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- How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples
How to Write an Abstract | Steps & Examples
Published on February 28, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 11, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan.
An abstract is a short summary of a longer work (such as a thesis , dissertation or research paper ). The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research, so that readers know exactly what your paper is about.
Although the structure may vary slightly depending on your discipline, your abstract should describe the purpose of your work, the methods you’ve used, and the conclusions you’ve drawn.
One common way to structure your abstract is to use the IMRaD structure. This stands for:
Abstracts are usually around 100–300 words, but there’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check the relevant requirements.
In a dissertation or thesis , include the abstract on a separate page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .
Table of contents
Abstract example, when to write an abstract, step 1: introduction, step 2: methods, step 3: results, step 4: discussion, tips for writing an abstract, frequently asked questions about abstracts.
Hover over the different parts of the abstract to see how it is constructed.
This paper examines the role of silent movies as a mode of shared experience in the US during the early twentieth century. At this time, high immigration rates resulted in a significant percentage of non-English-speaking citizens. These immigrants faced numerous economic and social obstacles, including exclusion from public entertainment and modes of discourse (newspapers, theater, radio).
Incorporating evidence from reviews, personal correspondence, and diaries, this study demonstrates that silent films were an affordable and inclusive source of entertainment. It argues for the accessible economic and representational nature of early cinema. These concerns are particularly evident in the low price of admission and in the democratic nature of the actors’ exaggerated gestures, which allowed the plots and action to be easily grasped by a diverse audience despite language barriers.
Keywords: silent movies, immigration, public discourse, entertainment, early cinema, language barriers.
You will almost always have to include an abstract when:
- Completing a thesis or dissertation
- Submitting a research paper to an academic journal
- Writing a book or research proposal
- Applying for research grants
It’s easiest to write your abstract last, right before the proofreading stage, because it’s a summary of the work you’ve already done. Your abstract should:
- Be a self-contained text, not an excerpt from your paper
- Be fully understandable on its own
- Reflect the structure of your larger work
What can proofreading do for your paper?
Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words, and awkward phrasing.
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Start by clearly defining the purpose of your research. What practical or theoretical problem does the research respond to, or what research question did you aim to answer?
You can include some brief context on the social or academic relevance of your dissertation topic , but don’t go into detailed background information. If your abstract uses specialized terms that would be unfamiliar to the average academic reader or that have various different meanings, give a concise definition.
After identifying the problem, state the objective of your research. Use verbs like “investigate,” “test,” “analyze,” or “evaluate” to describe exactly what you set out to do.
This part of the abstract can be written in the present or past simple tense but should never refer to the future, as the research is already complete.
- This study will investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.
- This study investigates the relationship between coffee consumption and productivity.
Next, indicate the research methods that you used to answer your question. This part should be a straightforward description of what you did in one or two sentences. It is usually written in the past simple tense, as it refers to completed actions.
- Structured interviews will be conducted with 25 participants.
- Structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants.
Don’t evaluate validity or obstacles here — the goal is not to give an account of the methodology’s strengths and weaknesses, but to give the reader a quick insight into the overall approach and procedures you used.
Next, summarize the main research results . This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense.
- Our analysis has shown a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
- Our analysis shows a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
- Our analysis showed a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
Depending on how long and complex your research is, you may not be able to include all results here. Try to highlight only the most important findings that will allow the reader to understand your conclusions.
Finally, you should discuss the main conclusions of your research : what is your answer to the problem or question? The reader should finish with a clear understanding of the central point that your research has proved or argued. Conclusions are usually written in the present simple tense.
- We concluded that coffee consumption increases productivity.
- We conclude that coffee consumption increases productivity.
If there are important limitations to your research (for example, related to your sample size or methods), you should mention them briefly in the abstract. This allows the reader to accurately assess the credibility and generalizability of your research.
If your aim was to solve a practical problem, your discussion might include recommendations for implementation. If relevant, you can briefly make suggestions for further research.
If your paper will be published, you might have to add a list of keywords at the end of the abstract. These keywords should reference the most important elements of the research to help potential readers find your paper during their own literature searches.
Be aware that some publication manuals, such as APA Style , have specific formatting requirements for these keywords.
It can be a real challenge to condense your whole work into just a couple of hundred words, but the abstract will be the first (and sometimes only) part that people read, so it’s important to get it right. These strategies can help you get started.
