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Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Theses/dissertations from 2022 2022.

Effects of Downdrag on Pile Performance , Malaak Omelia Araujo

Quantifying a 21-year Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction in a Ridge and Valley Lake Environment Using a Highly Constrained Modeling Approach , Richard T. Bowers Jr.

A Convergent Approach to Aqueous Lead (Pb) Mitigation of a Supplemental Self-Supply Shallow Groundwater Source Accessed by Handpumps in Madagascar , Adaline Marie Buerck

Identifying Significant Factors Affecting the Likelihood and Severity Level of Shared E-scooter Crashes , Recep Can Cakici

Evaluation of Aluminum Dissolution, Current Density, and Pitting Patterns During Electrocoagulation , Monica Castro Carias

Carbon Diversion, Partial Nitritation/Anammox Enrichment, and Ammonium Capture as Initial Stages for Mainstream Ion Exchange-Deammonification Process , Sheyla Chero-Osorio

Data Driven Approaches for Understanding and Improving Urban Mobility , Yujie Guo

Assessment of Scoured Bridges Subjected to Vessel Impact Using Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis , Amir S. Irhayyim

Assessment and Prevention of Bacterial Regrowth in Stored Household Water in Eastern Coastal Madagascar , Lauren Judah

The Impact of Land Use Change on Hydrology Using Hydrologic Modelling and Geographical Information System (GIS) , Nattachan Luesaksiriwattana

Simulating Flood Control in Progress Village, Florida Using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) , Azize Minaz

Effects of Slurry Type on Drilled Shaft Strength , Cesar Quesada Garcia

Comparison Study of Consumer’s Perception toward Urban Air Mobility in the United States and Rest of the World Using Social Media Information , S M Toki Tahmid

Advanced Methods for Railroad Station Operation Decisions: Data Analytics, Optimization, Automation , Yuan Wang

High-Risk Traffic Crash Pattern Recognition and Identification Using Econometric Models and Machine Learning Models , Runan Yang

Biochar Amended Biological Systems for Enhanced Landfill Leachate and Lignocellulosic Banana Waste Treatment , Xia Yang

Passive Radiative Cooling by Spectrally Selective Nanoparticles in Thick Film Nanocomposites , David Allen Young

Theses/Dissertations from 2021 2021

A System Architecture for Water Distribution Networks , Noha Abdel-Mottaleb

Sustainability Assessment of a Pressure Retarded Osmosis System , Samar Al Mashrafi

Health Risk Assessment of Local Populations Ingesting Water with Naturally Occurring Arsenic and Fecal Related Contaminants in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala , Marisol Alvarez

Influence of Coating Defects Within the Lock Seams on the Corrosion Performance of Aluminized Steel Drainage Pipes , Mohammed Al Yaarubi

Longitudinal Trajectory Tracking Analysis for Autonomous Electric Vehicles Based on PID Control , Hossein Amiri

An Assessment and Exploration of Recent Methodological Advances in Safety Data Analysis , Suryaprasanna Kumar Balusu

Pressure Retarded Osmosis: A Potential Technology for Seawater Desalination Energy Recovery and Concentrate Management , Joshua Benjamin

Assessing the Feasibility of Microbially Managed Biological Filtration in U.S. Drinking Water Systems for Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern , Andrew J. Black

The Effect of Cement and Blast Furnace Slag Characteristics on Expansion of Heat-Cured Mortar Specimens , Jair G. Burgos

A Systems Approach for Improving the Performance of Rural Community-Managed Water Systems Using SIASAR: Case Studies in Bolivia and Colombia , Rachel A. Cannon

Passive Nitrifying Biofilters for Onsite Treatment of Saline Domestic Wastewater , Daniel Arnulfo Delgado

Plastic Pollution in Urban Rivers: Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Plastic Release and Transport , Charlotte Juliane Haberstroh

Effects of Nitrate on Arsenic Mobilization during Aquifer Storage and Recovery , Hania Hawasli

Prediction of the Effects of Turbulence on Vehicle Hydroplaning using a Numerical Model , Thathsarani Dilini Herath Herath Mudiyanselage

Shortcut Nitrogen Removal in Photo-sequencing Batch Reactor, Experiments, Dynamic Model and Full-scale Design , Sahand Iman Shayan

Chorine Conversion: Biological and Water Quality Impact on Activated Carbon Block Point of Use Filters , Horace S. Jakpa

Efficient Management of Nitrogen and Phosphorus at Centralized Water Reclamation Facilities , Helene Kassouf

Building and Characterizing a Lab-Scaled Aquifer Storage and Recovery System , Murat Can Kayabas

Corrosion Rate Prediction in FRP-Concrete Repair , Mohammad A. Khawaja

Use of Biochar and Zeolite for Landfill Leachate Treatment: Experimental Studies and Reuse Potential Assessment , Thanh Thieu Lam

Feasibility of Epoxy Bond Enhancement on High-Strength Concrete , Amanda A. Lewis

Leaf Cutter Ant Nest Soil Cement Stabilized Earthen Bricks: Materials and Methods for Engineering Field Applications , Faith Malay

Minimum Cut-Sets for the Identification of Critical Water Distribution Network Segments , Xiliang Mao

An Assessment of Nutrient Improvement in Surface Water Due to the Conversion of Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems to Sewerage , Jenelle A. Mohammed

Development of a Numerical Process Model for Adsorbent-amended Constructed Wetlands , Lillian Mulligan

