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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.
Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.
This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.
Table of contents
Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.
Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:
- Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
- Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
- Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.
Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.
There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.
You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.
You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.
Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:
- A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
- A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.
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Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.
Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.
- Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
- Are there any heated debates you can address?
- Do you have a unique take on your topic?
- Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?
In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”
A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.
The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.
You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.
A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.
A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.
Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:
- Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
- Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
- Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.
You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.
Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.
Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.
George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.
It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.
You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.
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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.
What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.
Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?
How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.
The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.
One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:
- topic sentences against the thesis statement;
- topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
- and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.
Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.
The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.
Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.
You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.
You should not :
- Offer new arguments or essential information
- Take up any more space than necessary
- Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)
There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.
- Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
- Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
- Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
- If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.
The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.
- Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
- Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
- Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.
Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:
- each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
- no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
- all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.
Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .
Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading or create an APA title page .
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Checklist: Research paper
I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.
My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.
My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .
My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .
Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .
Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.
I have used appropriate transitions to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.
My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.
My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.
My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.
I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.
I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .
I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.
I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).
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- Developing A Thesis
Think of yourself as a member of a jury, listening to a lawyer who is presenting an opening argument. You'll want to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the lawyer plans to convince you. Readers of academic essays are like jury members: before they have read too far, they want to know what the essay argues as well as how the writer plans to make the argument. After reading your thesis statement, the reader should think, "This essay is going to try to convince me of something. I'm not convinced yet, but I'm interested to see how I might be."
An effective thesis cannot be answered with a simple "yes" or "no." A thesis is not a topic; nor is it a fact; nor is it an opinion. "Reasons for the fall of communism" is a topic. "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe" is a fact known by educated people. "The fall of communism is the best thing that ever happened in Europe" is an opinion. (Superlatives like "the best" almost always lead to trouble. It's impossible to weigh every "thing" that ever happened in Europe. And what about the fall of Hitler? Couldn't that be "the best thing"?)
A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay.
Steps in Constructing a Thesis
First, analyze your primary sources. Look for tension, interest, ambiguity, controversy, and/or complication. Does the author contradict himself or herself? Is a point made and later reversed? What are the deeper implications of the author's argument? Figuring out the why to one or more of these questions, or to related questions, will put you on the path to developing a working thesis. (Without the why, you probably have only come up with an observation—that there are, for instance, many different metaphors in such-and-such a poem—which is not a thesis.)
Once you have a working thesis, write it down. There is nothing as frustrating as hitting on a great idea for a thesis, then forgetting it when you lose concentration. And by writing down your thesis you will be forced to think of it clearly, logically, and concisely. You probably will not be able to write out a final-draft version of your thesis the first time you try, but you'll get yourself on the right track by writing down what you have.
Keep your thesis prominent in your introduction. A good, standard place for your thesis statement is at the end of an introductory paragraph, especially in shorter (5-15 page) essays. Readers are used to finding theses there, so they automatically pay more attention when they read the last sentence of your introduction. Although this is not required in all academic essays, it is a good rule of thumb.
Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in your essay. (Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument—it may be a fact, or an opinion, but it is not an argument.)
This statement is on its way to being a thesis. However, it is too easy to imagine possible counterarguments. For example, a political observer might believe that Dukakis lost because he suffered from a "soft-on-crime" image. If you complicate your thesis by anticipating the counterargument, you'll strengthen your argument, as shown in the sentence below.
Some Caveats and Some Examples
A thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question ("Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?") is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water.
A thesis is never a list. "For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe" does a good job of "telegraphing" the reader what to expect in the essay—a section about political reasons, a section about economic reasons, a section about social reasons, and a section about cultural reasons. However, political, economic, social and cultural reasons are pretty much the only possible reasons why communism could collapse. This sentence lacks tension and doesn't advance an argument. Everyone knows that politics, economics, and culture are important.
A thesis should never be vague, combative or confrontational. An ineffective thesis would be, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because communism is evil." This is hard to argue (evil from whose perspective? what does evil mean?) and it is likely to mark you as moralistic and judgmental rather than rational and thorough. It also may spark a defensive reaction from readers sympathetic to communism. If readers strongly disagree with you right off the bat, they may stop reading.
An effective thesis has a definable, arguable claim. "While cultural forces contributed to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, the disintegration of economies played the key role in driving its decline" is an effective thesis sentence that "telegraphs," so that the reader expects the essay to have a section about cultural forces and another about the disintegration of economies. This thesis makes a definite, arguable claim: that the disintegration of economies played a more important role than cultural forces in defeating communism in Eastern Europe. The reader would react to this statement by thinking, "Perhaps what the author says is true, but I am not convinced. I want to read further to see how the author argues this claim."
A thesis should be as clear and specific as possible. Avoid overused, general terms and abstractions. For example, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of the ruling elite's inability to address the economic concerns of the people" is more powerful than "Communism collapsed due to societal discontent."
Copyright 1999, Maxine Rodburg and The Tutors of the Writing Center at Harvard University
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The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper
Few things strike more fear in academics than the accursed research paper , a term synonymous with long hours and hard work. Luckily there’s a secret to help you get through them. As long as you know how to write a research paper properly, you’ll find they’re not so bad . . . or at least less painful.
In this guide we concisely explain how to write an academic research paper step by step. We’ll cover areas like how to start a research paper, how to write a research paper outline, how to use citations and evidence, and how to write a conclusion for a research paper.
But before we get into the details, let’s take a look at what a research paper is and how it’s different from other writing .
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What is a research paper?
A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.
Research papers are a bedrock of modern science and the most effective way to share information across a wide network. However, most people are familiar with research papers from school; college courses often use them to test a student’s knowledge of a particular area or their research skills in general.
Considering their gravity, research papers favor formal, even bland language that strips the writing of any bias. Researchers state their findings plainly and with corresponding evidence so that other researchers can consequently use the paper in their own research.
Keep in mind that writing a research paper is different from writing a research proposal . Essentially, research proposals are to acquire the funding needed to get the data to write a research paper.
How long should a research paper be?
The length of a research paper depends on the topic or assignment. Typically, research papers run around 4,000–6,000 words, but it’s common to see short papers around 2,000 words or long papers over 10,000 words.
If you’re writing a paper for school, the recommended length should be provided in the assignment. Otherwise, let your topic dictate the length: Complicated topics or extensive research will require more explanation.
How to write a research paper in 9 steps
Below is a step-by-step guide to writing a research paper, catered specifically for students rather than professional researchers. While some steps may not apply to your particular assignment, think of this as more of a general guideline to keep you on track.
1 Understand the assignment
For some of you this goes without saying, but you might be surprised at how many students start a research paper without even reading the assignment guidelines.
So your first step should be to review the assignment and carefully read the writing prompt. Specifically, look for technical requirements such as length , formatting requirements (single- vs. double-spacing, indentations, etc.) and citation style . Also pay attention to the particulars, such as whether or not you need to write an abstract or include a cover page.
Once you understand the assignment, the next steps in how to write a research paper follow the usual writing process , more or less. There are some extra steps involved because research papers have extra rules, but the gist of the writing process is the same.
2 Choose your topic
In open-ended assignments, the student must choose their own topic. While it may seem simple enough, choosing a topic is actually the most important decision you’ll make in writing a research paper, since it determines everything that follows.
Your top priority in how to choose a research paper topic is whether it will provide enough content and substance for an entire research paper. You’ll want to choose a topic with enough data and complexity to enable a rich discussion. However, you also want to avoid general topics and instead stick with topics specific enough that you can cover all the relevant information without cutting too much.
Try not to be robotic about choosing your topic, though; it’s still best to pick something that you’re personally interested in. Ideally, you’ll find a topic that satisfies both requirements, something that provides a suitable amount of content and also keeps you engaged.
3 Gather preliminary research
The sooner you start researching, the better—after all, it’s called a research paper for a reason.
To refine your topic and prepare your thesis statement, find out what research is available for your topic as soon as possible. Early research can help dispel any misconceptions you have about the topic and reveal the best paths and approaches to find more material.
Typically, you can find sources either online or in a library. If you’re searching online, make sure you use credible sources like science journals or academic papers. Some search engines—mentioned below in the Tools and resources section—allow you to browse only accredited sources and academic databases.
Keep in mind the difference between primary and secondary sources as you search. Primary sources are firsthand accounts, like published articles or autobiographies; secondary sources are more removed, like critical reviews or secondhand biographies.
When gathering your research, it’s better to skim sources instead of reading each potential source fully. If a source seems useful, set it aside to give it a full read later. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck poring over sources that you ultimately won’t use, and that time could be better spent finding a worthwhile source.
Sometimes you’re required to submit a literature review , which explains your sources and presents them to an authority for confirmation. Even if no literature review is required, it’s still helpful to compile an early list of potential sources—you’ll be glad you did later.
4 Write a thesis statement
Using what you found in your preliminary research, write a thesis statement that succinctly summarizes what your research paper will be about. This is usually the first sentence in your paper, making it your reader’s introduction to the topic.
A thesis statement is the best answer for how to start a research paper. Aside from preparing your reader, the thesis statement also makes it easier for other researchers to assess whether or not your paper is useful to them for their own research. Likewise, you should read the thesis statements of other research papers to decide how useful they are to you.
A good thesis statement mentions all the important parts of the discussion without disclosing too many of the details. If you’re having trouble putting it into words, try to phrase your topic as a question and then answer it .
For example, if your research paper topic is about separating students with ADHD from other students, you’d first ask yourself, “Does separating students with ADHD improve their learning?” The answer—based on your preliminary research—is a good basis for your thesis statement.
5 Determine supporting evidence
At this stage of how to write an academic research paper, it’s time to knuckle down and do the actual research. Here’s when you go through all the sources you collected earlier and find the specific information you’d like to use in your paper.
Normally, you find your supporting evidence by reading each source and taking notes. Isolate only the information that’s directly relevant to your topic; don’t bog down your paper with tangents or unnecessary context, however interesting they may be. And always write down page numbers , not only for you to find the information later, but also because you’ll need them for your citations.
Aside from highlighting text and writing notes, another common tactic is to use bibliography cards . These are simple index cards with a fact or direct quotation on one side and the bibliographical information (source citation, page numbers, subtopic category) on the other. While bibliography cards are not necessary, some students find them useful for staying organized, especially when it’s time to write an outline.
6 Write a research paper outline
A lot of students want to know how to write a research paper outline. More than informal essays, research papers require a methodical and systematic structure to make sure all issues are addressed, and that makes outlines especially important.