Read other abstracts
The best way to learn the conventions of writing an abstract in your discipline is to read other people’s. You probably already read lots of journal article abstracts while conducting your literature review —try using them as a framework for structure and style.
You can also find lots of dissertation abstract examples in thesis and dissertation databases .
Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. For longer works, you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining.
For each chapter or section, list keywords and draft one to two sentences that summarize the central point or argument. This will give you a framework of your abstract’s structure. Next, revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.
Write clearly and concisely
A good abstract is short but impactful, so make sure every word counts. Each sentence should clearly communicate one main point.
To keep your abstract or summary short and clear:
- Avoid passive sentences: Passive constructions are often unnecessarily long. You can easily make them shorter and clearer by using the active voice.
- Avoid long sentences: Substitute longer expressions for concise expressions or single words (e.g., “In order to” for “To”).
- Avoid obscure jargon: The abstract should be understandable to readers who are not familiar with your topic.
- Avoid repetition and filler words: Replace nouns with pronouns when possible and eliminate unnecessary words.
- Avoid detailed descriptions: An abstract is not expected to provide detailed definitions, background information, or discussions of other scholars’ work. Instead, include this information in the body of your thesis or paper.
If you’re struggling to edit down to the required length, you can get help from expert editors with Scribbr’s professional proofreading services .
Check your formatting
If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are often specific formatting requirements for the abstract—make sure to check the guidelines and format your work correctly. For APA research papers you can follow the APA abstract format .
The word count is within the required length, or a maximum of one page.
The abstract appears after the title page and acknowledgements and before the table of contents .
I have clearly stated my research problem and objectives.
I have briefly described my methodology .
I have summarized the most important results .
I have stated my main conclusions .
I have mentioned any important limitations and recommendations.
The abstract can be understood by someone without prior knowledge of the topic.
You've written a great abstract! Use the other checklists to continue improving your thesis or dissertation.
An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:
- To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
- To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.
Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarizes the contents of your paper.
An abstract for a thesis or dissertation is usually around 200–300 words. There’s often a strict word limit, so make sure to check your university’s requirements.
The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis , dissertation or research paper .
Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:
- The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
- The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.
There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.
The abstract appears on its own page in the thesis or dissertation , after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .
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Effectuation in IB is a challenge that expert entrepreneurs in the foreign affiliates located in developing economies are expected to demonstrate.
From: Organizational Learning in Asia , 2017
- Emerging Economies
- Foreign Investment
- Transnational Corporation
- International Human Resource Management
- International Business Research
- Global Value Chains
M.F. Guillén , in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , 2001
International business refers to economic activities across the boundaries of nation–states, of which trade and foreign investment are the most important. While theories of trade remain the province of economics, foreign investment has been approached from three main perspectives. The economic approach emphasizes the importance of cross-border differences in factor endowments, costs, and productivities as well as of transaction costs that make the multinational firm a more efficient form of organization than arm's length transactions between purely domestic firms or individuals. The managerial approach, by contrast, focuses on how multinationals are organized and how different markets are approached. The sociopolitical approach primarily deals with the role of multinationals in economic development and in international relations. Recent trends toward globalization have made the study of international business even more important, and demand more research on how trade and foreign investment affect various parts of the world.
Building Global Innovation Ecosystems though Public Private Partnerships
Chris Sciacca , Alessandro Curioni , in Strategic Industry-University Partnerships , 2018
4.5 Overcoming Bias
By 1955, no template existed for establishing an international research lab, Speiser truly was a pioneer and at 33 years of age, he had no idea what he was in for.
He knew that before he could begin recruiting, he needed a location and his instincts told him to be near Zurich. Recognizing the need to be accessible via public transport, he eventually settled on a wing of the Pelican building in Adliswil, Switzerland, approximately 20 minutes from the city.
Speiser had traveled across Europe and hired 50 scientists by the time the lab officially opened in October 1956. But as the lab grew and gained more attention, the Swiss became concerned that the American laboratory would inflate salaries and strain the Swiss job market. In addition, many of the leading professors at ETH Zurich turned a cold shoulder at the lab puzzling and frustrating the young lab director.
At one point, Speiser hired a young talented engineer from Brown Boveri, a Swiss engineering firm known today as ABB, which resulted in a tense call from an executive at the firm who used the situation to cement his frustration with the new lab. Speiser was urged by the executive and others in the business community to not to hire Swiss graduates, a major set-back since he knew he needed to recruit the best talent to build a solid reputation. Adding salt to the wound, he was also told not to hire foreign nationals.