Corrosion Propagation of Stainless Steel Reinforced Concrete , Nelly Sofía Orozco Martínez

Corrosion Durability Service Life of Calcium Silicate-Based Reinforced Concrete , Carolina Páez Jiménez

Assessment of the Environmental Sustainability of a Small Water Production Facility in Madagascar , Jesal Patel

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis of the Hydraulic Performance and Bio-kinetics in a Full-Scale Oxidation Ditch , Kiesha C. Pierre

Biochar Amended Bioretention Systems for Nutrient and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal from Urban and Agricultural Runoffs , Md Yeasir Arif Rahman

Understanding the Leaching Mechanism for Lead (Pb) Found in Components of Locally Manufactured Handpumps in Eastern Madagascar , Nidhi Shah

Impacts of Automated Vehicle Technologies on Future Traffic , Xiaowei Shi

Community Assessment of Water Perceptions and Household Point-of-Use Treatment Methods in Madagascar , Isabella Rose Silverman

Laboratory Examination of Lead Weights Harvested from Pitcher Pumps in Eastern Madagascar , Madelyn Wilson

Impact of grain morphology on the temporal evolution of interfacial area during multi-phase flow in porous media , Fizza Zahid

EAV Fleet Management in Transportation and Power Systems , Dongfang Zhao

Theses/Dissertations from 2020 2020

A Framework for Assessing the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety (RAMS) of Decentralized Sanitation , Adefunké Adeosun

Development of an Organic Processor Assembly (OPA) for Sustainable Resource Recovery to Enable Long-Duration, Deep-Space Human Exploration (LoDDSHE) , Talon James Bullard

Black Lives Matter in Engineering, Too! An Environmental Justice Approach towards Equitable Decision-Making for Stormwater Management in African American Communities , Maya Elizabeth Carrasquillo

Coral Reef Restoration in the Tropical West Atlantic Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic , Linden Cheek

Designing Next-generation Transportation Systems with Emerging Vehicle Technologies , Zhiwei Chen

Strength Restoration of Corrosion Damaged Piles Repaired with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Systems , Jethro Clarke

Water Quality and Sustainability Assessment of Rural Water Systems in the Comarca Ngäbe-Buglé, Panama , Corbyn Cools

Rapid Cross-Section Imaging with Magnetic and Impedance Sensors for Grout Anomaly Detection in External Post-Tensioned Tendons , Hani Freij

Enhanced Nitrogen, Organic Matter and Color Removal from Landfill Leachate by Biological Treatment Processes with Biochar and Zeolite , Bisheng Gao

Bond Life of Structural Epoxy-Concrete Systems Under Accelerated Hygrothermal Aging , Philip W. Hopkins

Socio-Technical Transitions in the Water Sector: Emerging Boundaries for Utility Resilience in Barbados , Wainella N. Isaacs

Structural and Agricultural Value at Risk in Florida from Flooding during Hurricane Irma , Alexander J. Miller

An Inferential Study of the Potential Consumer Value of Free Charging for Users of Public Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure , Divyamitra Mishra

Reimagining Bottom-up Participatory Climate Change Adaptation in the Philippines , Emily Clark Nabong

Effects of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Slags and Cements on Durability of Portland Cement-Slag Blended Systems , Farzaneh Nosouhian

Using a Systems Thinking Approach and Health Risk Assessment to Analyze the Food-Energy-Water System Nexus of Seaweed Farming in Belize , Estenia J. Ortiz Carabantes

Implementation of Large-Scale Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste at the University of South Florida , Karamjit Panesar

Enhanced Fluoride Removal in Biosand Filters Using Aluminum Oxide Coated Media and Modified Filter Design , Madison Leigh Rice

Use of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Interlocking Stabilized Soil Blocks (ISSBs) , Adah Shair

Bio-electrochemical Denitrification Systems and Applications for Nitrogen Removal in On-Site Wastewater Treatment , Kamal Ziad Taha

Development of an Integrated Direct Membrane Filtration (DMF) and Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) System for Dilute Municipal Wastewater Treatment , Ahmet Erkan Uman

Post-overlay Flexible Pavement Performance Modeling and Its Application in Sustainable Asphalt Overlay Policy Making , Chunfu Xin

Sustainable Nutrient Management Through Technology-Level Evaluation and System-Level Optimization , Xiaofan Xu

Influence of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Wraps on Corrosion Progression of Bridge Piles in Marine Environments , Shayan Yazdani

Theses/Dissertations from 2019 2019

Seepage-Coupled Finite Element Analysis of Stress Driven Rock Slope Failures for BothNatural and Induced Failures , Thomas Becket Anyintuo

Statistical Analysis of the Role of Socio-Demographic and Health Factors in Shared Mobility Related Behaviors and Usage Likelihoods , Natalia M. Barbour

Model of a Sulfur-based Cyclic Denitrification Filter for Marine Recirculating Aquaculture Systems , Zhang Cheng

Exploring the Equity Performance of Bike-Sharing Systems with Disaggregated Data: A Story of Southern Tampa , Zhiwei Chen

Prioritizing Rehabilitation of Sanitary Sewers in Pinellas County, FL , Jesse T. Hillman

Highway Lane Management Policy for Existing and Connected Autonomous Vehicles , Md Mokaddesul Hoque