First make a list of all the important categories and subtopics you need to cover—an outline for your outline! Consider all the information you gathered when compiling your supporting evidence and ask yourself what the best way to separate and categorize everything is.
Once you have a list of what you want to talk about, consider the best order to present the information. Which subtopics are related and should go next to each other? Are there any subtopics that don’t make sense if they’re presented out of sequence? If your information is fairly straightforward, feel free to take a chronological approach and present the information in the order it happened.
Because research papers can get complicated, consider breaking your outline into paragraphs. For starters, this helps you stay organized if you have a lot of information to cover. Moreover, it gives you greater control over the flow and direction of the research paper. It’s always better to fix structural problems in the outline phase than later after everything’s already been written.
Don’t forget to include your supporting evidence in the outline as well. Chances are you’ll have a lot you want to include, so putting it in your outline helps prevent some things from falling through the cracks.
7 Write the first draft
Once your outline is finished, it’s time to start actually writing your research paper. This is by far the longest and most involved step, but if you’ve properly prepared your sources and written a thorough outline, everything should run smoothly.
If you don’t know how to write an introduction for a research paper, the beginning can be difficult. That’s why writing your thesis statement beforehand is crucial. Open with your thesis statement and then fill out the rest of your introduction with the secondary information—save the details for the body of your research paper, which comes next.
The body contains the bulk of your research paper. Unlike essays , research papers usually divide the body into sections with separate headers to facilitate browsing and scanning. Use the divisions in your outline as a guide.
Follow along your outline and go paragraph by paragraph. Because this is just the first draft, don’t worry about getting each word perfect . Later you’ll be able to revise and fine-tune your writing, but for now focus simply on saying everything that needs to be said. In other words, it’s OK to make mistakes since you’ll go back later to correct them.
One of the most common problems with writing long works like research papers is connecting paragraphs to each other. The longer your writing is, the harder it is to tie everything together smoothly. Use transition sentences to improve the flow of your paper, especially for the first and last sentences in a paragraph.
Even after the body is written, you still need to know how to write a conclusion for a research paper. Just like an essay conclusion , your research paper conclusion should restate your thesis , reiterate your main evidence , and summarize your findings in a way that’s easy to understand.
Don’t add any new information in your conclusion, but feel free to say your own personal perspective or interpretation if it helps the reader understand the big picture.
8 Cite your sources correctly
Citations are part of what sets research papers apart from more casual nonfiction like personal essays . Citing your sources both validates your data and also links your research paper to the greater scientific community. Because of their importance, citations must follow precise formatting rules . . . problem is, there’s more than one set of rules!
You need to check with the assignment to see which formatting style is required. Typically, academic research papers follow one of two formatting styles for citing sources:
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
- APA (American Psychological Association)
The links above explain the specific formatting guidelines for each style, along with an automatic citation generator to help you get started.
In addition to MLA and APA styles, you occasionally see requirements for CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style), AMA (American Medical Association) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).
Citations may seem confusing at first with all their rules and specific information. However, once you get the hang of them, you’ll be able to properly cite your sources without even thinking about it. Keep in mind that each formatting style has specific guidelines for citing just about any kind of source, including photos , websites , speeches , and YouTube videos .
9 Edit and proofread
Last but not least, you want to go through your research paper to correct all the mistakes by proofreading . We recommend going over it twice: once for structural issues such as adding/deleting parts or rearranging paragraphs and once for word choice, grammatical, and spelling mistakes. Doing two different editing sessions helps you focus on one area at a time instead of doing them both at once.
To help you catch everything, here’s a quick checklist to keep in mind while you edit:
- Is your thesis statement clear and concise?
- Is your paper well-organized, and does it flow from beginning to end with logical transitions?
- Do your ideas follow a logical sequence in each paragraph?
- Have you used concrete details and facts and avoided generalizations?
- Do your arguments support and prove your thesis?
- Have you avoided repetition?
- Are your sources properly cited?
- Have you checked for accidental plagiarism?
Word choice, grammar, and spelling edit:
- Is your language clear and specific?
- Do your sentences flow smoothly and clearly?
- Have you avoided filler words and phrases ?
- Have you checked for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
Some people find it useful to read their paper out loud to catch problems they might miss when reading in their head. Another solution is to have someone else read your paper and point out areas for improvement and/or technical mistakes.
Revising is a separate skill from writing, and being good at one doesn’t necessarily make you good at the other. If you want to improve your revision skills, read our guide on self-editing , which includes a more complete checklist and advanced tips on improving your revisions.
Technical issues like grammatical mistakes and misspelled words can be handled effortlessly if you use a spellchecker with your word processor, or even better, a digital writing assistant that also suggests improvements for word choice and tone, like Grammarly (we explain more in the Tools and resources section below).
Tools and resources
If you want to know more about how to write a research paper, or if you want some help with each step, take a look at the tools and resources below.
This is Google’s own search engine, which is dedicated exclusively to academic papers. It’s a great way to find new research and sources. Plus, it’s free to use.
Zotero is a freemium, open-source research manager, a cross between an organizational CMS and a search engine for academic research. With it, you can browse the internet for research sources relevant to your topic and share them easily with colleagues. Also, it automatically generates citations.
Writing long research papers is always a strain on your attention span. If you have trouble avoiding distractions during those long stretches, FocusWriter might be able to help. FocusWriter is a minimalist word processor that removes all the distracting icons and sticks only to what you type. You’re also free to choose your own customized backgrounds, with other special features like timed alarms, daily goals, and optional typewriter sound effects.
This useful and free tool from Google lets you create simple charts and graphs based on whatever data you input. Charts and graphs are excellent visual aids for expressing numeric data, a perfect complement if you need to explain complicated evidential research.
Grammarly goes way beyond grammar, helping you hone word choice, checking your text for plagiarism, detecting your tone, and more. For foreign-language learners, it can make your English sound more fluent, and even those who speak English as their primary language benefit from Grammarly’s suggestions.
Research paper FAQs
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that analyzes, evaluates, or interprets a single topic with empirical evidence and statistical data.
When will I need to write a research paper in college?
Many college courses use research papers to test a student’s knowledge of a particular topic or their research skills in general. While research papers depend on the course or professor, you can expect to write at least a few before graduation.
How do I determine a topic for my research paper?
If the topic is not assigned, try to find a topic that’s general enough to provide ample evidence but specific enough that you’re able to cover all the basics. If possible, choose a topic you’re personally interested in—it makes the work easier.
Where can I conduct research for my paper?
Today most research is conducted either online or in libraries. Some topics might benefit from old periodicals like newspapers or magazines, as well as visual media like documentaries. Museums, parks, and historical monuments can also be useful.
How do I cite sources for a research paper?
The correct formatting for citations depends on which style you’re using, so check the assignment guidelines. Most school research reports use either MLA or APA styles, although there are others.
This article was originally written by Karen Hertzberg in 2017. It’s been updated to include new information.
- Research Paper Thesis
- Thesis for a Research Paper Made Easy
Scrutinize Research Paper Thesis Statement Examples
Explicit tips on writing a thesis, how to write a research paper thesis: a quick guide.
We all know that thesis for a research paper is very important. Thesis statement conveys the main debatable idea - the last sentence or two of your introduction . You need to make your thesis clear. If not, you may feel frustrated when your teacher asks what the main ideas of your writing were after all hours you spent developing the research paper.
Always analyze research paper thesis statement examples. Decent research thesis statements have much in common. You need to introduce a good argument, not a fact but a valid debatable point of your essay.
Search a pressing issue, questions within your topic; it is important the evidence discovered actually support your thesis. Coming up with a strong statement for a research work may be a daunting task. One may spend too much time formulating it still changing the wording at some stage of writing. Most likely you will need some assistance.
As Napoleon Bonaparte said, “if you want a thing done well, do it yourself”! It may not work for everyone. We have professional team of experienced writers who will provide you with assistance you need saving you from stress and wasted hours. We will write a paragraph and give you a thesis. If required, we will revise it up to the point where you like it.
Reading examples helps guide you to a clear thesis. It reveals important elements and can explain you the reasons why this is a strong statement. We will present the examples of good and bad theses . Then we will provide important tips on how to change your wording to make it worthy of professional writer.
No : We should avoid consuming food high in sugar.
Yes : People need to decrease the consumption of products high in sugar because this diet can cause health issues like diabetes and heart diseases.
No : A high number of young people cannot afford to pay tuition costs.
Yes : All young people willing to enroll in a college should have an opportunity to do so by having access to the governmental because this helps them get a job and repay the governmental investment in their education.
No : Prohibiting marijuana is a good cause to pursue, but there are some people who need it for medicinal use.
Yes : America should prohibit marijuana in all forms because this is a drug many people abuse. What’s worse, it causes many health issues like cancer.
Thesis statement examples for research paper are helpful. When a reader sees such examples, they analyze the text, information, and opinion expressed in a thesis. A claim you make should not be simple. Focus on what you want to argue and give reasons, keeping in mind that your position should be proven later in the project. Knowing how to write a research paper thesis gives you an upper hand in college. You can ask for writers’ assistance; relax – order your research project from us !
Effective statement makes a great impression on a reader. It gives you credit since you need to possess profound writing skills. We have prepared a quick list of tips you can follow to tailor your perfect assertion.
- Construct a thesis from a question
Formulate a question then give an answer. Your answer is now a basis for the research paper thesis statement; expand it providing more evidence, ideas which you will later support in your research.
- Keep in mind the type of research
There is a difference between theses of argumentative, expository, and analytical research. Expository essay should teach you something or clearly explain a point. The goal of an argumentative thesis is to change a reader’s mind on an issue analyzed in the essay. If you need to devise an analytical research, pay attention to the details that you will examine to better understand the whole concept.
- A powerful thesis takes a side
Never include an opposite opinion in your assertion. Make sure you take a specific side; come up with all possible supporting details that will make your position even stronger.
- Make sure you can prove your point
The golden rule is to come up with the thesis at the end of your research. This is required to ensure you can find strong evidence to prove your thesis . Avoid too complicated formulations that cover large scopes. If your assertion for a research paper is very subjective and hard to prove, you may want to reconsider your position.
We have prepared a short list of steps you need to follow if you have no idea how to write a research paper thesis.
- Choose a topic you are interested in
- It is much easier to find supporting evidence if the question you are researching interests you.
- Explore the resources, theme
- The topic should not be broad. Decide on a narrow subject within your topic. A good thesis is never vague since you cannot ensure a good research.