Nobel Laureate and IBM scientist Georg Bednorz, who works at IBM’s Zurich Lab to this day, reflected on these early challenges at the ground-breaking ceremony for a new nanotechnology center being built on IBM’s campus in June 2009.
This corporate lab was met with certain reservations when it opened from both from the public and the scientific community at large. The latter did not really regard this newcomer as part of the country’s scientific scenery, causing many difficulties in hiring talented local graduates or sometimes even foreign candidates. 6
Speiser confirmed as much in his memoirs. After meeting with one of ETH’s leading physics professors and sharing the news that the lab was hiring, Speiser received only one candidate for the job, who was apparently a student with less than average grades.
This troubling opinion had also spread to ETH’s applied mathematics department. When Speiser began interviewing a group of mostly German mathematicians, ETH professors had essentially sabotaged his attempts at hiring them.
“Only one of these candidates was honest enough to tell me what had happened: He had been told that as an employee of the IBM laboratory, he would not be considered a member of the Zurich community of mathematicians. He would have trouble funding scientific contacts and he would not be a welcome guest at ETH” ( Speiser, 1998 ).
Eventually, Speiser turned to the press to address what was turning into an increasingly ugly situation, and he penned an op-ed in the leading regional newspaper the Neue Zurich Zeitung (New Zurich Newspaper) in the summer of 1958. He addressed everything from salaries to saving Swiss jobs from brain drain to the United States, and it seemed to cool the flames.
It would take several more years for IBM and ETH to form the public–private partnership which they both benefit from today. Part of this was initiated by William Prager, a professor from Brown University who joined the IBM lab on a sabbatical assignment. Prager, a world-class mathematician in his own right had instant success in building a small department, which eventually established itself as a high caliber team.
Arguably any remaining ice had completely thawed in the late 1970s which eventually resulted in the second Nobel Prize for the lab. Bednorz told the following story during the ground-breaking ceremony:
“The first steps towards a closer interaction between ETH and the IBM Lab were made in 1977 with an individual initiative by K. Alex Mueller at IBM and Heini Graenicher from ETH. In a joint study agreement they decided to place a solid state physics PhD student at IBM to work on problems closely related to actual research topics critical to the strategy of the IBM Zurich lab. I [Bednorz] happened to be this student.” 7
Today, IBM has more than two dozen ETH students at the Zurich lab working on projects ranging from nanotechnology to microfluidics to cancer-imaging analysis, but Bednorz was the first—talk about big shoes to fill.
Human Resource Management in East Asia
Shaomin Li , in East Asian Business in the New World , 2016
10.3.2 The Expatriate Failure Issue
In international business operations, one of the major challenges for multinational corporations is how the managers sent from the headquarters manage their foreign subsidiaries effectively and efficiently. Many studies show that these expatriate managers—managers working in a foreign country—have a high failure rate ( Black & Gregersen, 1999 ). Sending expatriates to manage foreign subsidiaries is expensive. The total package of sending a manager abroad for a multinational corporation is usually three times the manager’s cost back home. Thus, when an expatriate manager fails to complete his or her assignment, it will cost more for the company since there are the sunk costs of sending the failed manager to the foreign post, such as training, learning, and relocation ( Black & Morrison, 1998 ).
Existing research on expatriate failure has identified the lack of understanding of or the inability to adopt the local culture as the major reason of failure. As a remedy, this stream of research has suggested using cross-cultural training with the prospective expatriate managers. While these cross-culture training efforts may help, they tend to cover mostly cultural norms, such as the “do’s and don’ts” in a specific culture, such as presenting your business card with two hands instead of one.
In the early 1990s, when I hosted a Chinese business delegation at AT&T, the head of the delegation, who was the president of a state-owned company in China, would wave his middle finger to make a point in meetings. Naturally, this gesture startled the American attendees in the meeting, but we all realized that his gesture was innocent and due to years of isolation in China, he was not aware of the meaning of waving the middle finger in America. At the end of his visit, AT&T and his firm signed an agreement to form a joint venture. The point I want to make here is that such cultural misunderstandings do not break business deals, as is taught in some cross-culture seminars. There are usually deeper, more fundamental reasons in making or breaking a deal.