Innovating Green Stormwater Infrastructure for Nutrient Management: Long-Term Field and Modeling Studies of Conventional and Modified Denitrifying Bioretention Systems , Emma V. Lopez-Ponnada

Enhancing Concrete Pavement Service Life Using Multiple Strategies to Reduce Cracking Potential , Dhanushika Mapa Mudiyanselage

Effects of Support Fluid Type on Concrete Integrity and Durability in Drilled Shafts , Sarah J. Mobley

Removal and Recovery of Nutrients from Wastewater in Urban and Rural Contexts , Kevin Daniel Orner

An Assessment of the Influence of Local Conditions on the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Drain Water Heat Recovery Systems , Anusha Ravichandran

A Decision-making Framework for Hybrid Resource Recovery Oriented Wastewater Systems , Nader Rezaei

Bamboo as a Sustainable Engineering Material: Mechanical Properties, Safety Factors, and Experimental Testing , Lorena Sánchez Vivas

Estimation of Number of People Living in Developing Countries that Received Water from a Spring Source , Prapti Shinde

Characterization of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast Behavior Through Finite Element Modeling , Bugra Sinmez

Chemolithotrophic Denitrification of Nitrate Contaminated Groundwater Using Sulfur-Bearing Minerals , John Sutton

Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis and Control Utilizing Connected Autonomous Vehicles , Yu Wang

Dynamic Prediction of Runway Configuration and Airport Acceptance Rate , Yuan Wang

Steady State Hydroplaning Risk Analysis and Evaluation of Unsteady State Effects , Menna Yassin

High Ammonia Strength Wastewater Treatment Using Algae, Bacteria and Ion Exchange , Nadezhda Zalivina

Theses/Dissertations from 2018 2018

Hydraulic Performance and Vulnerability on Sanitary Sewer Overflow in Southern Pinellas County, FL , Uchechi O. Akabogu

An Analytical Solution for Attainment of Field Capacity , Ali Aldrees

Biobased Epoxy Asphalt Binder (BEAB) for Pavement Asphalt Mixtures , Abdulrahman Fahad Al Fuhaid

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Environmental Engineering Dissertation Topics

Published by Alvin Nicolas at January 6th, 2023 , Revised On January 6, 2023


A dissertation is a lengthy and formal document that provides arguments to defend a thesis. Essentially, the dissertation aims to show original contributions whilst addressing the research topic/topic. Starting with the hypothesis and/or research questions , the author then performs the research they must base their dissertation on to collect evidence to support his arguments.

Another key objective of dissertation writing is to provide new concepts and ideas that will help further research and development in the chosen area. However, selecting the most appropriate dissertation topic can prove a real challenge for undergraduate, postgraduate, and PhD students.

This post suggests up-to-date and most relevant environmental engineering dissertation topics to kickstart your dissertation. These topics have been developed by PhD-qualified writers of our team , so you can trust to use these topics for drafting your dissertation.

Without further delay, please see below our selection of topics, even though you can choose any from the complete list.

Topic 1: The Role of Environmental Engineering in Urban Flood Management in Karachi, Pakistan

Topic 2: the role of information technology (it) in environmental engineering- a study to find efficacy of internet of things (iot) devices in catalytic conversion in the uk, topic 3: environmental engineering management and artificial intelligence (ai)- an assessment of the present machine learning (ml) and deep learning models for environmental management, topic 4: environmental engineering and industrial waste- a review of novel methods for reducing industrial waste to save human lives in india, topic 5: impact of enhanced anaerobic baffle cum filter reactor on household wastewater treatment in china.

These topics have been developed by PhD-qualified writers of our team , so you can trust to use these topics for drafting your dissertation.

You may also want to start your dissertation by requesting  a brief research proposal  from our writers on any of these topics, which includes an  introduction  to the topic,  research question ,  aim and objectives ,  literature review  along with the proposed  methodology  of research to be conducted.  Let us know  if you need any help in getting started.

Check our  dissertation examples  to get an idea of  how to structure your dissertation .

Review the full list of  dissertation topics for 2022 here.

2022 Environmental Engineering Research Topics

Research Aim: This research intends to find the role of environmental engineering in urban flood management in Karachi, Pakistan. Firstly, it will review the environmental engineering process for urban governance and its relationship with urban flood control. Secondly, it will show how it is used to manage urban flooding worldwide and practiced in Karachi, Pakistan. Thirdly, it will show its efficacy in Karachi, Pakistan, and identify the possible room for improvement. Lastly, it will recommend improving these areas to enhance environmental engineering to control flooding in the future.

Research Aim: This study aims to find the role of Information Technology (IT) in environmental engineering. It will show how advancements in IT improved environmental engineering management methods in the UK. It will use the case of testing the efficacy of internet of things (IoT) devices in catalytic conversion in the UK. It will find the impact of IoT-based catalytic convertors on the concentration of harmful gases in the atmosphere in the UK.

Research Aim: This research analyzes the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in environmental engineering management. It will assess the present Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning models for environmental management. It will compare and contrast these models to identify maximum efficiency and efficacy models. Moreover, it will show various administrations use these models across the globe to solve multiple environmental problems that come under the umbrella of environmental engineering. Lastly, it will recommend the best models to solve maximum ecological issues in the least developed and developing countries.

Research Aim: The study presents a review of novel methods for reducing industrial waste to save human lives in India. It will show how these methods are developed over time to solve the increasing industrial waste problem in developing countries like India. Moreover, it will compare these methods to find the best ones that can be incorporated into the Indian industries to balance production and environmental waste.

