Alternative Hypothesis · Logical Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a testable statement that proposes a possible explanation to a phenomenon, and it may include a prediction. Next, you may ask