One such deeper, more fundamental reason that may significantly affect international business deals and cross-border management is the difference in the governance environment, such as the frictions between rule-based and relation-based systems ( Maurer & Li, 2006 ).
In one of our survey studies of US–Chinese joint venture operations in Shenzhen, China, we asked the Chinese employees about their relationship with the American manager. One of the interviewees, who reported to the manager directly, told us that he thought the manager did not care about him. Why, we asked. He said, “Well, our interaction is only about work; he never asked me personal questions, such as my family background and so on.” For him, if the manager does not get personal, it means the manager does not regard him as a valuable employee. We then subtly asked the manager about what he thought of this employee. As it turned out, the manager thought highly of this employee. We then probed him if he chatted with employees about their family and if he made an effort to know their background. “No! As you know very well, I am not supposed to nose around their private lives!” The American manager raised his voice as if we had asked an inappropriate question. 5
This is a typical misunderstanding between a rule-based managers and relation-based employees. In a rule-based environment, the working relation between the manager and the employee is primarily defined based on the job description, which spells out the responsibility and authorities of each post. The manager assumes the employee is capable (otherwise he would not have been hired in the first place) and expects him to perform well, unless proven otherwise. The managers should only manage the employee based on job-related information and performance and should not use age, marital status, or any other personal information or traits to reward or punish the employee.
Cross-border mergers and acquisitions
Donald M. DePamphilis Ph.D. , in Mergers, Acquisitions, and Other Restructuring Activities (Eleventh Edition) , 2022
How will international businesses deal with the new realities of the 21st century? How will the backlash against globalization, growing protectionism, and national security concerns impact cross-border M&A deals? Can we manage the risk associated with such deals? What does it take to realize a successful cross-border M&A in this new environment? How should such deals be structured, financed, and valued? What are the differences between entering a developed and an emerging economy? These are only a few of the questions addressed in this chapter.
Throughout the chapter, the term local country and home country refer to the target’s and acquirer’s, respectively, country of residence. Developed countries are those having significant and sustainable per capita economic growth, globally integrated capital markets, and a well-defined legal system. Moreover, such countries tend to follow the rule of law more often than not and have transparent financial company statements, currency convertibility, and a comparatively stable government. According to the World Bank, emerging countries have a growth rate in per capita gross domestic product significantly below that of developed countries and often lack many of the characteristics of developed countries. A chapter review (including practice questions with answers) is available in the file folder titled “Student Study Guide” on the companion website to this book ( https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/book-companion/9780128197820 ).
The Globalisation of Thai Corporations and Executives: the New Generation
Fredric William Swierczek , in The Globalisation of Executives and Economies , 2006
Based on the current international business activities identified by these young executives, a fairly classical pattern of internationalisation based on exporting and low cultural distance emerges. For current outward oriented activities, the majority are oriented to ASEAN or other regions in Asia & the Pacific. Another direction is to Europe. Very few projects are directed to the US and only three are global in nature. The pattern for future activities is similar but there are fewer projects expected. Most of the activities will be focused on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific. There is not much emphasis on a global orientation.
In the inward direction of internationalisation, for new projects adapted to Thailand, there are much fewer activities, although a similar pattern in terms of an Asian-centric perspective. Only a few projects have originated in Europe and none are from the US.
13.4 Get Ready to Compete
When I teach an international business class in the United States, I ask the students if they know the names of Chinese and Russian presidents. Many do not. If I ask who the American president was in a class in East Asia, all students would know it with intimate details about the president. It is fair to say that Americans are the least globalized. Why is that?
In 1960, the US accounted for 40% of the world’s total output ( World Bank, 2015 ). In other words, America was nearly half of the world: the rest of the world—some 300 countries—together only produced a slightly more than half. So America was the center of the world. Other countries had to follow the terms that the US set, and they had to speak the language that the Americans spoke. The need for Americans to learn about the rest of the world was not warranted, since the other countries were so small, economically and militarily.
In 2014, the share of the US economy in the world dropped to 22% ( World Bank, 2015 ). While still big, the United States is no longer as dominant as it used to be. Furthermore, the emerging economies such as China are rapidly catching up. As the newly emerging countries are challenging US dominance, the United States must learn from these countries in order to compete with them. American students must know who the leaders in these countries are.
Ultimately, competition is primarily determined at the atom level, which is us, the individuals who constitute the country and the economy. We must take actions to improve our ability to compete in the globalizing world. I hope that this book helps us to better understand East Asia and the relation-based system, and thus helps us to better prepare ourselves for the competition and then win it.