Research Aim: This research finds the impact of enhanced anaerobic baffle cum filter reactor on household wastewater treatment in China. It will show how the introduction of an anaerobic baffle cum filter affected the treated household wastewater quality. Moreover, it will analyze the current practices in China. It will compare them with other major countries such as the US, UK, Japan, etc., to differentiate between different methods with the same technology. Lastly, it will propose changes in the current practices to improve the efficacy of an enhanced anaerobic baffle cum filter reactor.

Covid-19 Environmental Engineering Research Topics

The impacts of covid-19 on environmental engineering.

Research Aim: This study will focus on the impacts of COVID-19 on Environmental Engineering.

The role of Environmental engineers during COVID-19

Research Aim: This study will focus on environmental engineers’ role in identifying the factors that affect COVID-19 transmission.

List of Environmental Engineering Dissertation Topics

The following environment engineering dissertation topics may interest the researchers who intend to undertake projects to reduce carbon emissions. It should be noted that the area of environmental engineering has grown tremendously in Europe over the last few years, thanks to the growing need to control the carbon footprint.

In addition to the dissertation topics listed above, our dissertation writers can suggest even more environmental engineering dissertation topics to precisely suit the needs of your subject and area of research and help you achieve the grade you need.

How Can Research Prospect Help?

Research Prospect writers can send several custom topic ideas to your email address. Once you have chosen a topic that suits your needs and interests, you can order for our dissertation outline service which will include a brief introduction to the topic, research questions , literature review , methodology , expected results , and conclusion . The dissertation outline will enable you to review the quality of our work before placing the order for our full dissertation writing service !

Important Notes:

As a student of environmental engineering looking to get good grades, it is essential to develop new ideas and experiment on existing environmental engineering theories – i.e., to add value and interest to your research topic.

The field of environmental engineering is vast and interrelated with so many other academic disciplines. That is why creating an environmental engineering dissertation topic that is specific, sound, and actually solves a practical problem that may be rampant in the field is imperative.

We can’t stress how important it is to develop a logical research topic based on your entire research. There are several significant downfalls to getting your topic wrong; your supervisor may not be interested in working on it, the topic has no academic creditability, the research may not make logical sense, and there is a possibility that the study is not viable.

This impacts your time and efforts in writing your dissertation , as you may end up in the cycle of rejection at the initial stage of the dissertation. That is why we recommend reviewing existing research to develop a topic, taking advice from your supervisor, and even asking for help in this particular stage of your dissertation.

While developing a research topic, keeping our advice in mind will allow you to pick one of the best environmental engineering dissertation topics that fulfil your requirement of writing a research paper and add to the body of knowledge.

Therefore, it is recommended that when finalizing your dissertation topic, you read recently published literature to identify gaps in the research that you may help fill.

Remember- dissertation topics need to be unique, solve an identified problem, be logical, and be practically implemented. Please look at some of our sample environmental engineering dissertation topics to get an idea for your own dissertation.

How to Structure your Environmental Engineering Dissertation

A well-structured dissertation can help students to achieve a high overall academic grade.

About Research Prospect Ltd

Research Prospect is a  UK based academic writing service  that provides help with  Dissertation Proposal Writing ,  PhD. Proposal Writing ,  Dissertation Writing ,  Dissertation Editing, and Improvement .

Our team of writers  is highly qualified. They are experts in their respective fields. They have been working for us for a long time. Thus, they are well aware of the issues and the trends of the subject they specialize in.

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Master of Science in Environmental Engineering — Thesis Course Requirements

Students pursuing a masters of science with thesis are required to take 24 hours of organized course work and 6 hours of thesis ( CIVE 6399 and CIVE 7399 ). Students currently register for 12 credit hours of research and/or organized classes each long semester and 6 credit hours of research and/or organized classes in the summer semester.

Four core courses are required in the Masters of Science in Environmental Engineering program.

In addition to the required courses, students choose three electives from the following courses. Full time students are expected to choose electives that are applicable to their research projects.

Courses offered by other Departments within UH, as well as Rice and UH Clear Lake, are also acceptable. A list of some of these courses can be found here .

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List of Research Topics in Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineering is a discipline of engineering that deals with the prevention & control of water, air, and soil pollution. In this article list of Research Topics in Environmental Engineering is listed.

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The active research areas in the field of environmental engineering are water and wastewater treatment and disposal; environmental chemistry; environmental microbiology; environmental impact assessment; membrane technology; advanced oxidation process; catalysis; air pollution, prevention, and control; solid and hazardous waste management.

Water and wastewater treatment and reuse

Advanced oxidation technologies

Air pollution and control

Soil pollution and remediation

Solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal

CO 2 sequestration, separation, and utilization


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20 topic ideas for a Masters’ thesis in environmental engineering

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By Albert Barkley

topic ideas for a Masters' thesis in environmental engineering

Environmental engineering is a branch of engineering that is concerned with protecting people from the bad effects of environment for example pollution; environmental engineering also improves the quality of the environment. Environmental engineers work to improve recycling, waste disposal, public health, and water and air pollution control.

thesis on environmental engineering

Students of environmental engineering have to do research in their final semester or year to complete their degree as the research is the requirement for degree completion. Students often face difficulty in choosing topics for their research. Below are some topics mentioned for environment engineering thesis, which students can opt for their thesis.