- Follow a structure
- Introduction – literature review – methodology – results – discussion – conclusion .
- It is okay to write, revise, rewrite, adjust your thesis in the process of doing research.
Following these tips will help you focus on the correct way to formulate a solid thesis for your research work. Along with that, it is recommended to consult experts in the field. Order from us – ensure your thesis is professionally composed, provable, debatable. Our writers are experts in thesis writing. They will help you devise the most appropriate and effective thesis for your paper.
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Thesis vs. Research Paper: Know the Differences
It is not uncommon for individuals, academic and nonacademic to use “thesis” and “research paper” interchangeably. However, while the thesis vs. research paper puzzle might seem amusing to some, for graduate, postgraduate and doctoral students, knowing the differences between the two is crucial. Not only does a clear demarcation of the two terms help you acquire a precise approach toward writing each of them, but it also helps you keep in mind the subtle nuances that go into creating the two documents. This brief guide discusses the main difference between a thesis and a research paper.
This article discusses the main difference between a thesis and a research paper. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.
It is not uncommon for individuals, academic and nonacademic to use “thesis” and “research paper” interchangeably. After all, both terms share the same domain, academic writing . Moreover, characteristics like the writing style, tone, and structure of a thesis and research paper are also homogenous to a certain degree. Hence, it is not surprising that many people mistake one for the other.
However, while the thesis vs. research paper puzzle might seem amusing to some, for graduate, postgraduate and doctoral students, knowing the differences between the two is crucial. Not only does a clear demarcation of the two terms help you acquire a precise approach toward writing each of them, but it also helps you keep in mind the subtle nuances that go into creating the two documents.
Defining the two terms: thesis vs. research paper
The first step to discerning between a thesis and research paper is to know what they signify.
Thesis: A thesis or a dissertation is an academic document that a candidate writes to acquire a university degree or similar qualification. Students typically submit a thesis at the end of their final academic term. It generally consists of putting forward an argument and backing it up with individual research and existing data.
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Research Paper: A research paper is also an academic document, albeit shorter compared to a thesis. It consists of conducting independent and extensive research on a topic and compiling the data in a structured and comprehensible form. A research paper demonstrates a student's academic prowess in their field of study along with strong analytical skills.
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Now that we have a fundamental understanding of a thesis and a research paper, it is time to dig deeper. To the untrained eye, a research paper and a thesis might seem similar. However, there are some differences, concrete and subtle, that set the two apart.
1. Writing objectives
The objective behind writing a thesis is to obtain a master's degree or doctorate and the ilk. Hence, it needs to exemplify the scope of your knowledge in your study field. That is why choosing an intriguing thesis topic and putting forward your arguments convincingly in favor of it is crucial.
A research paper is written as a part of a course's curriculum or written for publication in a peer-review journal. Its purpose is to contribute something new to the knowledge base of its topic.
Although both documents share quite a few similarities in their structures, the framework of a thesis is more rigid. Also, almost every university has its proprietary guidelines set out for thesis writing.
Comparatively, a research paper only needs to keep the IMRAD format consistent throughout its length. When planning to publish your research paper in a peer-review journal, you also must follow your target journal guidelines.
3. Time Taken
A thesis is an extensive document encompassing the entire duration of a master's or doctoral course and as such, it takes months and even years to write.
A research paper, being less lengthy, typically takes a few weeks or a few months to complete.
Writing a thesis entails working with a faculty supervisor to ensure that you are on the right track. However, a research paper is more of a solo project and rarely needs a dedicated supervisor to oversee.
The final stage of thesis completion is a viva voce examination and a thesis defense. It includes proffering your thesis to the examination board or a thesis committee for a questionnaire and related discussions. Whether or not you will receive a degree depends on the result of this examination and the defense.
A research paper is said to be complete when you finalize a draft, check it for plagiarism, and proofread for any language and contextual errors . Now all that's left is to submit it to the assigned authority.
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In the context of academic writing, a thesis and a research paper might appear the same. But, there are some fundamental differences that set apart the two writing formats. However, since both the documents come under the scope of academic writing, they also share some similarities. Both require formal language, formal tone, factually correct information & proper citations. Also, editing and proofreading are a must for both. Editing and Proofreading ensure that your document is properly formatted and devoid of all grammatical & contextual errors. So, the next time when you come across a thesis vs. research paper argument, keep these differences in mind.
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Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering papers with proper tone, content, and style of academic writing, and also provide an upscale editing and proofreading service for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.
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Difference Between Thesis and Research paper
You all must have heard about Thesis and Research Papers and many of you must be confused about them. When you go to graduate schools, postgraduate schools or pursue a doctorate degree, you need to submit either thesis or research paper or dissertation. In this blog post, we will discuss the “difference between Thesis and Research Paper”.
- THESIS- A Thesis is long academic writing which involves personal research. It is written by someone to obtain a university degree or diploma.
- RESEARCH PAPER- It is a piece of academic writing, written as a part of the subject and do not constitute a separate subject or module. In the research paper, the researcher has to do independent research and then write a description of the findings.
Thesis vs Research Paper
Table of Contents
Both of them are academic writings. They both are having a similar internal structure like both contains an introduction, literature review , research methodology, data analysis, interpretation, findings, conclusions etc. but differ by purpose, style of writing and specific components. Our experts will discuss these in detail. Many students find the difficulty in differentiating them. So here we begin with “Difference between Thesis and Research Paper”.
The purpose of writing a thesis is to obtain a university degree or qualification. Purpose of writing a research paper is to expand knowledge. The reader must learn something new when he or she read the research paper. This is major difference between Thesis and Research Paper.
Since thesis is written to obtain a degree so it is usually longer than research paper . The research paper is all about establishing central part of thesis with all the data and proofs gathered.
As we know that thesis is lengthier than research paper so the completion of thesis takes a lot more time than that of the research papers.
Thesis is always completed in someone’s supervision i.e. for completion of thesis, university assigns the student a supervisor. But in case of research paper, most of the times, no supervisor is assigned. If in case you need help, you can take help from Homework Help Websites.
Thesis is said to be completed after the oral examination which takes place after the submission of the thesis. This oral examination includes the presentation of your thesis in front of the examination board and answering their questions. The final results are based on both contents of the thesis and an oral examination. But the research paper is said to be completed after the plagiarism check of the research paper and the content of the research paper.
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The demand for originality is much higher for thesis as compared to that of the research papers. While choosing a topic for thesis the author must take into consideration the expectation of originality in the field or the input of some relevant new information or ideas. This is also a difference between Thesis and Research Paper.
That was all about “difference between Thesis and Research Paper”. Hope this article will help you. Most of the people find difficulty in making assignments, research papers, Thesis etc. due to their complex nature and lack of supervision. If you too are facing any difficulty in completing these, then you can take the help of experts. Here at CallTutors, we are having a team of experts to help you out and meet your demands in the given time.
Frequently asked questions
What is the most important part of a thesis.
The abstract is the most important part of the thesis; although it is very short (approximately one-two paragraphs), it can be considered the most significant part of your thesis. The abstract provides an overall idea about your research.
What is the most important part of research?
Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method of study, Results, Analysis/Interpretation of Results, and Conclusion. These are the main parts of a research paper.
What is the key step in the research process?
Defining the problem is a crucial step in the research process. Defining the problem sets the foundation for the entire project, so it is critically important to take the time to do this well.
What are the main types of research methods?
· Questionnaires. · Interviews. · Experiments. · Surveys. · Case studies. · Participant and non-participant observation. · Studies using the Delphi method. · Observational trials.
If you have any query please mention in the comments section below.
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How to Write a Research Paper
Last Updated: January 31, 2023 References Approved
This article was co-authored by Chris Hadley, PhD . Chris Hadley, PhD is part of the wikiHow team and works on content strategy and data and analytics. Chris Hadley earned his PhD in Cognitive Psychology from UCLA in 2006. Chris' academic research has been published in numerous scientific journals. There are 15 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 45 testimonials and 80% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 4,107,911 times.
Whether you’re in a history, literature, or science class, you’ll probably have to write a research paper at some point. It may seem daunting when you’re just starting out, but staying organized and budgeting your time can make the process a breeze. Research your topic, find reliable sources, and come up with a working thesis. Then create an outline and start drafting your paper. Be sure to leave plenty of time to make revisions, as editing is essential if you want to hand in your best work!
Sample Research Papers and Outlines
Researching Your Topic
- For instance, you might start with a general subject, like British decorative arts. Then, as you read, you home in on transferware and pottery. Ultimately, you focus on 1 potter in the 1780s who invented a way to mass-produce patterned tableware.
Tip: If you need to analyze a piece of literature, your task is to pull the work apart into literary elements and explain how the author uses those parts to make their point.
- Authoritative, credible sources include scholarly articles (especially those other authors reference), government websites, scientific studies, and reputable news bureaus. Additionally, check your sources' dates, and make sure the information you gather is up to date.
- Evaluate how other scholars have approached your topic. Identify authoritative sources or works that are accepted as the most important accounts of the subject matter. Additionally, look for debates among scholars, and ask yourself who presents the strongest evidence for their case.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
- You’ll most likely need to include a bibliography or works cited page, so keep your sources organized. List your sources, format them according to your assigned style guide (such as MLA or Chicago ), and write 2 or 3 summary sentences below each one.  X Research source
- Imagine you’re a lawyer in a trial and are presenting a case to a jury. Think of your readers as the jurors; your opening statement is your thesis and you’ll present evidence to the jury to make your case.
- A thesis should be specific rather than vague, such as: “Josiah Spode’s improved formula for bone china enabled the mass production of transfer-printed wares, which expanded the global market for British pottery.”
Drafting Your Essay
- Your outline is your paper’s skeleton. After making the outline, all you’ll need to do is fill in the details.
- For easy reference, include your sources where they fit into your outline, like this: III. Spode vs. Wedgewood on Mass Production A. Spode: Perfected chemical formula with aims for fast production and distribution (Travis, 2002, 43) B. Wedgewood: Courted high-priced luxury market; lower emphasis on mass production (Himmelweit, 2001, 71) C. Therefore: Wedgewood, unlike Spode, delayed the expansion of the pottery market.
- For instance, your opening line could be, “Overlooked in the present, manufacturers of British pottery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries played crucial roles in England’s Industrial Revolution.”