An Entrepreneurial Perspective on Developed Economy Firms’ Learning from Asia
J. Cuervo , in Organizational Learning in Asia , 2017
Emphasizing the learning aspect of entrepreneurship in international business contexts, this chapter illuminates both the differences between the effectuation of entrepreneurial competencies by individuals and the capabilities developed in multi-national firms and the interrelationships between these two processes. Based on an integrative perspective that combines Dunning’s international business paradigm with Sarasvathy’s dynamic model of effectuation, two parallel levels of entrepreneurial learning were posited to occur as enabling mechanisms for the process of reverse-transferring learning from foreign affiliates in developing markets in Asia to the firms’ respective headquarters located in developed economies. Cases of reverse knowledge transfer in three multi-nationals (Amway, Panasonic and P&G) with integrated operations in China and India, were analyzed and shown to support the developed integrative perspective on entrepreneurial learning, reverse knowledge transfers and firm performance, presented in the earlier part of the chapter.
Transfer of HRM practices in French multinational companies: the case of French subsidiaries in China
Cuiling Jiang , in The Globalization of Chinese Business , 2014
With ongoing globalisation, more and more companies are engaging in international business . One of the key issues regarding international business is the transfer of management practices within multinational companies (MNCs), which enables newly established subsidiaries to benefit from successful expertise developed in a company’s headquarters and other subsidiaries ( Dunning, 1981 ).
International transfer is a process that transfers management practices within MNCs in three directions ( Kostova, 1999 ). The first is forward transfer of practices from a parent company to its overseas subsidiaries. This kind of transfer is widely used in MNCs. The second direction is reverse transfer, which starts from foreign subsidiaries and flows back to the parent company ( Edwards and Ferner, 2004 ). The third direction is horizontal transfer of practices among various overseas subsidiaries. In our research, we focus mainly on forward transfers of HRM practices from French parent companies to their Chinese subsidiaries.
Transferring practices can help to build coherence within an MNC. However, some difficulties can arise from foreign adaptation. For instance, foreign companies may have problems accessing information from the entry market, which, in return, may complicate the transfer process. Successful transfer of management practices still remains a crucial goal ( Kogut and Singh, 1988 ). Hence, companies question whether MNCs should transfer the whole management practice or apply only one part to the subsidiaries. What adaptation should be put in place in order to ensure the transfer and, if practices cannot be transferred, should MNCs adopt local practices or create new ones? On the basis of these questions, we found that there exists a significant gap between theory and practice. Therefore, we are particularly interested in subsidiary-level explanations of the transfer of management practices. We extend previous work by describing how managers in subsidiaries reproduce and adapt the best practices to the host country so as to keep internal consistency while taking appropriate local structures and practices into consideration.
HRM practices have strategic importance for MNCs. They are part of corporate strategy and HRM specialists use them to integrate employees and boost their competences. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) emphasise that HRM policies and practices can contribute to coordination and control within MNCs. Studies show that successful forward transfer of HRM practices can promote more professional types of management and enhance company performance, which contributes to a dynamic HRM balance between headquarters and subsidiaries ( Alcazar et al., 2005; Boxall and Purcell, 2011; Child and Tse, 2001; Thory, 2008 ). Hence, MNCs invariably want to transfer their HRM practices abroad.
There were two reasons for our study of French MNCs in China. First, extant research has focussed mainly on Japanese or American MNCs ( Becker-Ritterspach, 2005 ). A possible reason is that since the 1980s, the United States and Japan have been among the largest economies in the world. They are the major foreign direct investment (FDI) contributors. For instance, there is an extensive literature on Japanese company internationalisation ( Abo, 1994; Smith and Elger, 2000 ). Within Europe, researchers focus more on MNCs from Germany or the United Kingdom ( Ferner and Varul, 2000; Rosenzweig and Nohria, 1994 ). Research on French MNC internationalisation – in particular, their Chinese sites – has received little empirical attention. Second, China is an important emerging market in the world. The Chinese context is challenging for foreign companies because it is considered to be profoundly different from Western countries in terms of culture, legal systems, labor markets and so forth. As a main FDI contributor to China among the European member states, there are many French MNCs with operations in China. However, little research has reviewed French MNC internationalisation and their Chinese subsidiaries.