The above-mentioned topics can help students of environmental engineering in their Master’s thesis .

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Environmental Engineering

free essay

The impact of industry on the environment increased the natural productivity of landscapes by means of drainage and irrigation, resulting in disturbed soil and water balance (Vesilind, Peirce, & Weiner, 1997). The intensity of the manufacturing industry and energy, as well as the use of chemicals in agriculture and increase in the number of transport poses a serious threat to the environment if all these manufacturing processes occur without taking into account the conditions of nature conservation. Therefore, in spite of the growing environmental impact a human being has onto the nature, the attempts of common ecological science to preserve the Earth’s nature are useless. Consequently, the new science, involving all spheres of human activity and solving the growing technology pollution problem by taking necessary measures, is needed. In 1960s, such science has appeared – environmental engineering.

General Characteristics of Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineering is a new trend in environmental science, which studies the interaction of nature and technology, formation patterns of natural-technical systems and possible management of these systems, so as to ensure environmental safety and protection of the natural environment. Environmental engineering tasks are to ensure environmental compliance processes and the technology itself at industrial sites. Engineering ecology provides a full range of interrelated tasks, such as:

In literature, along with the term “environmental engineering” terms of similar meaning are often used, but they are not synonymous. These include “applied ecology”, “industrial ecology”, “environmental protection”, etc. The latter term is of particular importance since it deals with similar aims and problems.

Environmental protection is by definition a system of legal, technical and sanitary measures aimed to ensure the management, conservation and restoration of natural resources. Environmental protection should be referred to the board, widely using ecological knowledge with more prohibitions or restrictions meaning technical, legal, organizational and some others rather than optimization of wildlife (Vesilind et al., 1997). On the other hand, the environment is a system practically implementing those targeted actions, which are formed (with the scientific rationale and experimental confirmation) within the framework of self-discipline “Environmental engineering”. Consequently, environmental engineering is a combination for technical knowledge in every field of industry as well as a legal issue of environmental protection, creating a basis for optimal use of natural resources.

Environmental Engineering History

Despite the fact that the environmental engineering is a relatively young science, its notion and techniques have been used as early as the ancient times. The realization of environment and nature protection intended for human well-being and health is not new. Even in ancient time, there were measures to improve the quality of the environment, in particular, the human habitat. For example, ancient Harappan civilization used collectors and some type of sewerage system in their cities (Franzle, Markert, & W?nschmann, 2012). The Romans are famous for building aqueducts that help fight with drought and provide clean, healthy water for the inhabitants of Roman capital. Later, in the 15th century the region of Bavaria began the legal realization of environmental engineering purposes. They adopted a law that forbade and restricted the development and degradation of alpine countryside, being responsible for water supply throughout the whole country.

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Environmental engineering as a separate discipline of ecology emerged only in the middle of the XX century in connection with the general public’s concern about water pollution and environmental pollution and degradation. Previously, these questions were related only to ecology (Franzle et al., 2012). Conversely, its roots go back to the early attempts to improve the environment by means of modern technology. Modern engineering environment protection concept appeared in London in the middle of the XIX century with the development of the first sewing system. Joseph Bazalzhett, the inventor of this system aimed to reduce the number of patients with water-transmitted diseases, such as cholera, and succeeded (Franzle et al., 2012). Further development led to the establishment of drinking water and wastewater treatment in countries with developed industry. As the result, the number of incidences of fatal diseases transmitted through water was significantly reduced. The quality of water was one of the main problems of contemporary cities. The water treatment system changed the image of the 19th century cities and began a new era of technologies, being applied for changing the environmental situation. This was the official start of environmental engineering explicit development.

Orientation of Study

The environmental engineering object of study is the impact of environmental factors and living organisms on the facilities (Vesilind et al., 1997). Human beings are trying to reduce the impact of their activity on nature, and nature is able to defend itself in response to the thoughtless and wasteful use of natural resources (Mitsch, 2012). There are several general fields where environmental engineering works and helps develop the harmonic interrelations between humankind and environment.

Agricultural engineering. This branch of environmental engineering science interacts with the biological basis of agriculture and animal husbandry. The ecosystem approach provides the principles and tools for the rational use of the Earth’s resources, aimed at improving the productivity of the industry and production of environmentally friendly products (Vesilind et al., 1997).

This can be confirmed by many examples from recent reports on agriculture. For example, the possibility of implementing an ambitious project that is the creation of “mega back-court” is discussed in Dagestan. It is scheduled to start production by means of modern innovative methods, computerization and robotics (Aliyeva, 2015). These technologies are a result of modern engineering development that meets the highest European standards. Dagestan complex marketable products will be grown in an environmentally responsible manner, without causing harm to the environment (Aliyeva, 2015).

Bioresource ecology. It examines the conditions, under which it can be possible to use natural ecosystems without causing the disruption of the ecological balance, depletion, loss of biodiversity and a complete loss of species (Vesilind et al., 1997). This is serious work on the development of effective methods for the recovery and enrichment of biological resources, creation of reserves, acclimatization of plants and animals.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, the fish catch on a global scale exceeds the permitted limit in 2.5 times (“Bycatch threats overview,” n.d.). Such reckless use of global fish stocks has led to depletion of more than half of the reserve. Large species of fish such as marlin, tuna, swordfish, flounder, halibut and cod will disappear in 2048 if the situation with uncontrolled catches does not change. In this situation, the work of environmental engineering provides the encouraging news. For example, in Tyumen region of Russia there is the plant for tilapia growing. The plant uses modern technology for closed water supply. The first production was obtained in the third quarter of 2013 and showed the surprising and promising results (Pavlov, Chuiko, & Pavlov, 2014). Such fish production does not cause harm to the existing ecosystem simultaneously providing humanity with a sufficient amount of fish. This example can be applied to any other type of bioresources, which is the primary aim of ecosystem ecology nowadays.