- After presenting your thesis, lay out your evidence, like this: “An examination of Spode’s innovative production and distribution techniques will demonstrate the importance of his contributions to the industry and Industrial Revolution at large.”
Tip: Some people prefer to write the introduction first and use it to structure the rest of the paper. However, others like to write the body, then fill in the introduction. Do whichever seems natural to you. If you write the intro first, keep in mind you can tweak it later to reflect your finished paper’s layout.
- After setting the context, you'd include a section on Josiah Spode’s company and what he did to make pottery easier to manufacture and distribute.
- Next, discuss how targeting middle class consumers increased demand and expanded the pottery industry globally.
- Then, you could explain how Spode differed from competitors like Wedgewood, who continued to court aristocratic consumers instead of expanding the market to the middle class.
- The right number of sections or paragraphs depends on your assignment. In general, shoot for 3 to 5, but check your prompt for your assigned length.
- If you bring up a counterargument, make sure it’s a strong claim that’s worth entertaining instead of ones that's weak and easily dismissed.
- Suppose, for instance, you’re arguing for the benefits of adding fluoride to toothpaste and city water. You could bring up a study that suggested fluoride produced harmful health effects, then explain how its testing methods were flawed.
- Sum up your argument, but don’t simply rewrite your introduction using slightly different wording. To make your conclusion more memorable, you could also connect your thesis to a broader topic or theme to make it more relatable to your reader.
- For example, if you’ve discussed the role of nationalism in World War I, you could conclude by mentioning nationalism’s reemergence in contemporary foreign affairs.
Revising Your Paper
- This is also a great opportunity to make sure your paper fulfills the parameters of the assignment and answers the prompt!
- It’s a good idea to put your essay aside for a few hours (or overnight, if you have time). That way, you can start editing it with fresh eyes.
Tip: Try to give yourself at least 2 or 3 days to revise your paper. It may be tempting to simply give your paper a quick read and use the spell-checker to make edits. However, revising your paper properly is more in-depth.
- The passive voice, such as “The door was opened by me,” feels hesitant and wordy. On the other hand, the active voice, or “I opened the door,” feels strong and concise.
- Each word in your paper should do a specific job. Try to avoid including extra words just to fill up blank space on a page or sound fancy.
- For instance, “The author uses pathos to appeal to readers’ emotions” is better than “The author utilizes pathos to make an appeal to the emotional core of those who read the passage.”
- Read your essay out loud to help ensure you catch every error. As you read, check for flow as well and, if necessary, tweak any spots that sound awkward.  X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source
- It’s wise to get feedback from one person who’s familiar with your topic and another who’s not. The person who knows about the topic can help ensure you’ve nailed all the details. The person who’s unfamiliar with the topic can help make sure your writing is clear and easy to understand.
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- Remember that your topic and thesis should be as specific as possible. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 3 Not Helpful 0
- Researching, outlining, drafting, and revising are all important steps, so do your best to budget your time wisely. Try to avoid waiting until the last minute to write your paper. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 3 Not Helpful 1
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- ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/evaluating-print-sources/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/conducting_research/research_overview/index.html
- ↑ https://poorvucenter.yale.edu/writing/graduate-writing-lab/writing-through-graduate-school/working-sources
- ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-5-putting-the-pieces-together-with-a-thesis-statement/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/developing_an_outline/index.html
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/introductions/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/essay-structure
- ↑ https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/writingprocess/counterarguments
- ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/revising-drafts/
- ↑ https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/formandstyle/writing/scholarlyvoice/activepassive
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/reading-aloud/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/proofreading/index.html
About This Article
To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database. As you conduct your research and take notes, zero in on a specific topic that you want to write about and create a 1-2 sentence thesis to state the focus of your paper. Then, create an outline that includes an introduction, 3 to 5 body paragraphs to present your arguments, and a conclusion to sum up your main points. Once you have your paper's structure organized, draft your paragraphs, focusing on 1 argument per paragraph. Use the information you found through your research to back up your claims and prove your thesis statement. Finally, proofread and revise your content until it's polished and ready to submit. For more information on researching and citing sources, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How To Write A Thesis
Last updated on: Jan 2, 2023
How to Write a Thesis - Beginner’s Guide & Format
By: Cathy A.
Reviewed By: Melisa C.
Published on: Jan 3, 2023
Writing a thesis is an important part of completing your degree. It is the culmination of many years of study within a specific field of study.However, some high school and college students get confused and take it as a strenuous task. Therefore, you don’t need to worry about your thesis submission. Continue reading this blog and get to know how to write a thesis like professional writers.
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What is a Thesis?
The thesis is an essential document that every student needs to be submitted at the end of their degree. It is the piece of writing that presents the original research work and findings on a specific topic.
The main purpose of the thesis is to:
- Provide a unique argument about the topic.
- Give detailed research.
- Identify a research question.
- Contribute research knowledge.
Normally, a thesis is a long academic paper that often requires months or even years of research, and it is defended in front of the university committee.
Also, a thesis is sometimes known as a dissertation. However, these terms are interchangeable and may vary between universities and countries.
A good thesis should be:
- Justify the statement presented in the paper
However, you should know your professor’s needs for a thesis because every university or teacher has different requirements.
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A thesis is different from a dissertation and details about dissertation vs thesis will help you notice these differences.
Here is a thesis format for your ease.
- Table of contents
- List of tables and figures
- Literature review
- Reference List / Bibliography
Follow this format for writing your thesis. Keep in mind, all types of thesis formats remain the same, but consult your professor and ask them.
Related: A Comprehensive Thesis Format Guide for Beginners
How to Write a Good Thesis?
Writing a thesis is probably a daunting task, especially if you don’t know how to write it. Therefore, for your help, we compiled some steps that will guide you in drafting a well-written thesis.
1. Choosing a Topic
The thesis is the research work or academic assignment that you will spend a lot of time on. Therefore, carefully choose the topic for your thesis.
When you choose the topic, you have to keep in mind some points. These are:
- The topic should be interesting.
- The topic should be easily manageable.
- The topic should be related to your area or field of interest.
- The topic should be unique and not overly written.
Also, consult your professor and get help from them in the topic selection phase. However, never start writing the thesis on your chosen topic before getting approval from your professor. Good thesis topics are good enough to guide you regarding your research and help you write a strong thesis easily.
2. Choose Thesis Question
In this step, you will carefully consider questions for your thesis that you will answer in your research work. However, make sure that your questions and answers that you write will provide the original content of your research. Also, a logical question will keep your thesis focused, organized, and interesting.
Therefore, when you formulate your thesis topic and direction of the research question. Try developing the 5-10 different questions about your research.
Through this way, you have to flexibly think about your topic and conceptualize how small changes in the wording can change the direction of your research.
3. Conduct Research
After selecting the research question, you will need to research to answer the question. Therefore, try to conduct experiments, read books, articles, and do what you have to do to answer the thesis question.
In this way, you will see if your research project is worth moving forward with or some issues you need to work out. It also guides you in collecting information that you need to move forward to the next steps.
4. Complete the Literature Review
Now, you have to review the literature for your thesis. However, a review of the literature must be in-depth and comprehensive to ensure that your thesis will be important and not redundant.
Therefore, when you review the literature, you should keep in mind some questions.
- What other authors have written about your subject?
- What is their opinion of your topic?
- What methods did they use for conducting the research?
It is important to create the original and relevant thesis. Also, take notes on the background information about your topic.
5. Choose Primary and Secondary Sources
Selecting the primary and secondary sources is necessary for the thesis. However, before choosing the sources, you should know the difference between them.
- Primary Sources: These sources are used in the analytical thesis and written by the person who created the theory, experiment, idea, etc.
- Secondary Sources: In this type, sources are written about primary sources. You must include in your thesis to show that you have a strong understanding of the critical context of the topic.
6. Manage your Citation
The selection of the citation style depends on your field and the professor’s requirements. You must pick the right citation format and use them from the start, rather than add them after you finish your writing.
Therefore, before picking the citation format, you should know the most common formats:
- APA (American Psychological Association)
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
Despite these, there are other citation formats that you will also use for your thesis. Also, keep track of each source that you cited in your thesis.
7. Create an Outline
Creating an outline is essential for you, and it guides you throughout your research work. It works as a plan that you need to accomplish.
In the thesis outline, you should include:
- Literature Review
- Thesis Problem
With the help of a thesis outline, you will organize your ideas. Therefore, create it first and then start your writing phase.
8. Write the Thesis Introduction
An introduction is the first part of the thesis, in which you can introduce the topic and grab the reader’s attention. It is the section in which you define your research scope and state the main research objective.
Some writers write the introduction at last rather than revisit and revise the introduction at several points throughout the writing process.
Also, a good thesis introduction is vital because it decides whether the reader read the entire paper or not.
9. Write the Literature Review
The literature review is the summary of all the existing sources that have already written about your topic. It is a combination of primary and secondary sources that you used for your thesis. You should also explain how your work contributes to the existing research.
Therefore, if you write it in the working thesis, it’s good for you. However, if you don’t, start writing and do proper research.
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10. Describe the Methodology
The methodology section explains which research methods you use for conducting the research. In this section, you should include:
- The overall approach.
- The methods and tools that you used for your research.
- Type of research.
- Difficulties that you faced during the research.
In this part, you will mention the result findings in reference to the good thesis statement and the hypothesis. Demonstrate that you achieve the expected result or not.
In the discussion section, you will explain the research outcomes. Also, explain if the results are different than the expected ones, discuss the reasons behind it and the relationship between the results.
13. Write a Strong Thesis Conclusion
The conclusion of the thesis should be strong and powerful. It helps and encourages the readers to do further research on the topic.
However, avoid writing the same information again and not introduce new ideas. The good rule is to try to keep it short and clearly summarize the whole paper.
In the references section, add the sources that you used in your thesis. It is a mandatory page that allows you to add credibility to your work by avoiding plagiarism. For the references, use the proper citation format.
In the appendices, you include the information that doesn’t mention in the main body of the thesis. Appendices are the section in which you add the following information:
- Tables and charts
- Include the list of additional material
- The list of equipment that you used for analysis
16. Proofreading and Editing
Once you finish writing your final draft, take some time and then start the proofreading step. In this step, check your thesis with your professor’s guidelines. Make sure that your thesis is free from all grammatical, vocabulary, and punctuation mistakes.
Take a look at this sample and get an idea from them of a well-written thesis.
Thesis Sample (PDF)
Now, you get to know how to write a thesis paper but don’t have time to write it or have weak thesis writing skills. Simply consult GradSchoolGenius.com .