Consequently, we wanted to investigate the transfer of HRM practices in French MNCs to figure out how subsidiaries interpret the HRM policies and practices of their headquarters, and to fill the gap in the literature on forward transfer in French MNCs. We hope to arrive at conclusions and recommendations that will benefit the transfer process for French MNCs and other similar companies.
In our research, we adopt a multilevel approach to study such a complex organisational phenomenon. This approach is supported by three levels of theories: country level (cultural distance), organization level (institutional interactions and entry mode choice), and individual level (expatriates). In light of this, our research explores the following questions: (1) Which HRM practices are more likely to be transferred? (2) How do factors originating from different cultures, institutional interactions, entry modes and expatriates affect the transfer of HRM practices? (3) What adaptations may be needed in order to transfer HRM practices from French headquarters to their Chinese subsidiaries?
We organize the remainder of this chapter as follows: we review related literature and discuss the core contributions from cultural, institutional, entry mode and expatriate viewpoints. We then describe our methodology. We begin our findings by presenting an overview of the sample. Then, we detail the transfer process by discussing the reproduction of HRM practices in China and various adaptations. We conclude by pointing out the implications for managers from the international transfer of HRM practices, addressing the limitations of the study as well as further research.
Luiz Paulo Fávero , Patrícia Belfiore , in Data Science for Business and Decision Making , 2019
9.4.5 Solving Levene’s Test by Using SPSS Software
The use of the images in this section has been authorized by the International Business Machines Corporation©. To test the variance homogeneity between the groups, SPSS uses Levene’s test. The data presented in Example 9.4 are available in the file CustomerServices_Store.sav . In order to elaborate the test, we must click on Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Explore … , as shown in Fig. 9.13 .
Fig. 9.13 . Procedure for elaborating Levene’s test on SPSS.
Let’s include the variable Customer_services in the list of dependent variables ( Dependent List ) and the variable Store in the factor list ( Factor List) , as shown in Fig. 9.14 .
Fig. 9.14 . Selecting the variables to elaborate Levene’s test on SPSS.
Next, we must click on Plots … and select the option Untransformed in Spread vs Level with Levene Test , as shown in Fig. 9.15 .
Fig. 9.15 . Continuation of the procedure to elaborate Levene’s test on SPSS.
Finally, let’s click on Continue and on OK . The result of Levene’s test can also be obtained through the ANOVA test, by clicking on Analyze → Compare Means → One-Way ANOVA … . In Options … , we must select the option Homogeneity of variance test ( Fig. 9.16 ).
Fig. 9.16 . Results of Levene’s test for Example 9.4 on SPSS.
The value of Levene’s statistic is 8.427, exactly the same as the one calculated previously. Since the significance level observed is 0.001, a value lower than 0.05, the test shows the rejection of the null hypothesis, which allows us to conclude, with a 95% confidence level, that the population variances are not homogeneous.
Transformation of the innovation policy of China1
Celeste Amorim Varum , ... Joaquim José Borges Gouveia , in China: Building an Innovative Economy , 2007
Business innovation support structure
To support innovation in China, the government also undertook an ambitious campaign to establish international business support structures such as science parks and incubators. At the national level alone, the government directly supported the development of over 400 business incubators and 53 high-technology development zones, 4 or national high-technology zones, by 2002, mainly through the Torch Program launched in 1988. By the end of 2003, the programme had established a large number of science parks, incubators, software parks, university science parks, and other support structures. Among these science parks and incubators, 28,504 high-technology enterprises had been established and 3.49 million jobs created. More specifically, the programme had funded 10,261 projects, including more than 450 incubators.
China's science park and development zones played a critical role in the development of the high-technology sector in China and strengthened the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector. According to statistical data derived from the Torch Program, the output value and total revenue of the firms established in the 53 high-technology development zones increased at a rapid pace, reaching over 1,300 billion RMB in 2001 ( Figure 3.3 ).
Figure 3.3 . The revenues and output of the 53 national high-technology zones
In 2001, the output value of the 53 high-technology development zones accounted for 82.5 per cent of total high-technology product output and approximately 12 per cent of gross manufacture output in the country ( Figure 3.4 ). In 2002, the enterprises in the zones hired 3.49 million employees, their expenditures on R&D reached RMB 31.47 billion (US$ 3.79 billion), i.e., 24.4 per cent of gross expenditures on R&D (GERD) in China and 40 per cent of business expenditures on R&D (BERD) ( Ministry of Science and Technology, 2003 ).