Ecology of settlements and areas of medicine, in its turn, examines the characteristics and impacting factors of transformed artificial on to the environment of the population living in towns and big cities (Franzle et al., 2012). Medical ecology studies the conditions for the occurrence, transmission and development of various diseases in humans in acute or chronic forms. The aims of this study include investigating natural factors leading to diseases, caused by man-made adverse effects on the environment (Vaughn, 1978).

Experts of relevant ministries and agencies in many countries have long been identifying the patterns in the emergence of new diseases in connection with the state of the environment. Several environmental specialists and veterinarians together with epidemiologists and medical scientists are taking serious steps to identify the concept of “environmental illness”. This is only one part the US-funded global project “Forecast” is aimed at realizing. Experts are trying to figure out how knowledge about synthetic changes in the landscape (the construction of farm roads, dams, etc.) can assist in predicting the emergence of new diseases among mankind. This is due to the pressing need to understand the laws of the natural ecosystem and reasonably take care of it (Franzle et al., 2012). Otherwise, the system will stop providing “services” that humankind so thoughtlessly uses and nature will probably begin a large-scale persecution of humanity so that no one can predict the consequences of such event. A good example is modern diseases with epidemic including AIDS, West Nile fever, Ebola, SARS, Lyme disease, and many hundreds of others, the occurrence of which is not accidental.

Contribution to Environment Maintenance

The role of environmental engineering in maintaining the environment cannot be underestimated. In fact, it is the main tool for proper treatment and creation of environmentally friendly appliances and substances (Franzle et al., 2012). Environmental engineers’ work covers a wide range of spheres and branches, providing the humanity with innovative and naturalistic solutions of saving and cleaning the environment. Without such engineering solutions as water and air filters, water cleaning system, sewerage system, alternative power sources and other facilities, the plane would have already been drowned in wastes and suffocated in fossil fuels (Vesilind et al., 1997). The major fields of human activities, where environmental engineering achieved great success and started helping to maintain the environment are given below.

Environmental Power Engineering

This branch is one of the most global and practical in environmental engineering. In addition, alternative sources of energy are the main trend in modern industry as being the most ecological and healthy for employees. In fact, the alternative in this case is a determination of a mode of action, similar to the previous methods. Alternative energy replaces traditional methods of producing energy (Franzle et al., 2012). Alternative energy is profitable in all of its parameters that is economically, environmentally and industrially. However, first of all, it is more environmentally friendly than traditional energy sources.

Incredible projects and ideas concerning the creation of alternative energy sources sometimes take the form of the science fiction. However, the engineering designs and projects in this sphere are very serious and applicable. The most widespread manifestation of environmental engineering in power industry is solar panels, tidal energy plants and wind turbines. Among the most unusual sources of energy one can find tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, wastes, plants and other sources, which are currently being developed and used for energy supply (Vesilind et al., 1997).

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Today, houses with roofs covered with solar panels have become common. Hybrid cars or cars requiring twice less fuel than simple automobiles have become the reality. They have been commercially available for over 10 years (Vesilind et al., 1997). Recently manufacturers have started producing serial electric cars that do not consume an ounce of gasoline. This is the direct result of environmental engineering solutions, applied for such common facilities as cars and houses.

As it was said above, environmental power engineering forms the greatest part of environmental engineering and is the most popular science. Engineering designs in this branch are among the most diverse. Moreover, engineering decisions in this field are most commonly used nowadays. For example, solar energy is the most common and cost-effective way to heat the water in the pool or plumbing (Franzle et al., 2012). On the other hand, the production of electricity using solar and photovoltaic cells nowadays form a considerable part of the world’s power.

Wind power still occupies a small part of the energy market, due to its main drawback, which is the lack of wind turbine power in the absence of wind. Nevertheless, engineers all over the world are currently trying to solve this problem. Only in Denmark, the percentage of wind power stations comprises 20 per cent of the country’s power market (Vesilind et al., 1997). Engineering solutions in the field of wind energy are among the most developed and innovative.

A lot of attention today is paid to the miniature hydroelectric power plants. Waterwheel prototype of hydroelectric turbine has been used since time immemorial. Mini hydropower plants work for a long time, providing electricity to homes, small towns and industrial facilities. In countries with high seismological activity, engineers are aimed to build geothermal power plants (DiPippo, 2012). They work on the thermal energy of groundwater. In the future, this heat can be used to generate electricity and heat in a cold season premises. However, even today there exists such type of energy, using the heat from the Earth’s deep interior, already feeding New Zealand and Iceland with power.

Finally, biofuel as the direct product of bioengineering is one of the most promising issues among environmental engineering technological solutions. Bioethanol is derived from corn, as a substitute for gasoline and biodiesel. Biogas is also a quite favorable and cost-effective technology. The last item is a novelty in the field of energy, because earlier organic wastes were simply rot and all the valuable methane was simply dissolved in the atmosphere. Currently, with the presence of modern equipment for the production of biogas one can not only provide heat and electricity, but also sell biogas at a high price (Franzle et al., 2012).

Solid Waste Management

Solid waste management is the collection, processing or disposal, transportation, and monitoring recycling process. The term usually refers to materials created directly or indirectly due to human activities and the control system is mainly aimed at reducing the harmful effects of wastes on human health and the environment, being also used for aesthetic reasons. Disposal of wastes is a way to conserve resources, which focuses on saving natural resources. Every year in the developed countries 1.3 billion tonnes of production and consumption wastes are formed (Vesilind et al., 1997). According to the European Environment Agency, about 3.5 tonnes of waste are accounted for one person per year. In Europe, 1 kg of consumption wastes is produced by one person per day, but the data varies from country to country (European Environmental Agency, 2013).

The concept of “waste management” is not simple tossing of used products into the trash and taking out the garbage truck to a landfill. If it were that easy, then many cities would not have faced problems with clogged streets and sewage waste, breeding of flies and rats and the deterioration of the urban environment on the whole. Waste management system is a complex problem that combines managerial, technical, financial, political, sociological and psychological aspects (Vesilind et al., 1997). Waste management usually requires the involvement of labor resources and close cooperation with public and commercial organizations. Organizational and financial problems, as well as errors in the selection and operation of the necessary equipment are the most common issues in the implementation of the system.

The choice of technology for the collection and disposal of wastes, as well as infrastructure development of waste management system affected by political decisions and companies competing with each other in the market is the task of environmental engineering facilities. It is a combination of engineering, social and legal issues to be solved (Franzle et al., 2012). Scientists currently developed social norms, which determine whether the proposed scheme of waste management is useful for this or that population or whether it becomes a short-term failed experiment. An important role in the selection of such systems for solid waste management, which would guarantee the support and participation of the public, is played by public awareness and support of the people (Vesilind et al., 1997). Specialists conduct researches for public interest and ability to use the waste management systems. That is why the development of effective waste management systems requires a detailed study of a large variety of issues and analysis of local conditions.

Residues themselves are also an important focus of attention. Typically, the waste consumption in industrialized countries is largely composed of paper, plastic, glass and metal packaging, and therefore has a low density. Such factors as the density of the waste are essential. For example, containers, and waste recycling facilities in the industrialized countries are intended for waste with a low density, and are not suitable or become unreliable if the incoming waste has greater weight owing to the greater density (Franzle et al., 2012). Considerable weight, the presence of sand in the waste, as well as the appearance of corrosion caused by excessive humidity can cause damage to the equipment.

Another important factor is the use of technologies for waste incineration. With high moisture content or inert materials, this type of waste cannot be applied since it is poorly susceptible to combustion. Furthermore, the extraction of waste for recycling and recycling itself help reduce the number of applicants for incineration of combustible waste in the composition components, such as paper and plastic.

These conclusions were the result of hard work of environmental engineering specialists. This knowledge helped reduce the number of waste deposit in developed countries by 30 percent. In addition, waste management is an educational facility teaching people to recycle and sort domestic wastes.

Water and Wastewater Treatment

Water recycling companies are a today’s priority in the development of low-waste and non-waste technology. Water is a valuable and most common resource. Reduction of water consumption and reduction of wastewater discharge after treatment in water bodies is the main task of the protection of water sources from contamination. As a result, environment engineering in this field is aimed at creating water and waster water cleaning facilities, as well as standards for using those (Franzle et al., 2012).

Treatment of industrial wastewater to the ceiling standards is carried out by selecting the optimum treatment technology, choosing high-performance engineering environmental equipment, and filtering elements and chemicals based on the results of qualitative analysis produced at the plant effluent. Engineers and scientists are working to provide water for drinking and agricultural use. They evaluate the water balance within the watershed and determine the available water supplies and water needed for different purposes in the watershed, observe seasonal cycles of water movement through the watershed, and develop a system to store, process, and convey water for various uses (Franzle et al., 2012). The water is treated to achieve high quality water for final use. In the case of drinking water supply, the initial liquid is treated with water to minimize the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, and create acceptable aqueous odor. Water distribution systems are designed and built in such a way to ensure that the appropriate pressure and volume of water meets the needs of the end user, such as domestic use, irrigation and fire extinguishing.

Sewage treatment is carried out in order to eliminate hazardous properties that may result in adverse effects for the environment (Vesilind et al., 1997). The use of different treatment technologies is aimed at neutralizing, decontamination or disposal of valuable components. Thus, the choice of technology and cleaning equipment depends primarily on the properties of wastewater and their deviations from the properties of natural waters. In other words, the choice of wastewater treatment depends on the harmful factors (HF), which are peculiar to waste water. Environmental engineering in this case deals with identification of HF and measures for their elimination (Franzle et al., 2012).

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Harmful factors may include not only toxic substances such as oil, surfactants, heavy metal ions, but also such generalized indicators as aggressive media, general hardness (above the permissible), and the content of ammonium nitrogen, oxidation and others. The presence of the effluent harmful factors is determined based on the analysis of characteristics of water. Each HF can match a group of indicators, i.e. in the presence of water there can be determined HF characteristics and in the absence of water some offline and HF characteristics. In addition, the same rate of wastewater may indicate the presence of several HF (Vesilind et al., 1997).

Environmental engineering solutions led to the creation of a great number of wastewater treatment technologies. The procedure for wastewater treatment developed by environmental engineers consists of a main system cleaner for the removal of solid and liquid materials, secondary treatment system consisting of pool ventilation and followed by the formation of sludge or activated sludge system, secondary cleaner, tertiary biological nitrogen removal system, and the final disinfection process. System sludge basin/aeration basin removes the organic material by growing bacteria (activated sludge). Secondary cleaner removes the activated sludge from the water (Franzle et al., 2012). Tertiary system, though not always included due to costs, is more common for nitrogen and phosphorus removal and disinfection before discharge into the surface water or then the ocean.

Air Pollution Control

Scientists have developed a model of the dispersion of air pollution to assess the concentration of the pollutant in the receptor or the impact on air quality from vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions stack gas (Mitsch, 2012). To some extent, this area illustrates the desire to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases produced during the combustion of materials.

Scientists developed a system of characteristic features for pollutants. Depending on the combustible fuel (fossil fuels, biomass, household or industrial waste), there may be different types of pollutants to capture requiring special components. In addition, the selection of a particular concept as influenced by the presence of additives fuel gas cleaning (FGC), and equipment for waste disposal. Environmental engineering here also deals with the requirements of various national and international laws governing permissible emission standards (Franzle et al., 2012). Scientists not only take into account the existing norms and standards for air pollution in various countries, but also create new ones to establish the international laws and create modern technological facilities in environmental engineering.

Ecological Civil Engineering

Ecological housing is a new type of home commonly called environmental. Environmental home is narrowly called home designed and equipped for maximum energy optimization. Broadly speaking, ecological house should not only be energy saving. It must maintain a healthy microclimate by using environmentally friendly construction materials, as well as reduce the burden on the environment by using the latest technology (Vesilind et al., 1997).

Eco House is one of the most modern and innovative trends in environmental engineering, becoming more and more popular every day. It is an individual or a row house with land, a radical resource that is energy-efficient and low-waste, healthy and well-appointed as well as non-aggressive towards the environment. This is achieved mainly by using local building materials, stand-alone or small collective life support systems, rational home construction, and renewable energy sources. Requirements for Green Building in developed countries include the entire cycle process. The aim of this approach is to minimize the negative impact on the environment and human health in terms of the production of building materials, construction, operation and disposal of building construction waste.

The concept of “eco-housing” involves the house itself, outbuildings, garden, vegetable garden, forestry, water storage system and a place for rest. Green building consists of major components of economic activity that meets the principles of sustainable consumption and production. The world community has paid much attention to this topic, particularly in the field defined by the Commission on Sustainable Development of the United Nations in 2010 and 2011 (Vesilind et al., 1997).

Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation

The greater the environmental consequences of human activities, the sooner they should be eradicated. American and Soviet scientists made this conclusion as a result of combined research conducted in the late 70s (Wathern, 2002). In other words, humanity increasingly needs not an effective way to eliminate the negative consequences but rather a reliable mechanism to prevent them.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a concept is the product of environmental engineering trends. This field deals not with the technological side of the problem, but with the legal one (Wathern, 2002). This is the set of requirements both for industrial and domestic facilities. It refers to any entrepreneur who organizes any production and should take into account environmental effects and consequences of this or that production.

The procedure involves a set of measures for the identification, accounting and analysis of the potential consequences of a negative nature that may affect the environment and occur as a result of economic enterprise and other activities. EIA allows managers to make informed and economic entities literate from an environmental point of view, management decisions, since it is able to predict the onset of potentially adverse effects on the part of businesses, competent to assess the environmental impacts that reduce the risks of their negative manifestations (Wathern, 2002).

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The EIA procedure provides mandatory accounting of public opinion. It includes a comprehensive set of research that aims to study the full impact of the work on the environment and its components (Wathern, 2002). The environmental impact assessment means understanding of the identification, analysis and consideration of the study’s results and the impact of the proposed facility on the environment to make a decision about the possibility/impossibility of its implementation.

Practically, the EIA works as follows: scientists simulate the dispersion of air pollution to assess the concentration of the pollutant on the receptor or the impact on air quality in the whole vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions of gas. To some extent, this area illustrates the desire to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases produced during the combustion of materials. They apply scientific and technical methods to assess the likelihood of adverse effects on the quality of water, air, habitat, flora and fauna, agriculture, transport, social sphere, environment, noise, visual impact, and so on. If the obtained impact is greater than expected one, they develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. An example of a mitigation measure can be an artificial creation of the swamp next to a natural order to reduce the level of waterlogging in the place, necessary for the construction of the road, if one cannot change the route construction (Wathern, 2002). In the United States, the practice of environmental assessment was formally launched on January 1, 1970, the date when the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was introduced. Since that time, more than 100 developing and developed countries have planned certain similar laws or accepted procedures used elsewhere. NEPA applies to all federal agencies in the United States (Wathern, 2002).

Environmental engineering is one of the fastest growing industries today, constantly introduced into most of the national economies. In addition, environmental technology is undergoing rapid development and growth. This complex of sciences is engaged in operation of environmental systems, quality control of raw materials, auxiliary materials and products. It participates in the development of proposals to improve the technology, ensuring environmental safety. It also plays an important role in the environmental review of project documentation, current technologies and industries. Depending on the specialization it uses certain tools and instruments for monitoring and analysis.

The contribution of this branch of science into today’s energy saving facilities cannot be underestimated. Thanks to this young science, the environmental protection today is a powerful engine only gathering pace.


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