Our professional writers offer the best thesis writing service of all types of academic levels. They also guide you in how to write an essay, term papers, research proposals, argumentative thesis statement, and other academic assignments.
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70 Examples of Excellent Thesis Statements for Essays in All Subjects
Looking at examples of thesis statements can be helpful when you’re crafting a thesis statement to guide your essay.
We’ve already looked at how to write a thesis statement and the thesis statement formula . In this article, we’ll present a ton of examples of thesis statements for a range of different subjects.
When you read through them, you should start to see a pattern emerge in terms of how they typically adhere to the following set of rules:
- A single sentence located at the end of your introduction.
- Tells the reader what your opinion is and what you are going to explore within your essay introduction .
- Directs your reader to the main arguments you will present.
A good dissertation editor will be able to help you ensure your thesis statement is strong and is structured properly.
Can a Thesis Statement Include More Than One Question?
A thesis statement does not need to be a single sentence. The length of your thesis statement will vary according to the complexity of the subject you are exploring.
In some cases, a single sentence may suffice. However, in other cases, you may use two, or even three, sentences
Your overall aim should be to ensure the statement is as short and direct as possible, as this will help you to appear confident. This is particularly important in argumentative essays .
Let’s remind ourselves of the basics of a good thesis statement.
70 Strong Thesis Statement Examples for Research Papers and Dissertations
Now we’ve covered the basis, let’s take a look at some really great examples of thesis statements.
15 Example Thesis Statements on the Social Sciences
- Climate change is a pressing global issue that requires immediate action, as it threatens to undermine the stability of entire ecosystems, disrupt economies, and jeopardize the health and well-being of future generations.
- The role of technology in education cannot be underestimated because it has the potential to transform the learning experience, enhance the quality of education, and provide students with access to information and resources that were previously unavailable.
- The use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydropower is crucial to achieving a sustainable future, as it reduces dependence on finite resources, minimizes greenhouse gas emissions, and protects the environment.
- The widespread prevalence of fake news and misinformation on social media is a growing concern, as it undermines the credibility of journalism, public trust in information, and the democratic process.
- The rise of automation and artificial intelligence in the workplace is transforming the way people work, leading to increased productivity and efficiency; however, it is also linked with job displacement and the need for workers to acquire new skills.
- The intersection of race, gender, and class has a significant impact on a person’s life opportunities and experiences, and it is crucial to understand these intersections in order to address systemic inequalities and promote social justice.
- The growing demand for food and the increasing use of industrial agriculture are putting a strain on the environment, leading to soil degradation, deforestation, and increased greenhouse gas emissions.
- The phenomenon of gentrification is transforming cities, leading to the displacement of low-income communities, the loss of cultural diversity, and the commodification of urban spaces.
- The impact of mass migration on countries and communities is complex and far-reaching, leading to both cultural enrichment and increased social and political tensions.
- The growing concern about income inequality and wealth disparity has important implications for social and economic mobility, as well as for the stability of democracies and the legitimacy of political systems.
- The rise of nationalism and populism around the world is challenging the stability of global institutions and the foundations of democratic systems. It raises important questions about the role of the nation-state in the 21st century.
- Elon Musk, the billionaire entrepreneur and innovator, has made a significant impact on the tech industry and the world as a whole through his numerous ventures and ambitious projects, making him a visionary leader and a symbol of technological progress. However, his actions and public statements have also generated controversy and criticism, calling into question the ethical and social implications of his vision for the future.
- Bitcoin, the decentralized digital currency, has revolutionized the financial industry and challenged traditional financial systems. However, the growing popularity and acceptance of Bitcoin has also brought to light important issues regarding security, regulation, and the potential for negative impacts on the economy and society as a whole.
- Quantum computing, a rapidly evolving field that harnesses the principles of quantum mechanics to perform calculations, has the potential to revolutionize the computing industry and solve complex problems that are beyond the capabilities of traditional computers; however, quantum computing poses a significant threat to contemporary society that should not be overlooked.
- Electric cars have emerged as a promising alternative to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, holding great promise for reducing humanity’s dependence on fossil fuels. However, this technology is not sustainable or viable on a long-term basis
15 Sample Thesis Statements for Literary Analysis Essays
- The political and social developments of the 18th century had a significant impact on the development of the English novel, which reflected both the ideals and the realities of the time.
- The Romantic movement in English literature constituted a notable divergence from the Enlightenment ideas of reason and order by emphasizing emotion, imagination, and individualism.
- Although Jane Austen is well known for her wit and social satire, her writings also serve as a commentary on the discrimination that women encountered in early 19th-century England.
- The manner in which authors of the Victorian era portrayed non-European cultures and peoples is one way to show how colonialism and imperialism had an impact on English literature.
- The literature of the Victorian era reflects the position of women in English society at the time, with female characters frequently acting as icons of moral and cultural values.
- The use of symbolism within English literature serves as a potent instrument for examining complicated themes and ideas, from the profound to the ridiculous.
- When writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf introduced the stream-of-consciousness narrative approach, the English novel underwent a revolution that allowed for a new degree of depth and reflection in storytelling.
- The writings of English Romantic poets, like William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, marked a turning point in the development of English literature by ushering in a novel kind of writing that praised the natural world, human emotion, and unique experiences.
- From Beowulf to Paradise Lost, the evolution of the English epic poem reflects the shifting morals and ideologies of English society over time, as well as its changing perception of who we are and where we belong in the world.
- The three Bronte sisters—Charlotte, Emily, and Anne—used literature to question the restrictions and standards that were imposed on women in 19th-century England, setting a new precedent for female emancipation.
- With its rigid structure and rhyme schemes, the English sonnet tradition has been a well-liked and enduring manner to convey one’s thoughts on both the political and personal levels as well as the human condition.
- With its emphasis on experimentation, fragmentation, and psychological depth, the Modernist movement in English literature marked a significant shift from the realism and naturalism of older literary traditions.
- The evolution of English literature in the 20th century was greatly influenced by the writings of T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats, which capture the period’s intellectual and cultural upheaval as well as the significant changes evident in European society.
- The expansion of the English empire and its influence over the world had a significant impact on the literature of the nation, influencing new kinds of storytelling as well as the themes, writing techniques, and perspectives of its authors.
- From the biblical account of the Fall to the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, the use of allegory and myth in English literature has been a potent means of examining difficult concepts and universal truths.
10 Sample Thesis Statements on History
- Beginning in 1789, the French Revolution marked a significant turning point in European history that eventually resulted in the collapse of the monarchy and the foundation of a democratic republic.
- The American Civil War, which took place between 1861 and 1865, was a pivotal event in the history of the nation, influencing its political structure, identity, and values for a number of years.
- An important turning point in world economic and social history, the Industrial Revolution, which started in England in the late 18th century, fundamentally changed how products were created and consumed, leading to significant changes in the lives of people all over the world.
- One of the biggest and most influential empires in history, the Roman Empire, which ruled from 27 BC to 476 AD, had an impact on the growth of art, architecture, law, and language throughout the Mediterranean region.
- The Enlightenment, an intellectual and cultural movement that began in Europe in the 18th century, represented an important turning point in the history of ideas and gave rise to new ways of thinking about politics, religion, and society.
- One of the deadliest and most significant conflicts in modern history, the First World War, which raged from 1914 to 1918, drastically altered the political, social, and economic climate of Europe and other parts of the world.
- The Cold War, which lasted from 1945 to 1991, marked a pivotal period in the history of the 20th century, impacting the advancement of science, technology, and culture as well as the political and military landscape of the world.
- The 1754–1763 French and Indian War was a pivotal period in the history of the American colonies, paving the way for the ultimate independence of the United States and determining the course of the nation’s future.
- Capitalism, which first appeared in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, marked a significant turning point in the development of modern market economies and the lives of millions of people.
- An important turning point in the history of the American colonies was the American Revolution, which took place between 1775 and 1783 and ultimately resulted in the independence of the United States and the development of a new system of government.
10 Example Thesis Statements on Art
- The Italian Renaissance, which started in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th, was a time of great artistic and cultural revival. The painting, sculpture, and architectural expressions that emerged during this time had a significant influence on Western art and culture.
- A time of great artistic and cultural diversity, the Baroque period was characterized by the emergence of new forms of artistic expression, such as painting, sculpture, and music, that reflected the religious, political, and cultural values of the day.
- The late 19th-century French Impressionist style was a ground-breaking trend in painting that aimed to represent the fleeting, transient effects of light and color in the natural world.
- Mid-20th-century modern art movement known as Abstract Expressionism, which emphasized spontaneous, expressive brushwork and explored the emotional and psychological components of the creative process, was a prominent force in the world of contemporary art.
- Pop Art, a modern art movement that began in the middle of the 20th century in response to the Abstract Expressionist movement, was distinguished by its use of common objects, commercial imagery, and vibrant colors to produce a fresh kind of art that was approachable and pertinent to popular culture.
- Surrealism, a modern art movement that began in the 1920s, used methods like automatic drawing and dream-like images to produce a new kind of work that was both strange and enticing while prompting an investigation of the subconscious mind.
- The 1920s and 1930s saw the emergence of the Art Deco movement, which aspired to create a new genre of modern art that was elegant, sophisticated, and representative of the contemporary world. It was distinguished by its use of geometric shapes, brilliant colors, and metallic finishes.
- Gothic Art, a key influence on Medieval art that first appeared in the 12th century, is known for its concentration on lofty cathedrals, exquisite stained glass, and ornate sculptures that capture the period’s religious and cultural values.
- The Romanesque period was a time of great artistic and cultural rebirth. Painting, sculpture, and architectural styles all emerged during this time, and they had a significant influence on Western art and culture.
- The 19th-century art movement known as realism tried to portray the world as it actually was by employing precise, lifelike depictions of people, places, and things to produce a new kind of art that was both realistic and compelling on an emotional level.
15 Examples of English Language Thesis Statements
- Due to historical, cultural, and social influences on the development of the English language, numerous dialects and variations have emerged all over the world. For individuals, groups, and cultures, the emergence of English as a world language has yielded both benefits and challenges and had a profound impact on global language education and language policy.
- Understanding the structure, purposes, and meanings of English allows us to better comprehend how language both influences and is influenced by human cognition, perception, and interaction.
- The widespread use of English in digital communication and social media has given rise to new linguistic elements and conventions, like emoticons, acronyms, and hashtags, which have significantly changed how our ability to express ourselves and interact with others.
- The English language has taken on a greater significance in higher education because it is frequently the language of instruction and research in many academic subjects and is necessary for worldwide communication and collaboration.
- Studying English as a second or foreign language requires not only learning linguistic abilities but also gaining intercultural competence and the capacity to deal with diversity and cultural differences.
- The influence of the English language on other languages has led to phenomena such as word borrowing, grammar borrowing, and punctuation changes. This has led to a fundamental change in language boundaries and the emergence of hybrid forms of language.
- English usage in the workplace has become crucial for successful communication and career advancement, especially in multinational organizations and international industries. This has resulted in the growth of specialized linguistic abilities and discourse patterns.
- Language diversity and linguistic justice have become ethical and political hot topics as a result of how English has affected the identities and cultural practices of speakers of other languages, led to the extinction of indigenous languages, and initiated negotiations over language rights and language maintenance.
- Understanding the cultural, historical, and social circumstances in which literary works were created helps us to examine and interpret the literary works’ artistic and aesthetic qualities as well as its larger relevance and societal effects.
- The widespread use of English in popular culture, such as music, film, and television, has significantly influenced the language’s acceptance around the world and sparked the development of new genres, styles, and modes of expression.
- By studying English as a discourse community and examining its norms, practices, and communication techniques, it is possible to get insight into the power structures and social hierarchies that influence how people use language and formulate language ideologies.
- English’s use in the tourism sector as a universal language and a vehicle for cross-cultural engagement has had economic and social repercussions for both host communities and guests, sparking discussions about how globalization is affecting regional cultures and identities.
- English should be taught to all children since it not only fosters language proficiency but also creativity, social responsibility, and critical thinking.
- The impact of English on the linguistic landscape of cities and communities, including the use of English in media, ads, and public signs, reflects language interaction dynamics and the negotiation of linguistic identities and rights.
- The impact of English on the linguistic landscape of cities and communities, including the use of English in public signs, advertisements, and media, reflects the dynamics of language contact and the negotiation of linguistic identities and rights.
As you will see from all the example thesis statements shared above, a good thesis statement follows a general formula.
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Research Hypothesis: The Essential Requirements and Guidelines
27 Feb 2023
❔ What is a Hypothesis in Research?
Research Question vs Hypothesis
📔 Hypothesis Essential Requirements
🎓 How to Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis
📋 Research Hypothesis Example
Writing research requires students to have a deep knowledge not only of the subject but also of the requirements for the project. There are a lot of structural units that form an integral part of research writing.
Knowing the right methods and carrying out background research will get you to new discoveries. In this article, we will talk about such a technique as a research hypothesis. We will analyze in detail the features of using a good research hypothesis, its types, and meanings, the peculiarities of independent and dependent variables as well as the connection with the research topic.
This article will guide you as you write your paper and give you the key techniques to follow all the requirements.
What is a Hypothesis in Research?
Let's start by clarifying the term "research hypothesis". This is a kind of assumption or idea that the author of the study puts forward for further investigation. A hypothesis requires proof and is not true until confirmatory experiments have been carried out.
In the context of the research project, a hypothesis is necessary for the presentation of the expected directions and results of the work. This idea must be clearly stated to follow a logical chain and help to write your research and do further experiments. The ultimate goal of your research is to confirm or disprove the hypothesis. Not to be confused with the research question.
Let's list the main types of hypotheses and find out the differences they may present for an academic research:
Being aware that there are different kinds of research hypotheses will help you build your own with less effort. Many researchers adhere to the approach that there are only two varieties: Null hypothesis and Alternative hypothesis. However, we will consider what is the essence of the most used methods.
The Null hypotheses is a statement with two or more variables. The Null hypothesis proposes there is no connection between those variables. This type of inference is very often used in the course of scientific research in the field of statistics, medicine, biology and many other sciences. The Alternative hypothesis states the opposite information to the Null Hypothesis, and aims to prove that there is a relationship between two variables.
A Simple hypothesis presents a correlation between only two variables, single dependent variable and single independent variable. While Complex hypothesis states the presence of connection between several dependent variables and independent variables.
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The differences between these two critical techniques in writing a scientific paper should be explained so that you have no doubts. A research question is a question that is raised in the course of observations and to which the researcher seeks to answer.
While a hypothesis is an assumption that must be proven or refuted in the course of the study. These two concepts are different by nature, the research question has an inquisitive function, while a research hypothesis predicts the outcome of the experiment.
Now we will take a closer look at the most used, basic scientific method. Null hypothesis states that there is no interconnection between two variables that are being studied. To formulate the Null Hypothesis, you need to present your testable prediction about relevant variables as a negative statement.
The original hypothesis might state that the variables do not have differences, there is no influence of factors, there is no effect, the characteristics of which are equal to zero, with no statistical significance.
The purpose of scientific experiments is to disprove the Null Hypothesis, that is, to prove the positive relationship between independent and dependent variables. For example, you are a scientist in the field of mental health, and you face with the necessity of writing a psychology research paper .
Studying a popular theory, and presenting a null hypothesis: When a teenager uses social media, it will not impact their self-esteem. Alfred that your aim is to carry out a comprehensive, thorough investigation to prove or disprove this prediction.
Let's now talk about the opposite of the Null Hypothesis, which is the Alternative Hypothesis. This kind of inference is an opposite idea to the one supported by the Null Hypothesis. It is also sometimes called an experimental hypothesis, as it reveals the subject of future scientific research.
The essence of this hypothesis involves proposing the relationship between two variables, more precisely that one variable influences the independent variable. The experimental hypothesis predicts how exactly the outcome may be affected during experimental manipulations.
At the same time the Alternative hypothesis can be divided into two groups: Directional hypothesis and Nondirectional hypothesis. Directional hypothesis states that the researchers expect a positive or negative outcome. While non directional hypothesis does not make predictions on the possible influence on the dependent variable.
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Hypothesis Essential Requirements
A good research hypothesis sets the direction for your further research study. If you manage to formulate it correctly, then this will give a significant impetus to experiments.
However, if the basis of your scientific research paper is not specifically, or vaguely explained, then your experiments may go into a dead corner. To avoid such problems, let's look at what an effective research hypothesis should look like.
- Researchers must write a hypothesis based on the theme of the goals and objectives of the work. The formulation of the hypothesis should be competent, concise and specific.
- The scientific hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that the stated problems could be studied, proved or refuted in the course of the work.
- Your hypothesis must obligatory include at least one dependent variable and one independent variable.
- A non-testable hypothesis is a blind corner to your research study. The purpose of creating a hypothesis is to further study it, which is why only the testable hypothesis can underlie your work.
- It is crucial that the hypothesis states the object of the studies in a non-ambiguous way, so that not to mislead the reader. Your testable statement should correspond with the research question.
- Prior research stands in the base of a strong research hypothesis. Researchers need to be knowledgeable in the field of studies, as there is a significant difference between just a guess and a working hypothesis.
- Your hypothesis should be the result of a study of existing theories. To do this, you need to study the variables involved and make precise predictions, having previously identified problematic issues suitable for study.
By following these guidelines, you will be able to accurately formulate a compelling hypothesis that will serve as a reliable core and help you write a research paper fundamentally. It will also be very helpful to study few examples of good research hypotheses in order to have a better understanding of the issue.
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How to Formulate an Effective Research Hypothesis
A hypothesis is an effective methodological tool that helps us structure our work. That is why it is very important to pay attention to the correct formulation and designation of a strong hypothesis.
Preliminary research is also required before formulating your assumptions. General knowledge of the field of study will help you accurately identify problems in the subject of study. Namely, this is the basis for the construction of supporting assumptions.
A hypothesis itself is a scientific method in a form of assumption that is formed based on a theory. Therefore, the key to successful research is the choice of a reliable experimental and theoretical base. Brilliant research is based on previous, and no less brilliant research. Therefore, your assumptions must come from evidence-based sources, otherwise, they may lead to false results.
To formulate a hypothesis, you need to study the research problem. This means that preliminary research is indispensable, and it is precisely what a hypothesis begins with. If you find it challenging to manage the study on your own you can opt for research paper help from professional writers.
It is necessary that your predictions correspond to the object of study, do not create contradictions between existing and received knowledge, and are also testable. Be careful not to use banal facts as a basis for building a hypothesis, otherwise you will severely limit the field for experiments.
In the course of conducting previous research, you will be able to highlight certain factors in the theory that need additional observation. Perhaps these phenomena deviate from the general vector of the functioning of the theory.
Talking about variables, they should be well elaborated, to avoid any misconceptions. Find out what your independent variable would be, it is the one you are about to substitute to get new research data. Then figure out what you’d dependent variable stands for, which is what the research measures. Subsequently you have to determine what kind of relationship exists between them.
Once you have identified the necessary factors, you are ready to begin formulating your hypothesis. Or if you still struggle to start the research, then it may be useful for you resort to writing service professional help. This should be done in such a way that the hypothesis explains the cause of the problem. Then you have to test your assumptions by conducting an experiment, or by looking for correlations between the dependent variable and independent variable.
As difficult as it may be to formulate a good hypothesis, this is a key step to successful, structured work. Any knowledge comes through a long process of learning theory and then reconciling skills in practice. That is why we are confident in your abilities, and we wish you success in creating a research hypothesis. We hope this article has become informative for you and clarified the key concepts necessary for a good scientific hypothesis.
Research Hypothesis Examples
Increased exposure to sunlight will result in higher rates of photosynthesis in spinach plants. Individuals with a higher level of emotional intelligence will have more successful personal relationships. Access to higher education will decrease income inequality within a society. An increase in temperature will result in an increase in the average kinetic energy of gas molecules. Increasing the concentration of a reactant in a chemical reaction will increase the rate of reaction. The presence of a black hole at the center of a galaxy will affect the motion of stars within the galaxy. Changes in the Earth's magnetic field will result in changes in the frequency and intensity of earthquakes. The introduction of non-native species to an ecosystem will disrupt the food chain and result in decreased biodiversity. The use of written language will result in the development of more complex societies. An increase in the minimum wage will result in decreased unemployment rates within a society.
Why must a hypothesis be testable?
What is a directional and non-directional research hypothesis, why do we need an alternative hypothesis, what is an empirical hypothesis, was this article helpful, thanks for your feedback.
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Learning disabilities topics for research and essays.
Research has confirmed that students with disabilities can be taught to learn how to learn , which is good news. It is good in the sense that for the past years, the history of pedagogy development has been intertwined with identifying, preventing, and overcoming academic failure in various fields of education: early childhood, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Moreover, different models, concepts, and theories describe the causes of failure in education: psychological, social, developmental, clinical, or complex.
Given this background, as a student pursuing education or special education, you would agree that choosing a Learning Disabilities topic for an essay, research paper, term paper, or even a dissertation can be challenging. Choosing one the right way might as well save you much time during the writing process. Although your teacher might formulate the topic, sometimes they let you the liberty to choose a relatable learning disability topic.
We have listed a 180+ Learning Disabilities topic that can help you brainstorm and narrow down to a proposed list, then choose one that you can write about. You can trust this list because it has been curated by our top essay writers, whom you can as well hire to write your Learning Disabilities paper.
List of the Best Learning Disabilities Essay Topics
- How does Dyslexia develop?
- Differentiating between Dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia
- Is autism a learning disability?
- Diagnosing mental retardation in children
- Classification of Learning Disabilities
- Mental Development of Children with Learning Disability
- Are Learning Disabilities curable?
- Why some learning disabilities cannot be cured
- How mental development affects Learning Disabilities
- Inconsistent judgment among kids with learning disabilities
- Forms of intellectual Disability
- Mental retardation and learning disabilities
- How environment influences learning disabilities
- Manifestation of cognitive decline
- Delayed formation of age-appropriate brain structures and learning disability
- Strategies to diagnose learning disabilities
- Effective instruction for students with learning disabilities
- Orton-Gillingham as a teaching approach to help struggling readers
- Lazy kid vs. Executive Dysfunction
- The Role of Response to Intervention (RTI) in Learning Disability (LD) Identification
- How to implement RTI in early childhood settings
- Role of speech pathologists
- Federal vs. State laws on Special Education
- Aphasia and Dysphasia
- Causes and consequences of dyspraxia
- Management of auditory processing disorder
- How to address visual processing disorder
- Is ADHD a learning disorder?
- Role of the multi-professional team in the management of learning disorders
- Role of educational psychologists and school psychologists in addressing learning disorders
- Occupational therapists in the management of learning disorders
- How speech and language therapists help diagnose learning disabilities
- Psychometrist and neuropsychologist’s role in the diagnosis of LD
- Perseveration vs. Verbigeration
- Verbigeration vs. Word Salad
- Verbigeration vs. Echolalia
- Including students with disabilities in classrooms
- Role of school principles in managing students with learning disabilities
- Verbigeration vs verbal stereotypy
- Role of school principles in promoting inclusive schools
- The Importance of Identifying Students with Learning Difficulty in the School Context
- Does it help or hurt children to classify them as having a learning disability?
- Does special education for students with disabilities cost too much?
- Should schools try to achieve “full inclusion” of students with learning disabilities in regular classrooms?
- The impact of inclusive education on learners with learning disabilities
- Are more students being diagnosed as learning disabled? Why?
- How should learning disabled students be accommodated in testing?
- How have the Americans with Disabilities Act benefited/hindered the learning disabled?
- What are some promising therapies or technologies for the learning disabled?
- Famous people with learning disabilities
- Prominent scientists with learning disabilities
- Black celebrities with learning disabilities
- Famous Rappers with Learning Disabilities
- Famous athletes with learning disabilities
- Presidents with learning disabilities
- Historical figures with learning disabilities
- Bullying among children with learning disabilities
- Stigmatization of people with learning disabilities
- Best resources for parents with children who have learning disabilities
- Etiology of learning disabilities
- How neuroscience has helped in the diagnosis and management of learning disabilities
- Causes of learning disabilities in adults
- Head injuries and learning disabilities
- How to address mental retardation in children
- Treatment and management of Learning Disabilities
- Is the government committing enough to address learning disabilities?
- Learning disabilities and self-esteem among children
- Strategies to assess the intelligence of children with LD
- Can children with LD be gifted?
- Incidences of learning disabilities in China vs. Russia
- Which country has the highest incidences of learning disabilities and why?
- How OCD affects the learning ability of an individual
- Effects of Dyslexia on problem-solving
- Psychological implication of Learning Disabilities
- Paralogical thinking in children with a learning disability
- Behavioral characteristics of students with learning disabilities
- Genetical causes of learning disabilities
- How psychopathology can address paralogical thinking in children with learning disabilities
- Can children with learning disabilities participate in sports?
- Testing strategies for children with Learning Disability
- Do students with learning disabilities succeed in life?
- Approaches that school administrators can use to absorb, mentor, and educate children with learning disabilities
- Using technology in classroom settings with children with LD
- Paranoid delirium among children with intellectual Disability
- Schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities
- Do children born by older fathers suffer from Intellectual Disability?
- The Piagetian perspective of learning disabilities
- Relations between sensorimotor attainments and development of language comprehension in retarded children
- The association of communication and language development to mental retardation
- Communication disorders and children with mental retardation
- How teachers can accommodate students with learning disabilities
- Successful strategies for teaching students with learning disabilities
- Pedagogical approaches for learning disabilities
- Experiences of teachers teaching students with learning disabilities
- Role of teachers in managing students with a learning disability
- Research-based instructional strategies for students with a learning disability
- Intervention strategies for learning disabilities
- Effectiveness of Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education as an inclusive pedagogy approach
- Impacts of culturally responsive approach to learning disabilities
- Famous inventors who have a learning disability
- The portrayal of People with Learning Disabilities in the Media
- Famous movie characters with a learning disability
Learning Disability Thesis and Dissertation Research Topics
Suppose you plan to write a thesis, dissertation, or a white paper on learning disabilities; the topics below can help you narrow down to a specific topic. We have narrowed them down enough to make it possible to resonate with one at a research-level. These are topics drawn from already published studies, refined, and further narrowed down to help you conceptualize, visualize, and plan a study on learning disabilities. Again, if you need help with writing your paper, you can hire our custom paper writers. We will write your paper based on in-depth research, format it, and ensure that it passes Turnitin, SafeAssign, and wows your professor/supervisor. We are also great at writing proposals, whether for research/term papers, thesis, or dissertation papers.
- How to teach English Language Learners with learning disabilities
- Strategies to teach multilingual students with learning disabilities
- Effective pedagogy for students with Specific Learning Difficulties
- Effectiveness of Disability inclusive education and learning
- Attitudes of EFL teachers teaching students with learning disabilities
- Content Area Instruction strategies for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Learning Disability
- Social support among adolescents with a specific learning disability in the USA
- Perspectives of parents with learning disabilities
- Geometry interventions for students with learning disabilities
- Preparing students with learning disabilities to transition to adulthood
- Experiences of students with learning disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System
- Effectiveness of Stepped Care Model as an empowerment strategy for college students with learning disabilities
- Clinical features, neurological bases, and strategies of intervention for Learning Disabilities
- Career outcomes of students with Learning Disabilities
- An international perspective of learning disability
- Access to mainstream arts and culture by people with learning disabilities
- Can students with learning disabilities achieve high-quality education standards?
- How to promote self-determination among people with learning disabilities
- Perceptions of parents with children who have Learning Disabilities
- Effectiveness of CBT as an intervention for people with Learning Disability
- Vitamin D Deficiency and Learning Disabilities
- Mother-child relationship and children with Learning Disability
- Adult reflection of childhood learning disabilities
- Video self-reflection as a means to support collaborative learning for students with Learning disabilities
- The use of virtual reality to stimulate students with a learning disability
- Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in teaching students with Dyslexia
- Augmented Reality vs. Virtual reality in teaching students with a learning disability
- How positive parenting affects the mental health of adolescents with a learning disability
- Exploring sexuality of adolescent students with a learning disability
- Transition to university rates of students with learning disabilities
- Can people with learning disabilities be politicians?
- Educational beliefs of teachers teaching students with a learning disability
- Algebra interventions and instruction for students with learning disabilities
- Video modeling vs. Explicit instruction for teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities
- The public health roles of community learning disability nurses
- Mindful-informed strategies and relaxation strategies for people with learning disabilities
- Importance of romantic love to people with learning disabilities
- Stigma consciousness among adolescents with learning disabilities
- Benefits of career counseling for university students with learning disabilities
- Are students with learning disabilities better at apprenticeship?
- Impacts of online learning on students with learning disabilities
- Compassion-focused therapy for adults with learning disabilities
- Experiences of adults with learning disabilities who are using social services
- Read-aloud accommodations and expository texts for adolescents with learning disabilities
- Strength and Weakness Models for Identifying Learning Disabilities
- How to break the bad news to people with learning disabilities
- Video modeling interventions for students with learning disabilities
- Social-emotional learning for students with learning disabilities
- Use of mnemonic strategies as an instructional approach for students with a learning disability
- Literacy Instruction for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities
- College completion rates among students with a learning disability
- Motivational Intervention and Writing Productivity of Students with Learning Disabilities
- Strategies to teach secondary school students with a learning disability to cope in preparation for college
- How people with learning disabilities perceive aging
- Strategies to improve drug adherence among people with learning disabilities
- Video-based instruction as a strategy for teaching mathematics to middle school students with learning disabilities
- Mental and physical infantilism were harmoniously combined forms of impaired development.
- Pathology of Learning Disability
- Factors influencing productivity among adolescents with Learning Disabilities
- Factors affecting speech development in children with Learning Disabilities
- Learning Disability and school attendance
- How to support reading and comprehension for students with Learning Disabilities
- Instructional Scaffolds in Mathematics instruction for English Learners who have Learning disabilities
- Accommodation decision-making for post-secondary students who have Learning Disabilities
- Motivation and metacognition in school-aged children with Learning Disabilities
- How to identify non-verbal learning disabilities
- Role of instructors in identifying Dyslexia and other learning disabilities
- Adopting children with learning disabilities
- Self-Processes of Acceptance, Compassion, and Regulation of Learning in University Students with Learning Disabilities
- Effectiveness of audio-supported reading for students with learning disabilities
- Mental Health Services for children and adolescents with learning disabilities
- Suicidal ideation among children with learning disabilities
- Using Google Classroom to teach students with learning disabilities
- Successful placement of children with learning disabilities
- Effectiveness of assistive technology for students with learning disabilities
- Assessing group participation for students with learning disabilities
- Are schools doing enough to promote good coping for students with learning disabilities?
- The link between learning disabilities and depression among young adults
- Loneliness among students with learning disabilities
- Cognitive, emotional, and social attributes of gifted children with a learning disability
- Employability skills and self-efficacy of students with a learning disability
- Strategies college students can use to make the most out of their college life
- The link between race and learning disabilities
- Performance of students with learning disabilities in STEM subjects
- Ethical considerations when researching with students with a learning disability
- Approaches for cognitive assessments of children with a learning disability
- Quality of life of college students with a learning disability
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Writing a Research Paper
Writing a thesis statement.
- About This Guide
- Types of Research Papers
- Choosing a Topic
- Gathering Research
- Journals and Magazines
- Creating an Outline
- Writing Your Paper
- Citing Resources
- Academic Integrity
- Other Helpful Links
A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that asserts the position a paper will be taking. This statement should be both specific and arguable. Generally, the thesis statement will be placed at the end of the first paragraph of your paper. The remainder of your paper will support this thesis.
After you've landed on a satisfactory topic, your next step will be to solidify the position you would like to take and write a clear and succinct thesis statement which will lay the foundation for the rest of your paper.
For the sake of example, let's say that you've chosen to argue the merits of eating locally grown foods. You want to focus on the positive effects that this will have on one's health, the local economy, and on global ecology. You also want to dispel the myth that eating locally is more expensive, and therefore, the exclusive purview of the upper middle class.
An example of a thesis statement outlining your position might look like this:
The locavore movement that has gained popularity in the United States over the past several years offers a way to increase health, support the local economy, and promote global ecology by making some simple changes to the way that you and your family eat. Although frequently criticized for being far more expensive than eating factory-farmed foods, the truth is that the costs of home gardening and the prices for which you can purchase food at your local farmer's market are often far less expensive alternatives than buying from a chain grocer, not to mention safer and more nutritious.
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- Next: Gathering Research >>
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Writing a Research Paper
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
The pages in this section provide detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources.
The Research Paper
There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.
Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, students will find that they can achieve great things through their research and writing.
The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper:
- Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper.
- Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics, whether the topic be one that is assigned or one that the student chooses themselves.
- Identifying an Audience - This section will help the student understand the often times confusing topic of audience by offering some basic guidelines for the process.
- Where Do I Begin - This section concludes the handout by offering several links to resources at Purdue, and also provides an overview of the final stages of writing a research paper.
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There are best research paper thesis practices worth following when writing. The most important rule in any case: every new sentence reveals new information. Only by following this rule can you write meaningful text.
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Every student must write their research paper thesis statement from scratch. These works are not a brief rewrite. It is a new text created according to its own requirements. Of course, you must ensure the originality of your thesis, or professors will catch content matches with modern software.
How to write a thesis statement for research paper that will impress the professor? Emphasize the main points and combine the key ideas into a coherent text. Do not pick out separate unrelated phrases from your research paper outlines – it will be difficult for you to create interesting material.
Here are some other helpful research paper thesis statements writing tips:
- Set reasonable goals with deadlines.
- Formulate the topic first – it will guide your thesis writing.
- Do not throw around specialized vocabulary mindlessly.
- Every statement/argument must be a finished thought.
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Regardless of whether you write a theoretical or empirical thesis for research paper, it is necessary to answer three questions clearly:
- What exactly am I writing about (what have I researched)?
- What are my findings?
- What does all this mean put together?
The answer to these three questions will be the three main parts of our research paper writing. Considering the tight deadlines professors set – it is often hard to keep up. Students commonly need more time to cope with their studies and alleviate personal stress.
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Research Paper Thesis Statements | Perfect Structure Guaranteed
Following a correct structure in a thesis statement in research paper is essential to assuring excellent grades for writing. Chaotic presentation of ideas is taboo regarding academic texts. How should students structure research papers?
The argumentation should be logical and systematic. The structure of abstracts usually consists of an introductory block, main part, and conclusions. Paper writing experts follow all customer instructions precisely. Making instructions detailed will ensure your research task turning out exactly as you want it.
Take care of the reliability of sources when writing a thesis for a research paper. Nowadays, access to information is almost unlimited – it is easy to check anything, finding accurate data. Therefore, any source should always be reputable. The professionals utilize exclusively dependable sources – no exceptions.
Furthermore, while writing a thesis statement for a research paper, writers competently finish the assignment itself. They closely monitor all research paper aspects: style, spelling, and punctuation, ensuring excellent quality throughout the text.
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The changeless revision period lets us examine the research paper thesis writing requirements more closely. The core rule of success in this task is adherence to the reviewing professors’ requirements. Everything is usually clearly stated: fonts, spaces, number of pages, and so on. Ordering from us, you can rest knowing we provide the best research paper quality.
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Thesis and Purpose Statements
Use the guidelines below to learn the differences between thesis and purpose statements
In the first stages of writing, thesis or purpose statements are usually rough or ill-formed and are useful primarily as planning tools.
A thesis statement or purpose statement will emerge as you think and write about a topic. The statement can be restricted or clarified and eventually worked into an introduction.
As you revise your paper, try to phrase your thesis or purpose statement in a precise way so that it matches the content and organization of your paper.
A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic.
Good: X has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its . . . Bad: In this paper, I will discuss X.
A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic.
A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire paragraph.
A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting information.
A purpose statement announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be.
Common beginnings include:
“This paper examines . . .,” “The aim of this paper is to . . .,” and “The purpose of this essay is to . . .”
A purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn.
A purpose statement usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph.
A purpose statement is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. If you are unsure about using a purpose statement, ask your instructor.
This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel.
Sample purpose and thesis statements
The following example combines a purpose statement and a thesis statement (bold).
The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile’s agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . The Chilean reform example provides evidence that land distribution is an essential component of both the improvement of peasant conditions and the development of a democratic society. More extensive and enduring reforms would likely have allowed Chile the opportunity to further expand these horizons.
For more tips about writing thesis statements, take a look at our new handout on Developing a Thesis Statement.
Writing Process and Structure
This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.
Getting Started with Your Paper
Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses
Generating Ideas for Your Paper
Creating an Argument
Thesis vs. Purpose Statements
Developing a Thesis Statement
Architecture of Arguments
Working with Sources
Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources
Using Literary Quotations
Citing Sources in Your Paper
Drafting Your Paper
Developing Strategic Transitions
Revising Your Paper
Revising an Argumentative Paper
Revision Strategies for Longer Projects
Finishing Your Paper
Twelve Common Errors: An Editing Checklist
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You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps: Start with a question Write your initial answer Develop your answer Refine your thesis statement Table of contents What is a thesis statement? Placement of the thesis statement Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer
The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.
Anticipate the counterarguments. Once you have a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This will help you to refine your thesis, and it will also make you think of the arguments that you'll need to refute later on in your essay. (Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument ...
The thesis statement is a short, direct statement that summarizes the main point or argument of a research paper, study, or academic essay. The thesis statement can be seen in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methods.
Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
What is a research paper? A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.
A good thesis is never vague since you cannot ensure a good research. Follow a structure Introduction - literature review - methodology - results - discussion - conclusion. It is okay to write, revise, rewrite, adjust your thesis in the process of doing research.
A thesis is an extensive document encompassing the entire duration of a master's or doctoral course and as such, it takes months and even years to write. A research paper, being less lengthy, typically takes a few weeks or a few months to complete. 4. Supervision
THESIS- A Thesis is long academic writing which involves personal research. It is written by someone to obtain a university degree or diploma. RESEARCH PAPER- It is a piece of academic writing, written as a part of the subject and do not constitute a separate subject or module.
Browse Essays and Term Papers on Any Topic. Our database contains free essays, term papers, book reports, and research papers on many different topics studied in high schools, colleges, and universities. Search it by typing a topic or keyword, or by clicking any category below. Literature. Biographies, Creative Writing, European Literature ...
1 State your topic Your topic is the essential idea of your paper. It is usually a few words or a phrase that summarizes the subject of your paper. For your thesis statement, try to make your topic as specific as possible. monitoring children's television use 2 State your main idea about this topic
In conclusion, a good thesis paper should have several key attributes that make it efficacious and prosperous. These attributes include a clear and focused research question, a vigorous thesis ...
1. Create an outline to map out your paper's structure. Use Roman numerals (I., II., III., and so on) and letters or bullet points to organize your outline. Start with your introduction, write out your thesis, and jot down your key pieces of evidence that you'll use to defend your argument.
A thesis ( plural: theses ), or dissertation [note 1] (abbreviated diss. ),  is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.  In some contexts, the word thesis or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while ...
The thesis consists of a statement and common arguments. First, you should look through the information you have found about the topic and an opinion should be placed within the introduction. The best way is to compose a hypothesis is in the last two or three sentences of the introduction.
Normally, a thesis is a long academic paper that often requires months or even years of research, and it is defended in front of the university committee. Also, a thesis is sometimes known as a dissertation. However, these terms are interchangeable and may vary between universities and countries. A good thesis should be: Strong Defendable Arguable
Writing a review paper can be a daunting task for beginners, but with some guidance, it can be a rewarding experience. Here are some steps to follow: Choose a topic: Choose a topic that you are ...
Here are some tips to help you write a strong and effective thesis: 1. Choose a relevant and specific topic: Your topic should be specific enough to focus your research and allow you to make a ...
70 Strong Thesis Statement Examples for Research Papers and Dissertations. 15 Example Thesis Statements on the Social Sciences. 15 Sample Thesis Statements for Literary Analysis Essays. 10 Sample Thesis Statements on History. 10 Example Thesis Statements on Art. 15 Examples of English Language Thesis Statements.
Researchers must write a hypothesis based on the theme of the goals and objectives of the work. The formulation of the hypothesis should be competent, concise and specific. The scientific hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that the stated problems could be studied, proved or refuted in the course of the work.
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Given this background, as a student pursuing education or special education, you would agree that choosing a Learning Disabilities topic for an essay, research paper, term paper, or even a dissertation can be challenging. Choosing one the right way might as well save you much time during the writing process.
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A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end ...
A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that asserts the position a paper will be taking. This statement should be both specific and arguable. Generally, the thesis statement will be placed at the end of the first paragraph of your paper. The remainder of your paper will support this thesis.
The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper: Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper. Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics ...
The professionals utilize exclusively dependable sources - no exceptions. Furthermore, while writing a thesis statement for a research paper, writers competently finish the assignment itself. They closely monitor all research paper aspects: style, spelling, and punctuation, ensuring excellent quality throughout the text.
A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic. A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire ...