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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.

This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

Table of contents

Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.

Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:

Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.

There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.

You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.

You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.

Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:

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Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.

Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.

In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”

A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.

The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.

A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.

A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.

Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:

You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.

Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.

Paragraph structure

Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.

Example paragraph

George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.

Citing sources

It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.

You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.

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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.

What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.

Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?

How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.

The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.

One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:

Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.

Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.

You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.

You should not :

There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.

The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.

Global concerns

Fine-grained details

Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:

Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .

Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading  or create an APA title page .

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Checklist: Research paper

I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.

My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.

My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .

My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .

Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.

I have used appropriate transitions  to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.

My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.

My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.

My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.

I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.

I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .

I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).

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Think of yourself as a member of a jury, listening to a lawyer who is presenting an opening argument. You'll want to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the lawyer plans to convince you. Readers of academic essays are like jury members: before they have read too far, they want to know what the essay argues as well as how the writer plans to make the argument. After reading your thesis statement, the reader should think, "This essay is going to try to convince me of something. I'm not convinced yet, but I'm interested to see how I might be."

An effective thesis cannot be answered with a simple "yes" or "no." A thesis is not a topic; nor is it a fact; nor is it an opinion. "Reasons for the fall of communism" is a topic. "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe" is a fact known by educated people. "The fall of communism is the best thing that ever happened in Europe" is an opinion. (Superlatives like "the best" almost always lead to trouble. It's impossible to weigh every "thing" that ever happened in Europe. And what about the fall of Hitler? Couldn't that be "the best thing"?)

A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay.

Steps in Constructing a Thesis

First, analyze your primary sources.  Look for tension, interest, ambiguity, controversy, and/or complication. Does the author contradict himself or herself? Is a point made and later reversed? What are the deeper implications of the author's argument? Figuring out the why to one or more of these questions, or to related questions, will put you on the path to developing a working thesis. (Without the why, you probably have only come up with an observation—that there are, for instance, many different metaphors in such-and-such a poem—which is not a thesis.)

Once you have a working thesis, write it down.  There is nothing as frustrating as hitting on a great idea for a thesis, then forgetting it when you lose concentration. And by writing down your thesis you will be forced to think of it clearly, logically, and concisely. You probably will not be able to write out a final-draft version of your thesis the first time you try, but you'll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have.

Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction.  A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter (5-15 page) essays. Readers are used to finding theses there, so they automatically pay more attention when they read the last sentence of your introduction. Although this is not required in all academic essays, it is a good rule of thumb.

Anticipate the counterarguments.  Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in your essay. (Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument—it may be a fact, or an opinion, but it is not an argument.)

This statement is on its way to being a thesis. However, it is too easy to imagine possible counterarguments. For example, a political observer might believe that Dukakis lost because he suffered from a "soft-on-crime" image. If you complicate your thesis by anticipating the counterargument, you'll strengthen your argument, as shown in the sentence below.

Some Caveats and Some Examples

A thesis is never a question.  Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question ("Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?") is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water.

A thesis is never a list.  "For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe" does a good job of "telegraphing" the reader what to expect in the essay—a section about political reasons, a section about economic reasons, a section about social reasons, and a section about cultural reasons. However, political, economic, social and cultural reasons are pretty much the only possible reasons why communism could collapse. This sentence lacks tension and doesn't advance an argument. Everyone knows that politics, economics, and culture are important.

A thesis should never be vague, combative or confrontational.  An ineffective thesis would be, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because communism is evil." This is hard to argue (evil from whose perspective? what does evil mean?) and it is likely to mark you as moralistic and judgmental rather than rational and thorough. It also may spark a defensive reaction from readers sympathetic to communism. If readers strongly disagree with you right off the bat, they may stop reading.

An effective thesis has a definable, arguable claim.  "While cultural forces contributed to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, the disintegration of economies played the key role in driving its decline" is an effective thesis sentence that "telegraphs," so that the reader expects the essay to have a section about cultural forces and another about the disintegration of economies. This thesis makes a definite, arguable claim: that the disintegration of economies played a more important role than cultural forces in defeating communism in Eastern Europe. The reader would react to this statement by thinking, "Perhaps what the author says is true, but I am not convinced. I want to read further to see how the author argues this claim."

A thesis should be as clear and specific as possible.  Avoid overused, general terms and abstractions. For example, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of the ruling elite's inability to address the economic concerns of the people" is more powerful than "Communism collapsed due to societal discontent."

Copyright 1999, Maxine Rodburg and The Tutors of the Writing Center at Harvard University

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The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper

Matt Ellis

Few things strike more fear in academics than the accursed research paper , a term synonymous with long hours and hard work. Luckily there’s a secret to help you get through them. As long as you know how to write a research paper properly, you’ll find they’re not so bad . . . or at least less painful. 

In this guide we concisely explain how to write an academic research paper step by step. We’ll cover areas like how to start a research paper, how to write a research paper outline, how to use citations and evidence, and how to write a conclusion for a research paper. 

But before we get into the details, let’s take a look at what a research paper is and how it’s different from other  writing . 

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What is a research paper?

A research paper is a type of  academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations. 

Research papers are a bedrock of modern science and the most effective way to share information across a wide network. However, most people are familiar with research papers from school; college courses often use them to test a student’s knowledge of a particular area or their research skills in general. 

Considering their gravity, research papers favor formal, even bland language that strips the writing of any bias. Researchers state their findings plainly and with corresponding evidence so that other researchers can consequently use the paper in their own research. 

Keep in mind that writing a research paper is different from  writing a research proposal . Essentially, research proposals are to acquire the funding needed to get the data to write a research paper. 

How long should a research paper be? 

The length of a research paper depends on the topic or assignment. Typically, research papers run around 4,000–6,000 words, but it’s common to see short papers around 2,000 words or long papers over 10,000 words. 

If you’re writing a paper for school, the recommended length should be provided in the assignment. Otherwise, let your topic dictate the length: Complicated topics or extensive research will require more explanation. 

How to write a research paper in 9 steps

Below is a step-by-step guide to writing a research paper, catered specifically for students rather than professional researchers. While some steps may not apply to your particular assignment, think of this as more of a general guideline to keep you on track. 

1 Understand the assignment

For some of you this goes without saying, but you might be surprised at how many students start a research paper without even reading the assignment guidelines. 

So your first step should be to review the assignment and carefully read the writing prompt. Specifically, look for technical requirements such as length , formatting requirements (single- vs. double-spacing, indentations, etc.) and citation style . Also pay attention to the particulars, such as whether or not you need to  write an abstract or include a cover page. 

Once you understand the assignment, the next steps in how to write a research paper follow the usual  writing process , more or less. There are some extra steps involved because research papers have extra rules, but the gist of the writing process is the same. 

2 Choose your topic

In open-ended assignments, the student must choose their own topic. While it may seem simple enough, choosing a topic is actually the most important decision you’ll make in writing a research paper, since it determines everything that follows. 

Your top priority in how to choose a research paper topic is whether it will provide enough content and substance for an entire research paper. You’ll want to choose a topic with enough data and complexity to enable a rich discussion. However, you also want to avoid general topics and instead stick with topics specific enough that you can cover all the relevant information without cutting too much.  

Try not to be robotic about choosing your topic, though; it’s still best to pick something that you’re personally interested in. Ideally, you’ll find a topic that satisfies both requirements, something that provides a suitable amount of content and also keeps you engaged. 

3 Gather preliminary research

The sooner you start researching, the better—after all, it’s called a research paper for a reason.

To refine your topic and prepare your thesis statement, find out what research is available for your topic as soon as possible. Early research can help dispel any misconceptions you have about the topic and reveal the best paths and approaches to find more material. 

Typically, you can find sources either online or in a library. If you’re searching online, make sure you use credible sources like science journals or academic papers. Some search engines—mentioned below in the Tools and resources section—allow you to browse only accredited sources and academic databases. 

Keep in mind the  difference between primary and secondary sources as you search. Primary sources are firsthand accounts, like published articles or autobiographies; secondary sources are more removed, like critical reviews or secondhand biographies. 

When gathering your research, it’s better to skim sources instead of reading each potential source fully. If a source seems useful, set it aside to give it a full read later. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck poring over sources that you ultimately won’t use, and that time could be better spent finding a worthwhile source. 

Sometimes you’re required to submit a  literature review , which explains your sources and presents them to an authority for confirmation. Even if no literature review is required, it’s still helpful to compile an early list of potential sources—you’ll be glad you did later.  

4 Write a thesis statement

Using what you found in your preliminary research, write a  thesis statement that succinctly summarizes what your research paper will be about. This is usually the first sentence in your paper, making it your reader’s introduction to the topic. 

A thesis statement is the best answer for how to start a research paper. Aside from preparing your reader, the thesis statement also makes it easier for other researchers to assess whether or not your paper is useful to them for their own research. Likewise, you should read the thesis statements of other research papers to decide how useful they are to you. 

A good thesis statement mentions all the important parts of the discussion without disclosing too many of the details. If you’re having trouble putting it into words, try to phrase your topic as a question and then answer it . 

For example, if your research paper topic is about separating students with ADHD from other students, you’d first ask yourself, “Does separating students with ADHD improve their learning?” The answer—based on your preliminary research—is a good basis for your thesis statement. 

5 Determine supporting evidence

At this stage of how to write an academic research paper, it’s time to knuckle down and do the actual research. Here’s when you go through all the sources you collected earlier and find the specific information you’d like to use in your paper. 

Normally, you find your supporting evidence by reading each source and taking notes. Isolate only the information that’s directly relevant to your topic; don’t bog down your paper with tangents or unnecessary context, however interesting they may be. And always write down page numbers , not only for you to find the information later, but also because you’ll need them for your citations. 

Aside from highlighting text and writing notes, another common tactic is to use bibliography cards . These are simple index cards with a fact or direct quotation on one side and the bibliographical information (source citation, page numbers, subtopic category) on the other. While bibliography cards are not necessary, some students find them useful for staying organized, especially when it’s time to write an outline. 

6 Write a research paper outline

A lot of students want to know how to write a research paper outline. More than informal essays, research papers require a methodical and systematic structure to make sure all issues are addressed, and that makes outlines especially important. 

First make a list of all the important categories and subtopics you need to cover—an outline for your outline! Consider all the information you gathered when compiling your supporting evidence and ask yourself what the best way to separate and categorize everything is. 

Once you have a list of what you want to talk about, consider the best order to present the information. Which subtopics are related and should go next to each other? Are there any subtopics that don’t make sense if they’re presented out of sequence? If your information is fairly straightforward, feel free to take a chronological approach and present the information in the order it happened. 

Because research papers can get complicated, consider breaking your outline into paragraphs. For starters, this helps you stay organized if you have a lot of information to cover. Moreover, it gives you greater control over the flow and direction of the research paper. It’s always better to fix structural problems in the outline phase than later after everything’s already been written. 

Don’t forget to include your supporting evidence in the outline as well. Chances are you’ll have a lot you want to include, so putting it in your outline helps prevent some things from falling through the cracks. 

7 Write the first draft

Once your outline is finished, it’s time to start actually writing your research paper. This is by far the longest and most involved step, but if you’ve properly prepared your sources and written a thorough outline, everything should run smoothly. 

If you don’t know how to write an introduction for a research paper, the beginning can be difficult. That’s why writing your  thesis statement beforehand is crucial. Open with your thesis statement and then fill out the rest of your introduction with the secondary information—save the details for the body of your research paper, which comes next. 

The body contains the bulk of your research paper. Unlike  essays , research papers usually divide the body into sections with separate headers to facilitate browsing and scanning. Use the divisions in your outline as a guide. 

Follow along your outline and go paragraph by paragraph. Because this is just the first draft, don’t worry about getting each word perfect . Later you’ll be able to revise and fine-tune your writing, but for now focus simply on saying everything that needs to be said. In other words, it’s OK to make mistakes since you’ll go back later to correct them. 

One of the most common problems with writing long works like research papers is connecting paragraphs to each other. The longer your writing is, the harder it is to tie everything together smoothly. Use  transition sentences to improve the flow of your paper, especially for the first and last sentences in a paragraph. 

Even after the body is written, you still need to know how to write a conclusion for a research paper. Just like  an essay conclusion , your research paper conclusion should restate your thesis , reiterate your main evidence , and summarize your findings in a way that’s easy to understand. 

Don’t add any new information in your conclusion, but feel free to say your own personal perspective or interpretation if it helps the reader understand the big picture. 

8 Cite your sources correctly

Citations are part of what sets research papers apart from more casual nonfiction like personal essays . Citing your sources both validates your data and also links your research paper to the greater scientific community. Because of their importance, citations must follow precise formatting rules . . . problem is, there’s more than one set of rules!

You need to check with the assignment to see which formatting style is required. Typically, academic research papers follow one of two formatting styles for citing sources:

The links above explain the specific formatting guidelines for each style, along with an automatic citation generator to help you get started. 

In addition to MLA and APA styles, you occasionally see requirements for  CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style),  AMA (American Medical Association) and  IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 

Citations may seem confusing at first with all their rules and specific information. However, once you get the hang of them, you’ll be able to properly cite your sources without even thinking about it. Keep in mind that each formatting style has specific guidelines for citing just about any kind of source, including photos , websites , speeches , and YouTube videos .

9 Edit and proofread

Last but not least, you want to go through your research paper to correct all the mistakes by  proofreading . We recommend going over it twice: once for structural issues such as adding/deleting parts or rearranging paragraphs and once for word choice, grammatical, and spelling mistakes. Doing two different editing sessions helps you focus on one area at a time instead of doing them both at once. 

To help you catch everything, here’s a quick checklist to keep in mind while you edit:

Structural edit:

Word choice, grammar, and spelling edit:

Some people find it useful to read their paper out loud to catch problems they might miss when reading in their head. Another solution is to have someone else read your paper and point out areas for improvement and/or technical mistakes. 

Revising is a separate skill from writing, and being good at one doesn’t necessarily make you good at the other. If you want to improve your revision skills, read our  guide on self-editing , which includes a more complete checklist and advanced tips on improving your revisions. 

Technical issues like grammatical mistakes and misspelled words can be handled effortlessly if you use a spellchecker with your word processor, or even better, a digital writing assistant that also suggests improvements for word choice and tone, like Grammarly (we explain more in the Tools and resources section below). 

Tools and resources

If you want to know more about how to write a research paper, or if you want some help with each step, take a look at the tools and resources below. 

Google Scholar

This is Google’s own search engine, which is dedicated exclusively to academic papers. It’s a great way to find new research and sources. Plus, it’s free to use. 

Zotero is a freemium, open-source research manager, a cross between an organizational CMS and a search engine for academic research. With it, you can browse the internet for research sources relevant to your topic and share them easily with colleagues. Also, it automatically generates citations. 


Writing long research papers is always a strain on your attention span. If you have trouble avoiding distractions during those long stretches, FocusWriter might be able to help. FocusWriter is a minimalist word processor that removes all the distracting icons and sticks only to what you type. You’re also free to choose your own customized backgrounds, with other special features like timed alarms, daily goals, and optional typewriter sound effects. 

Google Charts

This useful and free tool from Google lets you create simple charts and graphs based on whatever data you input. Charts and graphs are excellent visual aids for expressing numeric data, a perfect complement if you need to explain complicated evidential research. 

Grammarly goes way beyond grammar, helping you hone word choice, checking your text for plagiarism, detecting your tone, and more. For foreign-language learners, it can make your English sound more fluent, and even those who speak English as their primary language benefit from Grammarly’s suggestions. 

Research paper FAQs

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that analyzes, evaluates, or interprets a single topic with empirical evidence and statistical data. 

When will I need to write a research paper in college?

Many college courses use research papers to test a student’s knowledge of a particular topic or their research skills in general. While research papers depend on the course or professor, you can expect to write at least a few before graduation. 

How do I determine a topic for my research paper?

If the topic is not assigned, try to find a topic that’s general enough to provide ample evidence but specific enough that you’re able to cover all the basics. If possible, choose a topic you’re personally interested in—it makes the work easier. 

Where can I conduct research for my paper?

Today most research is conducted either online or in libraries. Some topics might benefit from old periodicals like newspapers or magazines, as well as visual media like documentaries. Museums, parks, and historical monuments can also be useful. 

How do I cite sources for a research paper?

The correct formatting for citations depends on which style you’re using, so check the assignment guidelines. Most school research reports use either  MLA or  APA styles, although there are others. 

This article was originally written by Karen Hertzberg in 2017. It’s been updated to include new information.

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Scrutinize Research Paper Thesis Statement Examples

Explicit tips on writing a thesis, how to write a research paper thesis: a quick guide.

We all know that thesis for a research paper is very important. Thesis statement conveys the main debatable idea - the last sentence or two of your introduction . You need to make your thesis clear. If not, you may feel frustrated when your teacher asks what the main ideas of your writing were after all hours you spent developing the research paper.

Always analyze research paper thesis statement examples. Decent research thesis statements have much in common. You need to introduce a good argument, not a fact but a valid debatable point of your essay.

Search a pressing issue, questions within your topic; it is important the evidence discovered actually support your thesis. Coming up with a strong statement for a research work may be a daunting task. One may spend too much time formulating it still changing the wording at some stage of writing. Most likely you will need some assistance.

As Napoleon Bonaparte said, “if you want a thing done well, do it yourself”! It may not work for everyone. We have professional team of experienced writers who will provide you with assistance you need saving you from stress and wasted hours. We will write a paragraph and give you a thesis. If required, we will revise it up to the point where you like it.

Reading examples helps guide you to a clear thesis. It reveals important elements and can explain you the reasons why this is a strong statement. We will present the examples of good and bad theses . Then we will provide important tips on how to change your wording to make it worthy of professional writer.

No : We should avoid consuming food high in sugar.

Yes : People need to decrease the consumption of products high in sugar because this diet can cause health issues like diabetes and heart diseases.

No : A high number of young people cannot afford to pay tuition costs.

Yes : All young people willing to enroll in a college should have an opportunity to do so by having access to the governmental because this helps them get a job and repay the governmental investment in their education.

No : Prohibiting marijuana is a good cause to pursue, but there are some people who need it for medicinal use.

Yes : America should prohibit marijuana in all forms because this is a drug many people abuse. What’s worse, it causes many health issues like cancer.

Thesis statement examples for research paper are helpful. When a reader sees such examples, they analyze the text, information, and opinion expressed in a thesis. A claim you make should not be simple. Focus on what you want to argue and give reasons, keeping in mind that your position should be proven later in the project. Knowing how to write a research paper thesis gives you an upper hand in college. You can ask for writers’ assistance; relax – order your research project from us !

Effective statement makes a great impression on a reader. It gives you credit since you need to possess profound writing skills. We have prepared a quick list of tips you can follow to tailor your perfect assertion.

Formulate a question then give an answer. Your answer is now a basis for the research paper thesis statement; expand it providing more evidence, ideas which you will later support in your research.

There is a difference between theses of argumentative, expository, and analytical research. Expository essay should teach you something or clearly explain a point. The goal of an argumentative thesis is to change a reader’s mind on an issue analyzed in the essay. If you need to devise an analytical research, pay attention to the details that you will examine to better understand the whole concept.

Never include an opposite opinion in your assertion. Make sure you take a specific side; come up with all possible supporting details that will make your position even stronger.

The golden rule is to come up with the thesis at the end of your research. This is required to ensure you can find strong evidence to prove your thesis . Avoid too complicated formulations that cover large scopes. If your assertion for a research paper is very subjective and hard to prove, you may want to reconsider your position.

We have prepared a short list of steps you need to follow if you have no idea how to write a research paper thesis.

Following these tips will help you focus on the correct way to formulate a solid thesis for your research work. Along with that, it is recommended to consult experts in the field. Order from us – ensure your thesis is professionally composed, provable, debatable. Our writers are experts in thesis writing. They will help you devise the most appropriate and effective thesis for your paper.

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Thesis vs. Research Paper: Know the Differences

It is not uncommon for individuals, academic and nonacademic to use “thesis” and “research paper” interchangeably. However, while the thesis vs. research paper puzzle might seem amusing to some, for graduate, postgraduate and doctoral students, knowing the differences between the two is crucial. Not only does a clear demarcation of the two terms help you acquire a precise approach toward writing each of them, but it also helps you keep in mind the subtle nuances that go into creating the two documents. This brief guide discusses the main difference between a thesis and a research paper.

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This article discusses the main difference between a thesis and a research paper. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.

It is not uncommon for individuals, academic and nonacademic to use “thesis” and “research paper” interchangeably. After all, both terms share the same domain, academic writing . Moreover, characteristics like the writing style, tone, and structure of a thesis and research paper are also homogenous to a certain degree. Hence, it is not surprising that many people mistake one for the other.

However, while the thesis vs. research paper puzzle might seem amusing to some, for graduate, postgraduate and doctoral students, knowing the differences between the two is crucial. Not only does a clear demarcation of the two terms help you acquire a precise approach toward writing each of them, but it also helps you keep in mind the subtle nuances that go into creating the two documents.

Defining the two terms: thesis vs. research paper

The first step to discerning between a thesis and research paper is to know what they signify.

  Thesis: A thesis or a dissertation is an academic document that a candidate writes to acquire a university degree or similar qualification. Students typically submit a thesis at the end of their final academic term. It generally consists of putting forward an argument and backing it up with individual research and existing data.