Figure 3.4 . The ratio of revenue and output of the 53 national high-technology zones (HTZ) to the total revenue and output of China (%)
In addition to establishing the support structures, the government also launched the China Hi-Tech Fair (CHTF). With the strong support of the government, the goal of the CHTF was to encourage links between the industrial sectors in China and those worldwide. The fair, which has taken place in Shenzhen every autumn since 1999, has been jointly hosted by the Ministry of Commerce, MOST, the Ministry of Information Industry, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Shenzhen Municipal People's Government. At the 2003 CHTF, companies from 42 nations attended, and the transaction value of the contracts signed at the fair totalled US$ 12.84 billion ( China Hi-Tech Fair, 2003 ). The CHTF has also attracted the active participation of Chinese students studying abroad. As the fair represents a forum in which they study the market, meet potential investors and obtain support from various governmental agencies, this large pool of Chinese students have brought capital and high-tech technology to establish start-up companies in China.
After 1992, the Chinese government also established Productivity Promotion Centers (PCCs), a group of intermediary, consulting organisations that support innovation in the business sector. In 2002, 865 PCCs operated under the auspices of provincial, municipal and county governments, and industry sector administrative departments, provided consulting services, technology-based services such as promotion and product testing, information-collecting services, human resource services, training services, and incubation services to the enterprises ( Chinese Association of Productivity Promotion Centers, 2003 ).
How to Write an Abstract for a Business Research Paper
An abstract for business research paper is a summary of the entire paper. Students doing business research papers often mistake abstracts to be the introductory paragraph since abstract appears at the beginning of the work. Business research papers are general audience papers that are likely to be read by any member of the society. The abstract is given much attention by the audience since it is a snapshot of the entire work. There are two types of abstract that can be developed in a business research paper: descriptive and informative abstracts. Students must decide which type of abstract to include in their business research papers though they accomplish the same goal. Descriptive abstracts are best suited for shorter business research papers while informative abstracts are for lengthy and technical research papers. Concisely, an abstract is supposed to explain the purpose of business research paper, its goals and methodology used for research.
Results can be included in the abstract but they are only relevant if the paper if lengthy. In most cases, students use informative abstracts when they write their business research papers. Informative business research papers can be one page long. Students state the business problem or idea in the first sentence of abstract. This can be followed by a brief description stating why the idea is interesting or why the problem is worth consideration. Keen students always include reasons that motivate them to develop business research papers on the stated topic. It is important to state the scope of the paper in the abstract so that readers can understand the main target of the paper. The methodology sentence in a business research paper abstract gives an overview how the study was accomplished, how the researcher did his work and a brief description on the work of others who did business researches under the same topic. In an informative abstract, results must be discussed. Results are simply the findings or the answers that the research sought to investigate. These are usually general findings, which support the hypothesis or the business idea under discussion.
An abstract for business research papers should be able to summarize the whole business idea making the information understandable without necessarily reading the full report. A concise business abstract will be able to capture the reader’s imagination hence providing them with full and conclusive information should they otherwise decide not to read it in full. As the researcher, one must state the goals and objectives he or she intends to achieve. This is done by presenting a clear and critical outlining of the approach for achieving those goals i.e. the available research methodology and the thoroughness employed will help in capturing the reader’s confidence.
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Step 3: Results. Next, summarize the main research results . This part of the abstract can be in the present or past simple tense. Our analysis has shown a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity. Our analysis shows a strong correlation between coffee consumption and productivity.
Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2.
Noemi Sinkovics, A. Rebecca Reuber, in Journal of World Business, 2021. Abstract. The objective of this study is to inform and invigorate international business (IB) research on migrant entrepreneurship. Migrant entrepreneurship is an important global phenomenon that is relevant to diverse scholarly conversations.
Abstract. Emphasizing the learning aspect of entrepreneurship in international business contexts, this chapter illuminates both the differences between the effectuation of entrepreneurial competencies by individuals and the capabilities developed in multi-national firms and the interrelationships between these two processes. Based on an ...
The abstract is given much attention by the audience since it is a snapshot of the entire work. There are two types of abstract that can be developed in a business research paper: descriptive and informative abstracts. Students must decide which type of abstract to include in their business research papers though they accomplish the same goal.
In the 21st century, globalisation processes and the accompanying liberalisation of the flow of factors of production, information and ideas, driven by the development of technological innovations...