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Research Paper: A research paper is also an academic document, albeit shorter compared to a thesis. It consists of conducting independent and extensive research on a topic and compiling the data in a structured and comprehensible form. A research paper demonstrates a student's academic prowess in their field of study along with strong analytical skills.

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10 Free Online Journal and Research Databases for Researchers

How to Formulate Research Questions

Now that we have a fundamental understanding of a thesis and a research paper, it is time to dig deeper. To the untrained eye, a research paper and a thesis might seem similar. However, there are some differences, concrete and subtle, that set the two apart.

1. Writing objectives

The objective behind writing a thesis is to obtain a master's degree or doctorate and the ilk. Hence, it needs to exemplify the scope of your knowledge in your study field. That is why choosing an intriguing thesis topic and putting forward your arguments convincingly in favor of it is crucial.

A research paper is written as a part of a course's curriculum or written for publication in a peer-review journal. Its purpose is to contribute something new to the knowledge base of its topic.

2. Structure

Although both documents share quite a few similarities in their structures, the framework of a thesis is more rigid. Also, almost every university has its proprietary guidelines set out for thesis writing.

Comparatively, a research paper only needs to keep the IMRAD format consistent throughout its length. When planning to publish your research paper in a peer-review journal, you also must follow your target journal guidelines.

3. Time Taken

A thesis is an extensive document encompassing the entire duration of a master's or doctoral course and as such, it takes months and even years to write.

A research paper, being less lengthy, typically takes a few weeks or a few months to complete.

4. Supervision

Writing a thesis entails working with a faculty supervisor to ensure that you are on the right track. However, a research paper is more of a solo project and rarely needs a dedicated supervisor to oversee.

5. Finalization

The final stage of thesis completion is a viva voce examination and a thesis defense. It includes proffering your thesis to the examination board or a thesis committee for a questionnaire and related discussions. Whether or not you will receive a degree depends on the result of this examination and the defense.

A research paper is said to be complete when you finalize a draft, check it for plagiarism, and proofread for any language and contextual errors . Now all that's left is to submit it to the assigned authority.

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In the context of academic writing, a thesis and a research paper might appear the same. But, there are some fundamental differences that set apart the two writing formats. However, since both the documents come under the scope of academic writing, they also share some similarities. Both require formal language, formal tone, factually correct information & proper citations. Also, editing and proofreading are a must for both. Editing and Proofreading ensure that your document is properly formatted and devoid of all grammatical & contextual errors. So, the next time when you come across a thesis vs. research paper argument, keep these differences in mind.

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Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering papers with proper tone, content, and style of  academic writing,  and also provide an upscale  editing and proofreading service  for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.

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You can also avail of our assistance if you are looking for editors who can format your manuscript, or just check on the  particular styles  for the formatting task as per the guidelines provided to you, e.g.,  APA,  MLA, or Chicago/Turabian styles. Best Edit & Proof editors and proofreaders provide all sorts of academic writing help, including editing and proofreading services, using our user-friendly website, and a streamlined ordering process.

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Visit our  order page  if you want our subject-area editors or language experts to work on your manuscript to improve its tone and style and give it a perfect academic tone and style through proper editing and proofreading. The process of submitting a paper is very easy and quick. Click here to find out how it  works.

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A good part of any research depends on the right questions asked. If you are asking wrong questions, your entire research may go off track. Therefore, understanding what questions you need to ask is essential for your research. If you are on the way to your research but don’t know how to start framing the right research questions, we have just the right information for you. This article discusses the process of formulating research questions.

write thesis and research paper

Essays are a principal component of academic writing. Scholars and students need to write a plethora of essays on a recurring basis as a core requirement of their research or curricula. Depending on the writing purpose, these essays can be persuasive, narrative, descriptive, or expository. This article expounds on expository essays and suggests some helpful steps to write an expository essay.

write thesis and research paper

A hypothesis is a testable statement on which scientific research focus. Suppose you wish to investigate a relationship between two or more variables. In that case, you must construct hypotheses before you begin your experiment or data collection.


Difference Between Thesis and Research paper

You all must have heard about Thesis and Research Papers and many of you must be confused about them. When you go to graduate schools, postgraduate schools or pursue a doctorate degree, you need to submit either thesis or research paper or dissertation. In this blog post, we will discuss the “difference between Thesis and Research Paper”.

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Thesis vs Research Paper

Table of Contents

Both of them are academic writings. They both are having a similar internal structure like both contains an introduction, literature review , research methodology, data analysis, interpretation, findings, conclusions etc. but differ by purpose, style of writing and specific components. Our experts will discuss these in detail. Many students find the difficulty in differentiating them. So here we begin with “Difference between Thesis and Research Paper”.

Difference between Thesis and Research Papers

The purpose of writing a thesis is to obtain a university degree or qualification. Purpose of writing a research paper is to expand knowledge. The reader must learn something new when he or she read the research paper. This is major difference between Thesis and Research Paper.

Since thesis is written to obtain a degree so it is usually longer than research paper . The research paper is all about establishing central part of thesis with all the data and proofs gathered.

3.Time Taken

As we know that thesis is lengthier than research paper so the completion of thesis takes a lot more time than that of the research papers.

4.Help Required

Thesis is always completed in someone’s supervision i.e. for completion of thesis, university assigns the student a supervisor. But in case of research paper, most of the times, no supervisor is assigned. If in case you need help, you can take help from Homework Help Websites.

Thesis is said to be completed after the oral examination which takes place after the submission of the thesis. This oral examination includes the presentation of your thesis in front of the examination board and answering their questions. The final results are based on both contents of the thesis and an oral examination. But the research paper is said to be completed after the plagiarism check of the research paper and the content of the research paper.

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The demand for originality is much higher for thesis as compared to that of the research papers.   While choosing a topic for thesis the author must take into consideration the expectation of originality in the field or the input of some relevant new information or ideas. This is also a difference between Thesis and Research Paper.

That was all about “difference between Thesis and Research Paper”. Hope this article will help you. Most of the people find difficulty in making assignments, research papers, Thesis etc. due to their complex nature and lack of supervision. If you too are facing any difficulty in completing these, then you can take the help of experts. Here at CallTutors, we are having a team of experts to help you out and meet your demands in the given time.

Frequently asked questions

What is the most important part of a thesis.

The abstract is the most important part of the thesis; although it is very short (approximately one-two paragraphs), it can be considered the most significant part of your thesis. The abstract provides an overall idea about your research.

What is the most important part of research?

Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method of study, Results, Analysis/Interpretation of Results, and Conclusion. These are the main parts of a research paper.

What is the key step in the research process?

Defining the problem is a crucial step in the research process. Defining the problem sets the foundation for the entire project, so it is critically important to take the time to do this well.

What are the main types of research methods?

· Questionnaires. · Interviews. · Experiments. · Surveys. · Case studies. · Participant and non-participant observation. · Studies using the Delphi method. · Observational trials.

If you have any query please mention in the comments section below.  

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This article was co-authored by Chris Hadley, PhD . Chris Hadley, PhD is part of the wikiHow team and works on content strategy and data and analytics. Chris Hadley earned his PhD in Cognitive Psychology from UCLA in 2006. Chris' academic research has been published in numerous scientific journals. There are 15 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 45 testimonials and 80% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 4,107,911 times.

Whether you’re in a history, literature, or science class, you’ll probably have to write a research paper at some point. It may seem daunting when you’re just starting out, but staying organized and budgeting your time can make the process a breeze. Research your topic, find reliable sources, and come up with a working thesis. Then create an outline and start drafting your paper. Be sure to leave plenty of time to make revisions, as editing is essential if you want to hand in your best work!

Sample Research Papers and Outlines

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Researching Your Topic

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Tip: If you need to analyze a piece of literature, your task is to pull the work apart into literary elements and explain how the author uses those parts to make their point.

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Drafting Your Essay

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Tip: Some people prefer to write the introduction first and use it to structure the rest of the paper. However, others like to write the body, then fill in the introduction. Do whichever seems natural to you. If you write the intro first, keep in mind you can tweak it later to reflect your finished paper’s layout.

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Revising Your Paper

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Tip: Try to give yourself at least 2 or 3 days to revise your paper. It may be tempting to simply give your paper a quick read and use the spell-checker to make edits. However, revising your paper properly is more in-depth.

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To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database. As you conduct your research and take notes, zero in on a specific topic that you want to write about and create a 1-2 sentence thesis to state the focus of your paper. Then, create an outline that includes an introduction, 3 to 5 body paragraphs to present your arguments, and a conclusion to sum up your main points. Once you have your paper's structure organized, draft your paragraphs, focusing on 1 argument per paragraph. Use the information you found through your research to back up your claims and prove your thesis statement. Finally, proofread and revise your content until it's polished and ready to submit. For more information on researching and citing sources, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How To Write A Thesis

Last updated on: Jan 2, 2023

How to Write a Thesis - Beginner’s Guide & Format

By: Cathy A.

Reviewed By: Melisa C.

Published on: Jan 3, 2023

How to Write a Thesis

Writing a thesis is an important part of completing your degree. It is the culmination of many years of study within a specific field of study.However, some high school and college students get confused and take it as a strenuous task. Therefore, you don’t need to worry about your thesis submission. Continue reading this blog and get to know how to write a thesis like professional writers.

How to Write a Thesis

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What is a Thesis?

The thesis is an essential document that every student needs to be submitted at the end of their degree. It is the piece of writing that presents the original research work and findings on a specific topic.

The main purpose of the thesis is to:

Normally, a thesis is a long academic paper that often requires months or even years of research, and it is defended in front of the university committee.

Also, a thesis is sometimes known as a dissertation. However, these terms are interchangeable and may vary between universities and countries.

A good thesis should be:

However, you should know your professor’s needs for a thesis because every university or teacher has different requirements.

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A thesis is different from a dissertation and details about  dissertation vs thesis  will help you notice these differences.

Thesis Format

Here is a thesis format for your ease.

Preliminary Pages

Ending Section

Follow this format for writing your thesis. Keep in mind, all types of thesis formats remain the same, but consult your professor and ask them.

Related:   A Comprehensive Thesis Format Guide for Beginners

How to Write a Good Thesis?

Writing a thesis is probably a daunting task, especially if you don’t know how to write it. Therefore, for your help, we compiled some steps that will guide you in drafting a well-written thesis.

1. Choosing a Topic

The thesis is the research work or academic assignment that you will spend a lot of time on. Therefore, carefully choose the topic for your thesis.

When you choose the topic, you have to keep in mind some points. These are:

Also, consult your professor and get help from them in the topic selection phase. However, never start writing the thesis on your chosen topic before getting approval from your professor. Good  thesis topics  are good enough to guide you regarding your research and help you write a strong thesis easily.

2. Choose Thesis Question

In this step, you will carefully consider questions for your thesis that you will answer in your research work. However, make sure that your questions and answers that you write will provide the original content of your research. Also, a logical question will keep your thesis focused, organized, and interesting.

Therefore, when you formulate your thesis topic and direction of the research question. Try developing the 5-10 different questions about your research.

Through this way, you have to flexibly think about your topic and conceptualize how small changes in the wording can change the direction of your research.

3. Conduct Research

After selecting the research question, you will need to research to answer the question. Therefore, try to conduct experiments, read books, articles, and do what you have to do to answer the thesis question.

In this way, you will see if your research project is worth moving forward with or some issues you need to work out. It also guides you in collecting information that you need to move forward to the next steps.

4. Complete the Literature Review

Now, you have to review the literature for your thesis. However, a review of the literature must be in-depth and comprehensive to ensure that your thesis will be important and not redundant.

Therefore, when you review the literature, you should keep in mind some questions.

It is important to create the original and relevant thesis. Also, take notes on the background information about your topic.

5. Choose Primary and Secondary Sources

Selecting the primary and secondary sources is necessary for the thesis. However, before choosing the sources, you should know the difference between them.

6. Manage your Citation

The selection of the citation style depends on your field and the professor’s requirements. You must pick the right citation format and use them from the start, rather than add them after you finish your writing.

Therefore, before picking the citation format, you should know the most common formats:

Despite these, there are other citation formats that you will also use for your thesis. Also, keep track of each source that you cited in your thesis.

7. Create an Outline

Creating an outline is essential for you, and it guides you throughout your research work. It works as a plan that you need to accomplish.

In the thesis outline, you should include:

With the help of a thesis outline, you will organize your ideas. Therefore, create it first and then start your writing phase.

8. Write the Thesis Introduction

An introduction is the first part of the thesis, in which you can introduce the topic and grab the reader’s attention. It is the section in which you define your research scope and state the main research objective.

Some writers write the introduction at last rather than revisit and revise the introduction at several points throughout the writing process.

Also, a good  thesis introduction  is vital because it decides whether the reader read the entire paper or not.

9. Write the Literature Review

The literature review is the summary of all the existing sources that have already written about your topic. It is a combination of primary and secondary sources that you used for your thesis. You should also explain how your work contributes to the existing research.

Therefore, if you write it in the working thesis, it’s good for you. However, if you don’t, start writing and do proper research.

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10. Describe the Methodology

The methodology section explains which research methods you use for conducting the research. In this section, you should include:

11. Results

In this part, you will mention the result findings in reference to the good thesis statement and the hypothesis. Demonstrate that you achieve the expected result or not.

12. Discussion

In the discussion section, you will explain the research outcomes. Also, explain if the results are different than the expected ones, discuss the reasons behind it and the relationship between the results.

13. Write a Strong Thesis Conclusion

The conclusion of the thesis should be strong and powerful. It helps and encourages the readers to do further research on the topic.

However, avoid writing the same information again and not introduce new ideas. The good rule is to try to keep it short and clearly summarize the whole paper.

14. References

In the references section, add the sources that you used in your thesis. It is a mandatory page that allows you to add credibility to your work by avoiding plagiarism. For the references, use the proper citation format.

15. Appendices

In the appendices, you include the information that doesn’t mention in the main body of the thesis. Appendices are the section in which you add the following information:

16. Proofreading and Editing

Once you finish writing your final draft, take some time and then start the proofreading step. In this step, check your thesis with your professor’s guidelines. Make sure that your thesis is free from all grammatical, vocabulary, and punctuation mistakes.

Thesis Example

Take a look at this sample and get an idea from them of a well-written thesis.

Thesis Sample (PDF)

Now, you get to know how to write a thesis paper but don’t have time to write it or have weak thesis writing skills. Simply consult  GradSchoolGenius.com .

Our professional writers offer the best  thesis writing service  of all types of academic levels. They also guide you in how to write an essay, term papers, research proposals, argumentative thesis statement, and other academic assignments.

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Cathy A.

Natural Sciences, Life Sciences

Cathy has been been working as an author on our platform for over five years now. She has a Masters degree in mass communication and is well-versed in the art of writing. Cathy is a professional who takes her work seriously and is widely appreciated by clients for her excellent writing skills.

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70 Examples of Excellent Thesis Statements for Essays in All Subjects

Looking at examples of thesis statements can be helpful when you’re crafting a thesis statement to guide your essay.

We’ve already looked at how to write a thesis statement and the thesis statement formula . In this article, we’ll present a ton of examples of thesis statements for a range of different subjects.

When you read through them, you should start to see a pattern emerge in terms of how they typically adhere to the following set of rules:

A good dissertation editor will be able to help you ensure your thesis statement is strong and is structured properly.

Can a Thesis Statement Include More Than One Question?

A thesis statement does not need to be a single sentence. The length of your thesis statement will vary according to the complexity of the subject you are exploring.

In some cases, a single sentence may suffice. However, in other cases, you may use two, or even three, sentences

Your overall aim should be to ensure the statement is as short and direct as possible, as this will help you to appear confident. This is particularly important in argumentative essays .

Let’s remind ourselves of the basics of a good thesis statement.

70 Strong Thesis Statement Examples for Research Papers and Dissertations

Now we’ve covered the basis, let’s take a look at some really great examples of thesis statements.

15 Example Thesis Statements on the Social Sciences

15 Sample Thesis Statements for Literary Analysis Essays

10 Sample Thesis Statements on History

10 Example Thesis Statements on Art

15 Examples of English Language Thesis Statements

As you will see from all the example thesis statements shared above, a good thesis statement follows a general formula.

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Research Hypothesis: The Essential Requirements and Guidelines

27 Feb 2023

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❔ What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Research Question vs Hypothesis

Null hypothesis.

📔 Hypothesis Essential Requirements

🎓 How to Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis

📋 Research Hypothesis Example

Writing research requires students to have a deep knowledge not only of the subject but also of the requirements for the project. There are a lot of structural units that form an integral part of research writing.

Knowing the right methods and carrying out background research will get you to new discoveries. In this article, we will talk about such a technique as a research hypothesis. We will analyze in detail the features of using a good research hypothesis, its types, and meanings, the peculiarities of independent and dependent variables as well as the connection with the research topic.

This article will guide you as you write your paper and give you the key techniques to follow all the requirements.

What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Let's start by clarifying the term "research hypothesis". This is a kind of assumption or idea that the author of the study puts forward for further investigation. A hypothesis requires proof and is not true until confirmatory experiments have been carried out.

In the context of the research project, a hypothesis is necessary for the presentation of the expected directions and results of the work. This idea must be clearly stated to follow a logical chain and help to write your research and do further experiments. The ultimate goal of your research is to confirm or disprove the hypothesis. Not to be confused with the research question.

Let's list the main types of hypotheses and find out the differences they may present for an academic research:

Null hypothesis

Alternative hypothesis

Simple hypothesis

Complex hypothesis

Statistical hypothesis

Empirical hypothesis

Causal hypothesis

Directional hypothesis

Associative hypothesis

Logical hypothesis

Being aware that there are different kinds of research hypotheses will help you build your own with less effort. Many researchers adhere to the approach that there are only two varieties: Null hypothesis and Alternative hypothesis. However, we will consider what is the essence of the most used methods.

The Null hypotheses is a statement with two or more variables. The Null hypothesis proposes there is no connection between those variables. This type of inference is very often used in the course of scientific research in the field of statistics, medicine, biology and many other sciences. The Alternative hypothesis states the opposite information to the Null Hypothesis, and aims to prove that there is a relationship between two variables.

A Simple hypothesis presents a correlation between only two variables, single dependent variable and single independent variable. While Complex hypothesis states the presence of connection between several dependent variables and independent variables.

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The differences between these two critical techniques in writing a scientific paper should be explained so that you have no doubts. A research question is a question that is raised in the course of observations and to which the researcher seeks to answer.

While a hypothesis is an assumption that must be proven or refuted in the course of the study. These two concepts are different by nature, the research question has an inquisitive function, while a research hypothesis predicts the outcome of the experiment.

Now we will take a closer look at the most used, basic scientific method. Null hypothesis states that there is no interconnection between two variables that are being studied. To formulate the Null Hypothesis, you need to present your testable prediction about relevant variables as a negative statement.

The original hypothesis might state that the variables do not have differences, there is no influence of factors, there is no effect, the characteristics of which are equal to zero, with no statistical significance.

The purpose of scientific experiments is to disprove the Null Hypothesis, that is, to prove the positive relationship between independent and dependent variables. For example, you are a scientist in the field of mental health, and you face with the necessity of writing a psychology research paper .

Studying a popular theory, and presenting a null hypothesis: When a teenager uses social media, it will not impact their self-esteem. Alfred that your aim is to carry out a comprehensive, thorough investigation to prove or disprove this prediction.

Alternative Hypothesis

Let's now talk about the opposite of the Null Hypothesis, which is the Alternative Hypothesis. This kind of inference is an opposite idea to the one supported by the Null Hypothesis. It is also sometimes called an experimental hypothesis, as it reveals the subject of future scientific research.

The essence of this hypothesis involves proposing the relationship between two variables, more precisely that one variable influences the independent variable. The experimental hypothesis predicts how exactly the outcome may be affected during experimental manipulations.

At the same time the Alternative hypothesis can be divided into two groups: Directional hypothesis and Nondirectional hypothesis. Directional hypothesis states that the researchers expect a positive or negative outcome. While non directional hypothesis does not make predictions on the possible influence on the dependent variable.

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This is AI-powered online tool that lets you create a thesis statement about any topic you need.

Hypothesis Essential Requirements

A good research hypothesis sets the direction for your further research study. If you manage to formulate it correctly, then this will give a significant impetus to experiments.

However, if the basis of your scientific research paper is not specifically, or vaguely explained, then your experiments may go into a dead corner. To avoid such problems, let's look at what an effective research hypothesis should look like.

By following these guidelines, you will be able to accurately formulate a compelling hypothesis that will serve as a reliable core and help you write a research paper fundamentally. It will also be very helpful to study few examples of good research hypotheses in order to have a better understanding of the issue.

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How to Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis

A hypothesis is an effective methodological tool that helps us structure our work. That is why it is very important to pay attention to the correct formulation and designation of a strong hypothesis.

Preliminary research is also required before formulating your assumptions. General knowledge of the field of study will help you accurately identify problems in the subject of study. Namely, this is the basis for the construction of supporting assumptions.

A hypothesis itself is a scientific method in a form of assumption that is formed based on a theory. Therefore, the key to successful research is the choice of a reliable experimental and theoretical base. Brilliant research is based on previous, and no less brilliant research. Therefore, your assumptions must come from evidence-based sources, otherwise, they may lead to false results.

To formulate a hypothesis, you need to study the research problem. This means that preliminary research is indispensable, and it is precisely what a hypothesis begins with. If you find it challenging to manage the study on your own you can opt for research paper help from professional writers.

It is necessary that your predictions correspond to the object of study, do not create contradictions between existing and received knowledge, and are also testable. Be careful not to use banal facts as a basis for building a hypothesis, otherwise you will severely limit the field for experiments.

In the course of conducting previous research, you will be able to highlight certain factors in the theory that need additional observation. Perhaps these phenomena deviate from the general vector of the functioning of the theory.

Talking about variables, they should be well elaborated, to avoid any misconceptions. Find out what your independent variable would be, it is the one you are about to substitute to get new research data. Then figure out what you’d dependent variable stands for, which is what the research measures. Subsequently you have to determine what kind of relationship exists between them.

Once you have identified the necessary factors, you are ready to begin formulating your hypothesis. Or if you still struggle to start the research, then it may be useful for you resort to writing service professional help. This should be done in such a way that the hypothesis explains the cause of the problem. Then you have to test your assumptions by conducting an experiment, or by looking for correlations between the dependent variable and independent variable.

As difficult as it may be to formulate a good hypothesis, this is a key step to successful, structured work. Any knowledge comes through a long process of learning theory and then reconciling skills in practice. That is why we are confident in your abilities, and we wish you success in creating a research hypothesis. We hope this article has become informative for you and clarified the key concepts necessary for a good scientific hypothesis.

Research Hypothesis Examples

Increased exposure to sunlight will result in higher rates of photosynthesis in spinach plants. Individuals with a higher level of emotional intelligence will have more successful personal relationships. Access to higher education will decrease income inequality within a society. An increase in temperature will result in an increase in the average kinetic energy of gas molecules. Increasing the concentration of a reactant in a chemical reaction will increase the rate of reaction. The presence of a black hole at the center of a galaxy will affect the motion of stars within the galaxy. Changes in the Earth's magnetic field will result in changes in the frequency and intensity of earthquakes. The introduction of non-native species to an ecosystem will disrupt the food chain and result in decreased biodiversity. The use of written language will result in the development of more complex societies. An increase in the minimum wage will result in decreased unemployment rates within a society.

Why must a hypothesis be testable?

What is a directional and non-directional research hypothesis, why do we need an alternative hypothesis, what is an empirical hypothesis, was this article helpful, thanks for your feedback.

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Learning disabilities topics for research and essays.


Research has confirmed that students with disabilities can be taught to learn how to learn , which is good news. It is good in the sense that for the past years, the history of pedagogy development has been intertwined with identifying, preventing, and overcoming academic failure in various fields of education: early childhood, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Moreover, different models, concepts, and theories describe the causes of failure in education: psychological, social, developmental, clinical, or complex.

Given this background, as a student pursuing education or special education, you would agree that choosing a Learning Disabilities topic for an essay, research paper, term paper, or even a dissertation can be challenging. Choosing one the right way might as well save you much time during the writing process. Although your teacher might formulate the topic, sometimes they let you the liberty to choose a relatable learning disability topic.

We have listed a 180+ Learning Disabilities topic that can help you brainstorm and narrow down to a proposed list, then choose one that you can write about. You can trust this list because it has been curated by our top essay writers, whom you can as well hire to write your Learning Disabilities paper.

List of the Best Learning Disabilities Essay Topics

Learning Disability Thesis and Dissertation Research Topics

Suppose you plan to write a thesis, dissertation, or a white paper on learning disabilities; the topics below can help you narrow down to a specific topic. We have narrowed them down enough to make it possible to resonate with one at a research-level. These are topics drawn from already published studies, refined, and further narrowed down to help you conceptualize, visualize, and plan a study on learning disabilities. Again, if you need help with writing your paper, you can hire our custom paper writers. We will write your paper based on in-depth research, format it, and ensure that it passes Turnitin, SafeAssign, and wows your professor/supervisor. We are also great at writing proposals, whether for research/term papers, thesis, or dissertation papers.

With the topic, what next?

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Writing a Research Paper

Writing a thesis statement.

A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that asserts the position a paper will be taking. This statement should be both specific and arguable. Generally, the thesis statement will be placed at the end of the first paragraph of your paper. The remainder of your paper will support this thesis.

After you've landed on a satisfactory topic, your next step will be to solidify the position you would like to take and write a clear and succinct thesis statement which will lay the foundation for the rest of your paper.

For the sake of example, let's say that you've chosen to argue the merits of eating locally grown foods. You want to focus on the positive effects that this will have on one's health, the local economy, and on global ecology. You also want to dispel the myth that eating locally is more expensive, and therefore, the exclusive purview of the upper middle class.

An example of a thesis statement outlining your position might look like this:

The locavore movement that has gained popularity in the United States over the past several years offers a way to increase health, support the local economy, and promote global ecology by making some simple changes to the way that you and your family eat. Although frequently criticized for being far more expensive than eating factory-farmed foods, the truth is that the costs of home gardening and the prices for which you can purchase food at your local farmer's market are often far less expensive alternatives than buying from a chain grocer, not to mention safer and more nutritious.

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Writing a Research Paper

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The pages in this section provide detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources.

The Research Paper

There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.

Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, students will find that they can achieve great things through their research and writing.

The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper:

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Every student must write their research paper thesis statement from scratch. These works are not a brief rewrite. It is a new text created according to its own requirements. Of course, you must ensure the originality of your thesis, or professors will catch content matches with modern software.

How to write a thesis statement for research paper that will impress the professor? Emphasize the main points and combine the key ideas into a coherent text. Do not pick out separate unrelated phrases from your research paper outlines – it will be difficult for you to create interesting material.

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Following a correct structure in a thesis statement in research paper is essential to assuring excellent grades for writing. Chaotic presentation of ideas is taboo regarding academic texts. How should students structure research papers?

The argumentation should be logical and systematic. The structure of abstracts usually consists of an introductory block, main part, and conclusions. Paper writing experts follow all customer instructions precisely. Making instructions detailed will ensure your research task turning out exactly as you want it.

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Furthermore, while writing a thesis statement for a research paper, writers competently finish the assignment itself. They closely monitor all research paper aspects: style, spelling, and punctuation, ensuring excellent quality throughout the text.

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This way, we help writing a thesis statement for a research paper for you to submit great papers. All learners must know – a properly written work shows several things about the student. It is an indicator of attention to detail, displaying the ability to analyze information and comply with the requirements.

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Thesis and Purpose Statements

Use the guidelines below to learn the differences between thesis and purpose statements

In the first stages of writing, thesis or purpose statements are usually rough or ill-formed and are useful primarily as planning tools.

A thesis statement or purpose statement will emerge as you think and write about a topic. The statement can be restricted or clarified and eventually worked into an introduction.

As you revise your paper, try to phrase your thesis or purpose statement in a precise way so that it matches the content and organization of your paper.

Thesis statements

A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic.

Good: X has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its . . . Bad: In this paper, I will discuss X.

A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic.

A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire paragraph.

A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting information.

Purpose statements

A purpose statement announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be.

Common beginnings include:

“This paper examines . . .,” “The aim of this paper is to . . .,” and “The purpose of this essay is to . . .”

A purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn.

A purpose statement usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph.

A purpose statement is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. If you are unsure about using a purpose statement, ask your instructor.

This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel.

Sample purpose and thesis statements

The following example combines a purpose statement and a thesis statement (bold).

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile’s agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . The Chilean reform example provides evidence that land distribution is an essential component of both the improvement of peasant conditions and the development of a democratic society. More extensive and enduring reforms would likely have allowed Chile the opportunity to further expand these horizons.

For more tips about writing thesis statements, take a look at our new handout on Developing a Thesis Statement.

write thesis and research paper

Writing Process and Structure

This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.

Getting Started with Your Paper

Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses

Generating Ideas for Your Paper

Creating an Argument

Thesis vs. Purpose Statements

Developing a Thesis Statement

Architecture of Arguments

Working with Sources

Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

Using Literary Quotations

Citing Sources in Your Paper

Drafting Your Paper



Developing Strategic Transitions


Revising Your Paper

Peer Reviews

Reverse Outlines

Revising an Argumentative Paper

Revision Strategies for Longer Projects

Finishing Your Paper

Twelve Common Errors: An Editing Checklist

How to Proofread your Paper

Writing Collaboratively

Collaborative and Group Writing


  1. How to Write a Research Paper

    write thesis and research paper

  2. Easy and Effective Guide of Writing Research Paper

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  3. Thesis Statement Examples For Research Papers Pdf

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  4. Thesis Statement For Research Paper On Dreams

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  5. Thesis Paper Outline Format

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  6. Example Of Thesis Methodology Chapter

    write thesis and research paper


  1. How to write an effective THESIS STATEMENT for research paper

  2. How to write an introduction to a thesis or research paper (4 key elements you MUST include)

  3. How to Write Essays and Research Papers More Quickly

  4. How to Organise References and Research Paper Notes

  5. How to Write the Introduction of a Research Thesis and Research Paper

  6. How to write essays and research papers faster and score high: Write the outline


  1. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps: Start with a question Write your initial answer Develop your answer Refine your thesis statement Table of contents What is a thesis statement? Placement of the thesis statement Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer

  2. How to Write a Research Paper

    The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

  3. Developing A Thesis

    Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in your essay. (Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument ...

  4. How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Research Paper: Steps and

    The thesis statement is a short, direct statement that summarizes the main point or argument of a research paper, study, or academic essay. The thesis statement can be seen in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methods.

  5. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.

  6. The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper

    What is a research paper? A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.

  7. Thesis for a Research Paper (How to Write Guide with Examples)

    A good thesis is never vague since you cannot ensure a good research. Follow a structure Introduction - literature review - methodology - results - discussion - conclusion. It is okay to write, revise, rewrite, adjust your thesis in the process of doing research.

  8. Thesis vs. Research Paper: Know the Differences

    A thesis is an extensive document encompassing the entire duration of a master's or doctoral course and as such, it takes months and even years to write. A research paper, being less lengthy, typically takes a few weeks or a few months to complete. 4. Supervision

  9. 6 Major difference between Thesis and Research Paper

    THESIS- A Thesis is long academic writing which involves personal research. It is written by someone to obtain a university degree or diploma. RESEARCH PAPER- It is a piece of academic writing, written as a part of the subject and do not constitute a separate subject or module.

  10. Thesis: Thesis Statement, Thesis Paper, Examples of Thesis Statements

    Browse Essays and Term Papers on Any Topic. Our database contains free essays, term papers, book reports, and research papers on many different topics studied in high schools, colleges, and universities. Search it by typing a topic or keyword, or by clicking any category below. Literature. Biographies, Creative Writing, European Literature ...

  11. Thesis Generator

    1 State your topic Your topic is the essential idea of your paper. It is usually a few words or a phrase that summarizes the subject of your paper. For your thesis statement, try to make your topic as specific as possible. monitoring children's television use 2 State your main idea about this topic

  12. How To Write A Research Paper

    In conclusion, a good thesis paper should have several key attributes that make it efficacious and prosperous. These attributes include a clear and focused research question, a vigorous thesis ...

  13. How to Write a Research Paper

    1. Create an outline to map out your paper's structure. Use Roman numerals (I., II., III., and so on) and letters or bullet points to organize your outline. Start with your introduction, write out your thesis, and jot down your key pieces of evidence that you'll use to defend your argument.

  14. Thesis

    A thesis ( plural: theses ), or dissertation [note 1] (abbreviated diss. ), [2] is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. [3] In some contexts, the word thesis or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while ...

  15. How to Write a Thesis for a Research Paper

    The thesis consists of a statement and common arguments. First, you should look through the information you have found about the topic and an opinion should be placed within the introduction. The best way is to compose a hypothesis is in the last two or three sentences of the introduction.

  16. How to Write a Thesis

    Normally, a thesis is a long academic paper that often requires months or even years of research, and it is defended in front of the university committee. Also, a thesis is sometimes known as a dissertation. However, these terms are interchangeable and may vary between universities and countries. A good thesis should be: Strong Defendable Arguable

  17. How to write a review paper as a beginner?

    Writing a review paper can be a daunting task for beginners, but with some guidance, it can be a rewarding experience. Here are some steps to follow: Choose a topic: Choose a topic that you are ...

  18. How to write a good "thesis Innovations"?

    Here are some tips to help you write a strong and effective thesis: 1. Choose a relevant and specific topic: Your topic should be specific enough to focus your research and allow you to make a ...

  19. 70 Examples of Excellent Thesis Statements for Essays in All Subjects

    70 Strong Thesis Statement Examples for Research Papers and Dissertations. 15 Example Thesis Statements on the Social Sciences. 15 Sample Thesis Statements for Literary Analysis Essays. 10 Sample Thesis Statements on History. 10 Example Thesis Statements on Art. 15 Examples of English Language Thesis Statements.

  20. How to Write a Research Hypothesis?

    Researchers must write a hypothesis based on the theme of the goals and objectives of the work. The formulation of the hypothesis should be competent, concise and specific. The scientific hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that the stated problems could be studied, proved or refuted in the course of the work.

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  22. Learning Disabilities Topics for Research and Essays

    Given this background, as a student pursuing education or special education, you would agree that choosing a Learning Disabilities topic for an essay, research paper, term paper, or even a dissertation can be challenging. Choosing one the right way might as well save you much time during the writing process.

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  24. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end ...

  25. Writing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that asserts the position a paper will be taking. This statement should be both specific and arguable. Generally, the thesis statement will be placed at the end of the first paragraph of your paper. The remainder of your paper will support this thesis.

  26. Writing a Research Paper

    The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper: Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper. Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics ...

  27. Research Paper Thesis Writing

    The professionals utilize exclusively dependable sources - no exceptions. Furthermore, while writing a thesis statement for a research paper, writers competently finish the assignment itself. They closely monitor all research paper aspects: style, spelling, and punctuation, ensuring excellent quality throughout the text.

  28. Thesis and Purpose Statements

    A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic. A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire ...